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which was involved in some dispute with the pope, Scioppius endea-Cornelia. This illustrious family produced some of the greatest men voured to persuade Paolo Sarpi to join the party of the pope. The in Roman history; we shall subjoin a complete list of those memconsequence of this attempt was that Scioppius was thrown into prison; bers of the family whose names have been handed down by historical but being soon restored to liberty, he visited Vienna, where he found records. The first Scipio mentioned in Roman history is a more favourable reception. The emperor not only made him coun- 1. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO, whom, in B.C. 396, the dictator Camillus cillor to his court, but raised him to the rank of count palatine. In appointed master of the horse. (Liv., v. 19.) The Fasti of this year 1611 he published two works, one called . Ecclesiasticus Autoritati however do not mention him, but state that P. Cornelius Maluginensis Ser. D. Jacobi, Magnæ Britanniæ regis, oppositus,' Hartberg, in 4to; was the magister equitum of Camillus. A short time afterwards and the other called "Collyrium Regium, Ser. D. Jacobo, Magna (B.C. 394) Scipio is mentioned among the military tribunes (Liv., v. 24), Britanniæ regi, graviter oculis laboranti, omnium Catholicorum Nomine, and a second time in the following year. (Liv., v. 26.) În the year gratæ voluntatis causa, muneri misum; una cum Syntagmate de Caltu B.C. 389 he was appointed interrex (Liv., v. 31), and two years after he et Honore,' in 8vo. Both books were mainly directed against King held the same office a second time. James I. of England, but the first also contained fresh attacks on 2. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO is mentioned as one of the first curule Henry IV. of France.' In Paris and in London the books were publicly ædiles, which office was instituted in B.C. 366. He is probably the burnt by the hangman, and iv London Scioppius was hanged in effigy same man who was magister equitum under Manlius, B.o. 350. (Liv., (1612). Scioppius returned to Italy, but after a short stay there he vii. 24.) went in 1613 to Madrid. Here he became acquainted with the gram. 3. L. CORNELIUS SCIPIO was interrex in B.C. 352. (Liv., vii. 21.) matical work of Sanchez, commonly known under the name of Sanctii 4. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO BARBATUS was, according to the Fast. Cons, Minerva,' which turned his attention to grammatical speculations, and consul with C. Plautius in the year B.C. 328 ; but Livy (viii. 22) calls which he subsequently made known in other parts of Europe. He the colleague of Plautius P. Cornelius Scapula. Scipio Barbatus was had not been long in Madrid when one evening he was dreadfully made dictator in B.C. 306, to hold the comitia for the election of the beaten by some servants of the English ambassador, who, it is possible, consuls, for the actual consuls were engaged in a war against the bad ordered his servants to punish Scioppius for bis insolence towards Samnites. (Liv., ix. 44.) A year later he appears as pontifex maximus. his royal master. Scioppius, not thinking bimself safe in Spain, fled (Liv., ix. 40.) to Ingolstadt, where be published his Legatus Latro, addressed 5. L. CORNELIUS SCIPIO was consul B.c. 298, and gained a victory against the English ambassador. Casaubon bad defended the King of over the Etruscans in the neighbourhood of Fregellæ. (Liv., x. 12.) England, and this circumstance gave Scioppius an opportunