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219

SALADIN

SALAH-ED-DREN,

250

Scarcely bad the Saint-Simonian establishment been formed, when the him, according to the Christian writers, the honour of knighthood from revolution of July 1830 occurred. The Associates, like other sects, the king of Jerusalem, Amawry; but the Syrian forces were again did not miss the opportunity of making a demonstration; and for compelled to evacuate the country, and it was not till the third expesome days all Paris was puzzled with a placard sigued “Bazard. dition (1168) that the subjugation of Egypt was completed. Shirakob Enfantin," which was posted on the walls. When the government of now became, with the nominal rank of vizir to the Fatimide caliph, Louis-Philippe was established, some inquiries were made as to the viceroy of the kingdom for Noor-ed-deen; but dying the same year, proceedings of the Saint-Simonians, and they were denounced in the bequeathed his authority to his nephew, who continued to govern Chamber of Deputies as holding and propagating dangerous doctrines, Egypt, assisted by the advice and experience of his father Ayub, who more especially the doctrines of communism and of community of had been invited from Damascus to share the prosperity of his son. women.' In reply they stated that, while they desired some changes The last of the Fatimides, Aded Ledini'llah, still bore the title of in the laws of property, their system was based on principles directly kalif of Egypt: but even this shadow of schismatic sovereignty was contradictory of community; also, that they did not attack the insti. hateful to the bigotry of Noor-ed-deen; and in obedience to his orders, tution of marriage, but desired to see women possessed of full social his lieutenant deposed the Fatimide dynasty by a simple ordinance and civil rights. On the whole, the sect made great progress during that the ‘khotbab' or public prayer should be read in the name of the the first months of Louis-Philippe's reign. Among their most cele- Abbasside caliph Mostadbi; and Aded opportunely dying eleven days brated converts was M. Pierre Leroux, then at the height of his repu- after, this important revolution was effected (a. d. 1171, A. H. 567) tation as a philosopher and editor of The Globe' newspaper. By his “ without so much” (in the words of Abulfeda)" as two goats butting accession this important journal became the professed organ of Saint- at each other." Simonian opinions (January 1831). The result was an immense The extinction of the Fatimides left Salah-ed-deen virtually sove. increase of the sect in Paris and all over France; the recruits being reign of Egypt; and though in compliance with the prudent counsels chiefly from the young of the highly.educated classes and among of his father he continued to render every external mark of allegiance literary men and artists. Branch establishments were set up in Lyons, to Noor-ed-deen, he pertinaciously evaded all the requisitions for Montpellier, and other towns in connection with the parent church of military assistance addressed to him by his liege lord, who was preParis; and Saint-Simonianism, both pure and applied, was preached in paring to enforce obedience by arms, when Salah-ed-deen was spared every possible manner.

the odium of this ungrateful contest by the death of Noor-ed-deen, A schism soon occurred in the Saint-Simonian church itself—the A.D. 1173, A.H. 569. Malek-al-Saleh Ismail, Noor-ed-deen's heir, a boy cause of the schism being differences among the leading men on eleven years old, was inadequate to the weight of empire: disputes several points of doctrine, but most of all, on the subject of the future speedily arose among his emirs, and Salah-ed-deen availed himself of of women-Enfantin held extreme views on this subject, urging that the confusion to seize Damascus, which he occupied unopposed (1174). Saint-Simonianism ought to decree the complete social equality of the Emesa, Hamah, and other towns dependent on Damascus shared its sexes, and that, meanwhile, man should impose no laws upon wonen. fate; and when Malek-al-Saleh attempted to regain them by the aid of " The only position of the true Saint-Simonian," he said, "in regard to his cous Seif-ed-deen Ghazi, atabek of Mosul, the combined forces woman, is to declare himself incompetent to judge her. The woman were routed in two great battles, and Malek-al-Saleh, besieged in must herself reveal to us all that she thinks, all that she desires as to Aleppo, was forced to purchase peace by the cession of all southern the future." Bazard and others, including Leroux, differed from Syria Enfantin on these points so decisively that they at last (November 19, Salah-ed-deen now assumed the title of Sultan and all the pre1831), formally seceded, leaving Enfantin, with Rodrigues as his sub- rogatives of established royalty, and extended his dominions by the ordinate, to carry on the society after his own fashion. The doctrine conquest of most of the petty sovereignties on the frontiers of Syria of "the coming woman,” for a time caused great excitement in Paris; and Mesopotamia. The Ismailis, or Assassins of Lebanon, whose and Père Enfantin and his lectures and evening-parties, were the emissaries had attempted his life at the siege of Aleppo, were also topics of the day. A progecution instituted by government, want of chastised and reduced to submission; but in his first encounter money, and farther differences betweep Enfantin and Rodrigues, led with the Franks of Palestine he sustained a disastrous defeat near at length to the dissolution of the Society of the Rue Monsigny; and Ramla from Reginald de Chatillon, Nov. 1177, A.H. 573. The four the publication of the Globe' ceased at the same time.

next years were spent principally in Egypt, the affairs of Syria being The final vagary of Saint-Simonianism was the most curious of all. conducted by his lieutenants; but in 1182 he quitted Cairo for the Enfantin, with about forty faithful adherents (among whom were last tim", and resuming his encroachments on the territories of the Michel Chevalier and Charles Duveyrier) removed to a house, with atabeks, captured in succession Edessa, Amida, Nisibin, &c.; and large grounds attached, at Menilmontant, near Paris, and constituted though repulsed before Moussoul, succeeded (1183) in possessing himthemselves into a kind of Saint-Simonian monastery, of which Enfantin self of the long-coveted city of Aleppo, by a convention with Amadwas abbot. They all dressed alike in a peculiar costume of which a ed-deen Zenghi II., who had succeeded Malek-al-Saleh. From Yemen red cap formed a part; and they divided their time between manual to Mount Taurus in Cilicia, and from Tripoli in Africa to the Tigris, labours and intellectual exercises, which were to a great extent of a the continuity of the rule of Salah-ed-deen was now interrupted only mystical religious character. A prosecution was instituted against this by the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem; and the violation by Reginald establishment; and on the 27th of August 1832, the whole body de Chatillon of a four years' truce, concluded in 1185, soon afforded appeared in court. Judgment was given against them, and Enfantin a pretext for hostilities. In the farrous battle of Hittin, or Tiberias was sentenced to a term of imprisonment. From that time Saint- (July 1187, A.H. 583), the Christians, betrayed by the Count of Tripoli, Simonianism as a society, or even as a creed, was extinct; but it is were utterly overthrown; the king, Gui de Lusignan, was taken interesting to remark how largely the Saint-Simonian notions have prisoner, and received by the victor with royal generosity; while his tinged modern French thought, and how many of the men who have partner in captivity, Reginald de Chatillon, was decapitated, as a been eminent in France, in all departments, during the last twenty punishment for his perfidy, by the hand of Salah-ed-deen himself. All years, belonged at one time to the Saint-Simonian school. In the the towns of the Frank kingdom, Acre, Beirout, Ascalon, now rapidly subsequent career of most of those there is no trace of that flightiness fell before the arms of the sultan; and his triumph was crowned by which the fact of their having been Saint-Simonians might be supposed the capture of Jerusalem, which surrendered after a siege of fourteen to argue. The quondam Saint-Simonian chiefs, we believe, have also days (October 2, 1187), after having been eighty-eight years subject to proved themselves able men of business, and have been largely con- the Franks. The two next years were principally employed in reducnected with railways and other such undertakings, conducting them- ing the fragments of the Latin dominion; but Tyre was successfully selves on ordinary principles, whatever may be their speculative defended by Conrad of Montferrat, and the appearance of the third recreations. For more minute information respecting Saint-Simon and Crusade (1189) enabled the Christians again to take the field. The Saint-Simonianism, the works mentioned in this notice must themselves two years' siege of Acre (1189-91) is memorable in the bistory of the be consulted; there are, however, various popular sketches of the Crusades. The kings of France and England, Philip-Augustus and subject, of which that by M. Louis Rey baud in his Études sur les Richard Cour-de-Lion, animated by their personal exertions the efforts Reformateurs Contemporains,' is one of the best.

of the besiegers, while the Moslems, directed by the sultan, strove SALADIN. (SALAH-ED-DEEN.)

with equal zeal for the relief of the invested fortress : never" (in the SALAH-ED-DEEN (MALEK-AL-NASSER SALAH-ED-DEEN ABU-MOD- words of Gibbon)“ did the flame of enthusiasm burn with fiercer and HAFFER YUSEF), better known to European readers by the famous more destructive rage ;” but Acre was at length forced to capitulate, name of SALADIN, was born a. D. 1137 (A. H. 532), in the Castle of and the Crusaders advancing along the coast, took Cæsarea and Jaffa, Tecrit on the Tigris, of which his father Ayub, a Koord of the tribe while Ascalon, after an incessant battle of eleven days during the march, of Ravendooz, was governor for the Seljookian sovereign of Persia. was only saved by being dismantled and rendered untenable. Ayub and his brother Shirakoh subsequently transferred themselves In the spring of 1192 hostilities were resumed; and the Franks, led to the service of Zenghi, 'atabek' of Syria, by whose son, the famous by the king of England, penetrated to within & short distance of sultan Noor-ed-deen (NOUREDDIN), they were raised to high military Jerusalem, where Salab-ed-deen awaited their attack; but the dissenhonours; and when Shirakoh (in 1163) was appointed general of the sions of the Crusaders occasioned their retreat; and both sid-s, troops designed to reinstate the vizir Shawer in Egypt, a subordinate wearied by the never-ending struggle, were not unwilling to listen to command was entrusted to his nephew, whose disinclination to the terms of accommodation. The first extraordinary proposal of Richard, service was overruled by the express mandate of Noor-ed-deen. In that Malek-al-Adel Seif-ed-doen, brother of Salah-ed-deen, should, after 1166 he again accompanied Shirakoh into Egypt, where his defence embracing Christianity, marry his sister and become king of Jerusalem, of Alexandria for three months against the superior forces of the though seriously entertained for a time, was ultimately abandoned; I'ranks of Palestine established his military reputation, and gained for and the three years' truce which was coaclude !, September 1192

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(A.H. 588), left Jerusalem to the sultan, while the Christians were for the Encouragement of Learning, instituted in 1736. He died in confirmed in possession of the coast from Jaffa to Tyre. Salah-ed-deen the same year (14th November 1736), leaving one son. Soon after survived only a few months the termination of the war. His consti- his death a catalogue of his Oriental MSS. was published, containing tution was broken by the constant toil to which he had for many years many choice articles in Arabic, Persian, and Turkish literature. They been subjected; and a bilious fever which had seized him at Damascus, are all now in the Radcliffe Library, Oxford, for which they were carried him off after twelve days' illness, March 4, A.D. 1192 (Sefer 29, purchased. Abulfeda; not 27, as stated in the 'Art de Verifier les Dates,' A.H. 589), SALERNITANA SCHOLA, or 'School of Salerno,' the earliest aged fifty-seven lunar years, of which he had reigned more than school in Christian Europe where medicine was professed, taught, and twenty, reckoning from the death of Noor-ed-deen.

practised. Salerno, from its connection with Constantinople and the The popular tales of the shroud displayed for a standard as an Saracens, became the centre of the united learning of the Latins, the emblem of departed greatness, and of the equal distribution of alms Greeks, and the Arabians; and hence it was one of the first cities in among Moslems, Christians, and Jews, are unnoticed by Oriental Europe where the sciences awoke from the slumber of barbarism. writers, and are probably fictitious. The character of Salah-ed-deen Amongst other arts, it was celebrated very early for the profession of has been, like that of his predecessor Noor-ed-deen, a favourite theme medicine, and its first fame was derived from the extraordinary cures for eulogy among the writers both of the East and the West. The said to have been performed by the relics of Saint Archelais. This lady, historian Abulfeda, who was himself descended from a collateral with two other holy virgins, Thecla and Susanna, suffered martyrdom branch of the Ayubite family, and the cadhi Bobadin (whose biography in the persecution of Diocletian, about the year 293, and their remains of his sovereign and friend has been rendered familiar by the edition were at length deposited in the church of the Benedictine nuns of Saint of Schultens, Leyden, 1755), are scarcely more profuse than the George at Salerno. (Anton. Mazza, “Histor. Epit. de Rebus Salern.,' Christian chronicles of the Crusades in their panegyrics on the valour, Neap., 4to, cap. vi., 1681.) In an ancient chronicle, quoted by Mazza, justice, and magnanimity which shone conspicuous in the life and it is said that the first founders of the school of Salerno were Rabinus actions of the sultan of Egypt and Syria. His ingratitude to the family Elinus, a Jew; Pontus, a Greek; Adala, a Saracen; and Salernus, a of his early benefactor Noor-ed-deen, and the insatiable ambition Latin, who taught medicine in their respective languages, but at what which led him to despoil so many minor princes of his own faith, are era is not mentioned. (Anton. Mazza, 'Salerp. Hist., cap. ix.) Though more than atoned for in the eyes of the Orientals by his exploits in medical works had never been wanting in the dark ages, and the works the holy war against the Frank invaders of Palestine, and by the rigid of Hippocrates and Galen were translated into Latin as early as the justice which he administered impartially to the meanest suppliant for 6th century, yet this art was principally derived from the Arabiaus, redress ; and his generous humanity to the helpless multitude of who likewise learned it from the Greeks. After that warlike people captives which fell into his hands at the capture of Jerusalem may be had softened into habits of peace and luxury, by the encouragement favourably contrasted with the massacre of the garrison of Acre, after of their kalifs, and particularly of Al-Mamoún, at the beginning of the the capitulation, by the orders of Cour-de-Lion. The supremacy of 9th century, they applied themselves to learning. Many of the Greek bis power and virtues was recognised by the voluntary homage of con- writers were translated into Arabic; and the philosophy of Aristotle, and temporary princes; and Abulfeda relates that on one occasion his the art of medicine by Hippocrates and Galen, became their favourite stirrup was held by Kaissar-Shah, a Seljookian prince of Anatolia, studies. In their frequent visits to the port of Salerno, the knowledge while Ala-ed-deen, atabek of Moussoul, of the race of Zengbi, arranged which they freely communicated was eagerly received there and bis robes after he had mounted. His zeal for the improvement of his diligently cultivated. For many centuries the most able professors of territories was attested by the erection of numerous fountains and medicine were the higher prelates and the superior mouks. Subsecaravanseras, particularly on the road to Mecca; and the numerous quently, by the councils of Lateran in 1139, of Tours in 1163, and the public buildings with which he decorated his first and favourite realm decree of Honorius III. in 1216, the clergy and monks were probibited of Egypt, though attributed in the lapse of years, from the similarity from exercising the professions of advocates and physicians, but they of name, to the patriarch Joseph (Yusef), still remain as monuments still continued the practice. of his splendour.

Connected with the city of Salerno by its vicinity, and the similarity At the death of Salah-ed-deen, his vast dominions were again of its literary pursuits, was the monastery of Mount Casino. Here divided : the three eldest of his sixteen sons received the kingdoms of and at Salerno great progress in the sciences had been made, when the Egypt, Damascus, and Aleppo, while the others were provided with arrival of Constantinus Afer commenced a new era of learning and appanages under the suzerainté of their brothers; but discord speedily fame. This celebrated man was born at Carthage. After thirty-nine succeeded, and the dominions of the first-named branches were years spent in study at Baghdad and in travel, he returned to his eventually seized by their uncle Seif-ed-deen (the Saphadin of Christian native country, master of all the learning then current in the world, writers), whose son Malek-al-Kamel was married to the only daughter and particularly of medicine. His talents excited the jealousy of his of Salah-ed-deen. The branch of Aleppo maintained itself longer; and rivals, he was obliged to fly, and took refuge at Salerno in 1060. He on the extinction of the Ayubites descended from Seif-ed-deen in was discovered by the brother of the kalif of Egypt, who happened to Egypt and Damascus, by the revolt of the Baharite Mamelukes, be in that city, and who recommended him to Robert Guiscard. By A.D. 1250 (4.8. 648), the reigning sultan of Aleppo, a great grandson of this prince he was patronised, and made his secretary. Having been Salah-ed-deen, and bearing, like his ancestors, the titles of Malek-al. converted to Christianity, he became a monk, and retired to the Nasser Salah-ed-deen Yusef, succeeded in reuniting Damascus to his monastery of Mount Casino about the year 1075, where Desiderius dominions; but ten years later his power was overthrown by the was the abbot. He died in 1087, after having, by his wonderful cures, irruption of the Moguls from Persia; Malek-al-Nasser submitted to the multitude of books he wrote, and the number and fame of his their leader Hulagu-khan, and was put to death by his orders, A.D. 1260 scholars, raised the reputation of the School of Salerno to the greatest (A.H. 658), and with him ended the direct line of Salah-ed-deen. height. Some of his works have been printed (Basil., 2 vols. folio,

(Bobadin, Saladini Vita et Res Gestæ ; Abulfeda; Abulfarah ; 1536, 1539), and others remain in manuscript. The names of few of Isfahani; Vinisauf ; D'Herbelot; De Guignes ; Gibbon ; Von Hammer, his disciples have been recorded. We find mention however of Atto, History of the Assassins ; &c.)

chaplain to the Empress Agnes, who translated the works of his master SALE, GEORGE, a learned Oriental scholar, was born in 1680. from various languages into Latin, (Pet. Diac., 'De Viris Illustr.,' Very little is known of his private life, except that he was a lawyer. cap. xxix.) Another of his pupils was John, the physician, an He was a contributor to the Universal History,' edited by Swinton, eloquent and learned man, who published a book of aphorisms, and Dr. Campbell, and others, and he wrote for that work the cosmogony, died at Naples, where he deposited the books written by his master. besides several valuable fragments of Oriental history, in which he Gariopontus seems likewise to have been a contemporary. (Moreau, was deeply versed. He was likewise one of the authors of the General 'Prolegom.,' p. 11.) Dictionary' (Lond., 1734, 10 vols. 4to), which contains a translation of It may not be uninteresting to ascertain the other celebrated phy, that of Bayle. But the work by which he is best known is a translation sicians of Salerno in the 12th century, and soon after the time when of the Korán into English, from the original Arabic, with explanatory the 'Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum' was written. The earliest whose notes and quotations from Zamashkhari Beydáwi, and approved com. name occurs is Nicolaus, who, amongst other works, wrote a book, mentators. To this version, which in point of fidelity will bear a still extant, entitled ' Antidotarium, upon medicines, which was comparison with the excellent Latin translation by Marracci, published thought to have been the summit of medical knowledge. (NICOLAUS in 1698, Sale prefixed a preliminary discourse on the social and PRÆPOSITUS.) It was commented upon by John Platearius, in the religious state of the Arabs, Jewe, and Christians at the time of middle of the 12th century, and many other writers. Musandinus Mohammed's appearance (MOHAMMED]; on the doctrines inculcated wrote upon diet, Maurus upon urine and phlebotomy. The specific in the Korán; on the principal sects among the Mohammedans; and works of John Castalius, Matthew Solomon, and Ricardus Senior are on various other subjects connected with Islám (Lond., 1734, 4to). not enumerated. There were other learned men who studied medicine This discourse was afterwards translated into French, and prefixed to at Salerno in that century, but removed to other places, such as Saint the French version of the Korán by Duryer (Antw., 1770, 2 vols. 8vo). Bruno, bishop of Signia, afterwards abbot of Casino, and again bishop, Sir James Porter, in his Observations on the Religion, Law, Govern- who died in 1126: Romualdus the second, archbishop of Salerno from ment, and Manners of the Turks' (Lond., 1768, p. 60), has accused 1157 to 1181, who attended William, king of Sicily, as his physician, Sale of making an apology for the Korán, rather than trying to point in 1127; Saladinus Asculanus, physician to the Prioca of Tarentum in out the pernicious doctrines contained in that book. The charge 1163. (Aegidius Corbol. ; Petrus Diac.; Mazza ; &c.) Nor was the however is wholly groundless, as every scholar acquainted with the healing art confined to men only: there were many of the fair sex writings of the Mohammedan divines will readily admit

. Sale was who were celebrated for their medical skill. The time when most of one of the founders and a member of the first committee of a Society them lived is uncertain, but probably in the 11th, 12th, and 13th

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SALERNITANA SCHOLA.

SALES, DE, FRANCIS, SAINT.

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centuries. Ordericus Vitalis speaks of a woman unequalled in medio the taste of their patients by clothing their prescriptions in gold and cine in 1059: "Rodulfus cognomento Mala Corona, Physicæ scientiam silver leaf—a luxury which continued till within the last few years, tam copiose habuit, ut in urbe Psalernitana, ubi maximæ medicorum Under the title Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum,' we possess a scholæ ab antiquo tempore habentur, neminem in medicinali arte, collection of dietetical precepts, written chiefly in Latio rhyming præter quandam sapientem matronam, sibi parem inveniret" ("Hist. hexameters. The poem is dedicated, by the Medical School at Salerno, Eccl.,' lib. iii., ad an. 1509, p. 477). Abella wrote a poem in two books, to Robert, son of William the Conqueror, who is styled king of

De Atrabile et de Natura Seminis Humani' Mercuralis composed England, and was probably composed by a physician of Salerno, at books 'De Crisibus,'' De Febre Pestilenti,'_ De Curatione Vulnerum,' the beginning of the 11th century. Jobannes de Mediolano is gene. 'De Voguentis.' Rebecca, a work De Febribus, de Urinis, et de rally supposed to be the author of it, which opinion was first started, Embryone. Trotta or Trottula's book 'De Mulierum Passionibus in 1649, by Zacharias Sylvius, on account of some manuscripts (one of ante, in, et post Partum' is allowed to be a forgery. Sentia Guerna them as old as 1418), which had his name in the inscription; howlectured on medicine, and Constantia Calenda received the honour of ever neither the earliest commentators and editors, nor the oldest the doctorate.

manuscripts make any mention of his name. The number of the It would be tedious to mention all the learned men who studied verses varies much in different manuscripts, as the poem in the middle physic at Salerno after the 12th century, of whom Mazza has given a ages received by degrees many spurious additions. The oldest long catalogue. From these we may however except John de Procida, editions, with the commentary of Arnaldus de Villanova, have only a nobleman and physician of Salerno, the friend and physician of three hundred and sixty-four verses, which may therefore be conManfred, king of Sicily, and the adviser of the Sicilian Vespers. sidered as the only genuine ones, since Arnaldus, who lived in the

When the Regimen Sanitatis' was written, the professors contented 14th century, and passed some time at Salerno, bad certainly an themselves with the humble title of the School of Salerno. By the opportunity of examining the most accurate copy of the poem. The privileges of subsequent sovereigns, it was gradually constituted a whole work was much esteemed, not only in the middle ages, but also regular university. Ruggiero, king of Sicily, about the year 1137, as late as the 17th century, and it is at the present time an important enacted a law that all who designed to practise medicine should be source of information respecting the state of medicine in that age. As examined and approved by his officials and judges, under the penalty it was not designed for physicians, but for an unlearned sovereign, and of the confiscation of all their goods. By officials' it is supposed for general use, its object was rather the preservation of health than that the physicians of Salerno were understood, as he had recently the cure of diseases. The means prescribed for this purpose consist given great privileges to that city. The Emperor Frederic II., having in the due observation of the six non-naturals (strangely so called established likewise a university at Naples, published edicts for its beoause they are external, and not parts of the natural body), air, government, which were finally promulgated in 1231. The study of food, exercise, sleep, the excretions, and the passions. To these heads physic and lectures in that art were restrained to those two univer- may be reduced the various rules of living in a salubrious air and sities. Students were to apply themselves to logic for three years observing the changeful seasons; the minute detail of all kinds of before they commenced the study of medicine, which they were to meat and drink, and the qualities of herbs, which constitute the great pursue for five years; nor were they then admitted till they had bulk of the poem; frequent exercise and ablutions, avoiding sleep at practised for one year under an expert physician. After a public | improper times, not neglecting the calls of nature, and avoiding cares examination, the University of Salerno had full power to grant a licence and all other violent agitations of the mind. The number of editions to practise : that of Naples could only certify the sufficiency of the that have been published of this work is immense. A complete list candidate to the king or his chancellor, who granted the licence. The of them is prefixed to Ackermann's edition, 8vo, Stendal, 1790; Sir Dames of 'doctor' and master were not then known as specific titles of Alexander Croke's, crown 8vo, Oxford, 1830; and in Choulant's bonour, but were used in their original significations for teachers or Handbuch der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Medecin,' 8vo, Leipz., persons skilled in their art,

1828 (from which two last works the preceding account has been The licensed practitioners took an oath to observe the regulations principally abridged). The best commentary is that by Arnaldus de respecting medicines, to inform the court if apothecaries did not pre- Villa Nova, which has been very frequently reprinted, and which has pare their drugs properly, and to give advice to the poor gratis. Every formed the basis of most of the editions since published. It was first physician was to visit bis patient at least twice a day, and once in the published at Montpelier, 4to, 1480. Two of the most useful and night if necessary, and was not to receive for his attendance more than valuable editions (though without the Commentary of Arnaldus) are half a golden tarena (a gold coin which weighed twenty grains, and Ackermann's and Croke's mentioned above. The work has also been would now be worth four shillings and twopence) daily; or if called translated into German, French, English, Italian, Dutch, &c.; and out of the city, three tarena and his expenses, or four tarens to pro- upon the whole no medical work appears ever to have enjoyed greater vide himself. He was not to undertake to cure a disorder for a specific popularity. sum, or to keep an apothecary's shop, or to be in partnership with an SALES, DE, FRANCIS, SAINT, was born at the castle of Sales, apothecary. Surgeons were to study for one year, and to be perfect near Annecy, in Savoy, on the 21st of August 1567. His parents, the in anatomy before they were admitted to practise. Apothecaries Count and Countess de Sales, are described as having adorned a noble were to take an oath to compound their medicines according to the birth and elevated station by a life of the strictest piety. The early forms prescribed, and for a fixed price, which for simple drugs was years of Francis, their eldest son, were spent in acquiring the rudithree tarenæ an ounce. Such were the regulations of the emperor ments of learning at the colleges of La Roche and Annecy. The Frederic. The three professions appear to have been kept distinct as more effectually to pursue his studies, he was, in 1578, sent to Paris, early as the time of Avenzoar, who was born at Seville in the 11th and placed under the care of the Jesuits. He soon became a proficient century, and even in the time of Celsus. (Freind, Historia Medi: in rhetoric and philosophy, and at the same time he did not neglect cinæ,' ed. Paris, 4to, 1735, p. 253; Le Clerc, Hist. de la Med.,' p. 334.) those arts which are calculated to adorn an intercourse with society, These constitutions, and the privileges of the university of Salerno, though in doing so he appears rather to have obeyed the wishes of his were confirmed and extended by other princes, and were in force in father than to have followed his natural inclination. He remained in modern times. They are the most ancient medical statutes in Europe, Paris till 1584, when he was sent to Padua to study civil law under and show the state of the medical professions in those early times. Guy Panciroli. At Padua he formed an acquaintance, which afterWhen fully established, the university, consisted of ten doctors, of wards increased into friendship, with the Jesuit Antonio Possevino, whom the eldest had the title of prior. Their common seal bore the under whose spiritual direction he placed himself. His success at image of St. Matthew, their patron saint, whose body had been given Padua exceeded the expectations of his friends, and, at the age of to them by Robert Guiscard, and the inscription of Civitas Hippo- twenty-four, he left that university with a high reputation for learning cratis.' Students were admitted to the doctorate by the solemn form and piety. He afterwards spent some time in Italy, and made a pil. of having a book put into their hands, a ring on their fingers, a crown grimage to Notre Dame of Loretto. On his return to his native of laurel on their heads, and a kiss on their cheeks. (Mazza, cap. ix.; country he found that his father had obtained for him from the Duke Freind, 'Hist. Med.')

of Savoy the appointment of counsellor in the senate of Chambery, The medical science of the Arabians, thus introduced into Salerno, and was desirous of uniting him with a rich heiress, whose fortune was in substance that of the Greeks, from whom it was derived. In would enable him to support the title which he was to inherit. The the theory and cure of diseases they followed the opinions of Hippo- mind of Francis, for a long time directed towards theological pursuits, crates and Galen; not indeed in their native simplicity, but often had however gradually acquired a disposition which could only be corrupted by their own vain and fanciful inventions, by the super- satisfied by an entire devotion to them, and he was anxious to enter atitions of astrology, and the follies of alchemy. (Freind, p. 479; the Church; but accustomed from childhood to yield obedience to his Gian., vol. ii., p. 119, sec. 3.) Yet it is admitted that the modern father's wishes, he feared to make him acquainted with his desire. In science of medicine owes much to their improvements. They greatly this difficulty he consulted a relation, Louis de Sales, who was canon extended the Materia Medica by the introduction of many efficacious of the Church of Geneva, and through his mediation the Count de remedies. They added to the list of medical plants. The first but Sales was induced to abandon his favourite project, and allowed his very gradual introduction of chemistry into medicine is wholly theirs son to devote himself to the ministry of the Church. After receiving (as all the chemistry that is to be found in Greek writers relates to the first orders he was permitted by the bishop to preach. The the fusion or transmutation of metals), and many of their formulæ of greatest success attended his first efforts in pulpit oratory. He poscompound medicines still retain a place in modern dispensatories. In sessed indeed all the qualities calculated to gain the attention of his mady points of practice they ventured to differ from their masters, hearers: a voice powerful and pleasing, an animated and persuasive as in less copious bleedings, in milder purgatives, in substituting action, an earnestness which gave evidence that he was himself deeply sugar for honey in their syrups; and they first gratified the eres and convinced of the truths he was advocating, were heightened in their

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effect by a strikingly bandsome person and a mild and modest to express his opinions on the extent of the efficacy of Divine Grace on demeanour. In the fulfilment of his pastoral duties he was not less the free will of man. It was principally on this question that the remarkable: he united the most untiring activity in visiting his flock Dominicans and Jesuits were divided. His answer is expressed with and in relieving the wants of the sick and poor with an unaffected so much caution that it is difficult to discover from it his real sentisolicitude and evangelical patience, and he was repaid by a most ments; they are however more clearly shown in his other writings, remarkable amount of esteem and affection.

especially in his treatise on the Love of God. About this period was We must now present him exercising these qualities in a larger published his "Introduction to a Religious Life,' a book which still sphere, and applyivg them to the conversion of those who differed maintains a merited popularity. The style, though perhaps too full from him in religious faith. The better to understand the peculiarly of metaphor for modern taste, is devoid of affectation, and breathes difficult pature of the mission with wbich he was intrusted, it will be throughout the genuine spirit of Christian simplicity. pecessary to give some account of the scene of his labours. The city In 1609, Jean Pierre Camus was named Bishop of Bellay, and he of Genova had long renounced the authority of its bishop and that of wrote to the Bishop of Geneva to request bim to perform the cerethe Duke of Savoy ; it was an independent republic, and the strong. mony of his consecration. Between these two remarkable men, whose hold of the Calvinistic party. It had become possessed of the ancient habits and dispositions were very dissimilar, the closest friendship duchy of Chablais, together with the territories of Gex, Terni, and ever after subsisted. It is to Camus that we are indebted for a most Gaillard : coincident with these changes was a substitution among the interesting work, 'The Spirit of St. Francis de Sales,' wbich, more inbabitants of the creed of Calvin for the faith of Rome. In 1590, than any other, developes the private excellences of the saint. The Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, had wrested from the Genoese following year Francis founded a religious order for females, called the this ancient portion of his duchy, and his first care was to attempt to Order of the Visitation, and placed it under the superintendence of a bring back the inhabitants to their former religion. (De Thou, . Hist. pious lady, Madame de Chantal, sister of the Archbishop of Bourges, Univ.,' l. xcix.) For this purpose he applied to the titular bishop of with whom he had become acquainted on his visit to Dijon. The Geneva, Claude de Granier, to send missionaries over the conquered fervent admiration of this lady for the qualities of the Bishop of country. Francis de Sales, and his relation Louis, the canon of Geneva, to whom she had intrusted the guidance of her spiritual life, Geneva, were among the first to undertake an enterprise in the prose the letters of perbaps too impassioned piety which she so frequently cution of which much opposition and some personal danger were to be addressed to him, and which may be seen in the collection published apprehended.

at Paris in 1660, have been maligoly dwelt upon by some writers. The On the 9th of September 1594 the two missionaries arrived at the increasing infirmities of the Bishop of Geneva, arising from the confrontiers of Chablais, where they dismissed their servants and equi. stant application to the duties of his office, obliged him, in 1618, to pages and determined to travel on foot, in order more pearly to con. seek for the assistance of a coadjutor bishop; and, at the suggestion form to the example of the Apostles. The town of Tonon, the capital of Cardinal Frederick Borromeo, his brother, John Francis de Sales, of the Chablais, wbich contained only seven Roman Catholics, was the was consecrated to that charge with the title of Bishop of Chalcedon. first place in which they exercised their mission; the fruit of it may In 1619 he accompanied to Paris tbe Cardinal de Savoy, to whom the be judged of from the fact that on the Christmas-eve of 1597 eight mission had been intrusted of soliciting for the Prince of Piedmont hundred persons were admitted to the communion of the Eucharist in the hand of Christina, sister of Louis XIII. On the marriage of this the church of St. Hippolytus in that town. But the most important princess he was appointed her almoner, an office which he at first object Francis bad in view was the conversion of the leaders of the declined, and only accepted on condition that it should not be allowed Calvinistic party. To effect it be first solicited an interview with to interfere with the discharge of his other duties. But the undiTheodore de Beza (Beza), who was then fast sinking under the weight winished energy of such a spirit was too overpowering for so feeble a of age and infirmities. Several conferences took place between them frame. In 1622 he foresaw his approaching end, and prepared bimselt at Geneva, and the result of them is very differently related according for it by severer mortifications and a closer communion with God. to the religious persuasions of the narrators. If any change however He preached for the last time on the Christmas-eve of that year; the took place in the mind of Beza through his intercourse with Francis, next day he was seized with a paralytic attack, under which he sucwhich is extremely improbable, it is certain that it was accompanied cumbed on the 28th of December, 1622. He was buried in the by no public profession. Michelet, without however citing his Church of the Visitation at Lyon, but his remains were afterwards authority, remarks, that the Roman Catholic missionary added to transferred to Annecy. In 1665, his memory was canonised by the his spiritual inducements the weight of temporal advantages, and pope, Alexander VII, who appointed the 29th of January, the day on made him an offer of a pension of 4000 crowns if he would conform which his body was conveyed to Annecy, as his festival in the Roman to his church.

calendar. On the return of Francis to Annecy, in 1596, he was appointed The claims of St. Francis de Sales as a devoted servant of the Roman coadjutor to Claude Granier, the bishop of Geneva, with the title of Catholic Church have never been disputed, though they have been Bishop of Nicopolis 'in partibus infidelium;' this dignity he for a differently esteemed and represented. Humility and zeal were the lopg time refused to accept, and only yielded on the earnest solici- two prominent virtues by which he was distinguished; the former tition of the pope, Innocent IX. In 1602 he visited the court of taught him to forget himself, the latter to be ever mindful of the France for the purpose of obtaining permission from the king, wants of others. Between him and Fenelon a closer comparison Hepri IV., to pursue his missionary labours in the territory of Gex, might perhaps be made than with any other name celebrated in the which had been given up to France by a treaty of peace concluded annals of sanctity. They possessed in common noble birth and a high between Henri and the Duke of Savoy. A course of Lent sermons, station, with the tone and manner which these advantages are calcuwbich he preached in the chapel of the Louvre, is said to have created lated to produce; the same talent in captivating the attention and considerable sensation, and to have become the means of recalling winning the sympathies of those among wbom they laboured; in the several of the most influential of the Calvinistic nobility to a belief in discharge of their pastoral duties they were alike successful, and by their ancient faith. The king, desirous of retaining him in France, the use of the same means, a careful adaptation of advice to the made him the offer of the first bishopric which might become vacant, temper and disposition of the advised. While however it must be and the immediate eujoyment of a considerable pension. These offers admitted that Fenelon was superior to De Sales as a writer and a however he declined, declaring that his chief wish was to be permitted theologian, he was probably inferior to him in genuine disinterestedto live and die among those whom Providence had intrusted to ness and the practice of self-denial : he loved rather to labour among his care.

the rich and great than, like De Sales, to abandon the court in order On his return to his native country, after a residence of nine months to mingle with the crowd of the poor and suffering. Fenelon, it is in Paris, he was, by the death of De Granier, appointed to the bishop: true, performed with zeal those essential duties of a pastor when he ric of Geneva. He prepared himself by a close retirement of twenty was banished to his diocese; De Sales was continually separating himdays at the castle of Sales, for his consecration to this important office. self from the court in order to perform them. (FENELON.) In this retirewent he framed for himself a rule of life by which he The most known of his writings, which are not very numerous, was in future to be guided; the details of it are given with elaborate have been noticed in this article ; the best edition of them is that of minuteness by his biographers. On the 8th of December 1602 he Paris, 1641, 2 vols. folio. was consecrated bishop of Geneva. His first care was to introduce a His principal biographers are his nephew, Charles Augustus De uniformity of usage among the clergy of bis diocese, and to reform Sales, Henri De Maupas, Bishop of Evreux, Le Père Goulu, Mad. De various abuses which time had gradually introduced; these measures Bussy Rabutin, and the Jansenist Binet. See also Alban Butler's he chiefly effected by the issue of mandates, in which judicious advice Lives of the Saints ; Moreri, Dict. Historique ; and the Biographic was conveyed in the language of Christian charity. In short, he Universelle. showed himself a worthy disciple of St. Charles Borromeo, whom he SALIE’RI, ANTONIO, a composer of great eminence in his day, professed to take as his model in the discharge of his episcopal duties. was born at Legnano, in the Venetian territory, in 1750. When only [BORROMEO, ST. CHARLES.] In 1605 he devoted himself effectually to fifteen years of age he lost his father, a respectable merchant, and then the task of reforming the monasteries in his diocese. The following immediately determined to make music, which he had studied only year he preached during Lent at Dijon in France, where he was again as an accomplishment, bis profession. His first master was Giovanni successful in making several converts from Calvinism. On this occa Pescetti, and his next Leopold Gasmann. The latter took his pupil sion likewise he refused the repeated offers of advancement from the to Vienna, where he made the acquaintance of Gluck, who, at that French king, while at the time he gave proof of his consistency in time declining in health, intrusted Salieri with the charge of composing declining the proffered honour of a cardinal's hat from the pope, *Les Danaïdes,' which the great German master had engaged to produce Leo XI. In 1607 he was applied to by the reigoing pontiff, Paul V., for the Académie Royale de Musique. It was performed with the most

SALIH-BEN BAHLEH.

SALLUSTIUS.

258

brilliant success in Paris, and not only made the reputation of the instituted against Milo. (Asconius, in 'Ciceron. Milon.,' pp. 38, 45, 49, author, but added nearly 20,000 francs to his fortune. He afterwards 50, 51, ed. Orelli.) In B.o. 50, he was expelled from the senate by the brought out at different theatres many operas, among which his censors Appius Claudius and Piso (Dion, xl. 63), in consequence, it is * Tarare,' or ' Axus, Roi d'Ormus,' and 'La Grotta di Trofonio,' were said, of his immoral life; but there is no good authority for this statethe most popular, and are now best known. He died at Vienna in ment of the grounds of his expulsion, while we know that Appius 1826. Salieri was a kind of rival of Mozart, and, strange to relate, bis Claudius belonged to the Pompeian party, and that Sallust only music was much preferred by the court and fashionable circles of shared the general fate of all Cosar's friends. After his expulsion Vienna to that of the greatest dramatic composer that then or has ever from the senate, Sallust seems to have repaired to Cæsar's camp in since lived.

Gaul, and to have accompanied him in his invasion of Italy. According SALIH-BEN BAHLEH (called by Abulfaraj, 'Hist. Dynast.,' p.154, to some accounts he was made quæstor again after the battle of PharSALIH-BEN NAHLEH), an eminent Indian physician, who came to Irak salia (B.C. 48); but we know for certain that he was prætor in the and practised at Baghdad in the time of Haroún-al-Rasbid, who reigned following year (B.C. 47), and was present at the mutiny of Cæsar's from A.H. 170 to 193 (A.D. 786 to 808). “He was distioguished," says troops in Campania, on which occasion he narrowly escaped with his Ibn Abi Osaibiah, Oioún Al-Amba fi Tabacát Al-Atebba ('Fontes life. (Dion. xlii. 52.) He accompanied Cæsar the same year into Relationum de Classibus Medicorum,' cap. xii., sec. 7), “ amongst the Africa, where he was actively employed in the war (Hirt., De Bell learned men of India, well skilled in their methods of medical treat. Afric.,' c. 8, 34), and when Cæsar quitted Africa in the following year ment, and had power and influence in the promotion of science.” He (B.C. 46), he left Sallust governor of the province (Hirt., Ibid., c. 97), acquired great reputation by discovering that Ibrahim-Ben Salih, the where, according to Dion Cassius (xliii. 9), ho acquired immense cousin of the kalif, whom Jabril-Ben Bachtishua had pronounced to wealth by the plunder of the country. On his return home, Sallust be dead, was only apparently so; of which event the same author gives built the famous palace at Rome, which was afterwards used by the a curious and circumstantial account. It appears that he first went emperors, and was not destroyed till the time of Alaric. About this alone into the room where Ibrabim lay, and immediately there was time he is said to have married Terentia, the divorced wife of Cicero. "heard a sound as of one striking the body with the palm of the hand.” He died, B.C. 34, four years before the battle of Actium. Then the kalif and some others were admitted, and, in order to prove The moral character of Sallust has been drawn in the darkest that Ibrabim was alive, “Salih took out a needle that he had with colours by many writers. He has been accused of the most unbounded him, and thrust it in between the nail and the flesh of the thumb of profligacy, which has been represented as the more inexcusable ou his left hand, when he immediately plucked away his hand and drew account of the praises he has bestowed in his works upon virtue and it towards his body.”. He then ordered that his burial clothes should temperance. These accusations however do not rest upon any sufficient be taken off him, and that he should be washed till the scent of the authority, unless we except the tale told by Varro, tbat Sallust was hanút (the scent that is mixed for dead bodies) was removed; after detected in adultery with Milo's wife, and severely punished by the which he called for some ‘kundus,' and blew some of it up his nose. husband (Aul. Gell., xvii. 18), to which circumstance the words of In about ten minutes his body began to move; then he sneezed, and Horace (* Sat.,' i. 2, 41), “ 'ille flagellis ad mortem cæsis," refer, sat up in his bed, supposing that he had been asleep, and complaining according to one of the ancient scholiasts. only that he had been bitten by a dog in the thumb, and that he still Sallust was a strong party-man. He thoroughly despised and hated felt the pain, at the same time showing the thumb into which Salih the aristocratical party, and took no pains to conceal his opinion. He had thrust the needle. Ibrahim lived a long time after this circum. had designated Pompey, the leader of the aristocracy, as a man oris stance, and married the Princess Alabbasah, daughter of Almahadi, and improbi, animo inverecundo,” and accordingly it was only to be obtained the government of Egypt and Palestine, and died in Egypt. expected that his own character should be attacked and traduced in

With respect to the kundus, we are told in the “Kamus' that "it every possible manner. Lenæus, the freedman of Pompey, wrote a is the root of a plant which is yellow inside and black out. It operates work expressly against Sallust (Suet., De Ill. Grainm., 15); and a as an emetic and a purging medicine, and clears away the ringworm. rhetorician under the early emperors, when it had become the fashion When it is reduced to powder and blown up the nose, it causes sneezing to praise the old Pompeian party, wrote a declamation against the and enlightens the weary eyes, and stops blindness." See Avicenna character of Sallust, which is still extant, and falsely ascribed to ( Canon, lib. ii., tract 2, cap. 137, p. 280, ed. Venet, 1564), where a Cicero. That Sallust was not better than his contemporaries may description of its medical properties is given. Sprengel ('Comment. easily be believed, and there seems no reason for doubting the statein Dioscor. de Mater. Med.,' lib. ii., cap. 192) supposes it to be the same ment of Dion Cassius, that be followed the example of his contempoas the Greek otpbudlov, on which there is a chapter in Dioscorides raries in plundering the province of wbich he was governor. (loco cit.), and which he identifies with the Saponaria officinalis, or Sallust wrote a history of Catilino's conspiracy, and of the war with soapwort.

Jugurtha, and also a general history of Roman affairs from the death SALI'NAS, FRANCISCUS, a learned musical theorist, was born in of Sulla (B.C. 78) to the appointment of Pompey to the command of 1613 at Burgos, the capital of Old Castile, of which city his father was the Mithridatic war (B.C. 67). The two first works have come down quæstor, or treasurer. Blind from his birth, he had recourse to the to us entire; but of the latter we have only fragments; and its loss is study of music, an art to which his deprivation naturally led him. In the more to be regretted as it contained an account of one of the most this his progress was, as is usual in such cases, rapid, and he became important periods of Roman history, respecting which our information a superior organist. While yet a boy he was instructed in Latin by a is very meagre and unsatisfactory. It was written in five or six books, young woman famous for her knowledge of that language. His success addressed to Lucullus, and appears to have contained an introduction, in it led to his being entered at the University of Salamanca, where he in which an account was given of the civil wars between Sulla and applied most assid uously to the Greek language, as well as to philo- Marius. It connected bis histories of the Jugurthine war and the sophy. He then commenced reading the Greek authors on the science Catilinarian conspiracy. The only fragments of it of any length are of music, with whose writings he made himself thoroughly acquainted, four orations and two letters, which are characterised by Sallust's commenting on them in an equally learned and ingenious manner, and usual style. correcting errors not before detected, but seen and admitted on his The merits of Sallust, both as an historian and a philosopher, have pointing them out in his great work, 'De Musica,' &c., a treatise in been rated very low by many modern critics. The objections which seven books, published at Šalamanca in 1677. The first book of this have been made to the moral reflections and dissertations in Sallust's is on musical ratios; the second on musical intervals; the third is a writings as unsuitable to the nature of historical compositions, have clear description of the various ancient genera ; and the fourth is on arisen from a want of due attention to the object wbich the historian the diapason and octave, and on the doctrines of Pythagoras, Aris- had in view. This does not appear to have been so much the narration toxenus, Ptolemy, &c. The remaining three books chiefly relate to of the particular events which ho chose as the subjects of his history, rhythm and the feet of the Greek and Roman versification,

as the elucidation of certain great political facts. In his “Jugurtha Salinas died, according to Thuanus, in 1690. He was highly esteemed his object was to show the venality and total want of principle in the by Pope Paul IV., who created him abbot of St. Pancratio, in the aristocratical party, and how both their private and public profligacy kingdom of Naples. A full and clear analysis of his work is given by at length deprived them of the power which they had possessed since Sir John Hawkins ( History of Music,' jii. 123), to which Dr. Burney the time of the Graccbi. In his Catiline' he had the same object to a has made some interesting additions in the third volume (p. 290) of certain extent in view, though here it was not to show how the vices his History.'

of the aristocratical party occasioned their loss of power, but rather to SALLU'STIUS, or SAL’USTIUS, with his full name CAIUS describe the consequences to which those vices had at length led; SALLUSTIUS CRISPUS, was born in B.O. 86, in the seventh consul for it must be remembered that Catiline and his associates had been ship of Marius, at Amiternum, a town in the country of the Sabines, brought up in the school of Sulla, and belonged to the avistocracy. near the sources of the Aternus. He was of a plebeian family; but In estimating the value of Sallust's writings, it should also be borne his parents seem to bave been in affluent circumstances. He received in mind that the Romans possessed no works worthy of the name of instruction from the grammarian Atteius Philologus, who is said to histories before his time. Preceding writers merely narrated events have supplied him with an epitome of Roman history, from which he according to the order of the years in which they happened, without might choose subjects for his own composition. (Suet., 'De Ill. any attempt to trace the causes and results of the events which they Gramm.,' c. 10.) The year in which he obtained the quæstorship is recorded. Sallust studiously avoided the annalistic style of his predonot known, but he was tribune of the plebs in B.C. 52, in which year cessors, and appears to have made Thucydides his model, to whom ho Clodius was killed by Milo.

is sometimes compared by the ancients themselves. The fastidious Sallust was a strong opponent of the aristocratical party, and critics of the Augustan age objected to the use of the antiquated accordingly in his tribuneship took an active part in the proceedings words and expressions which Sallust sometimes employed (Suet., 'De

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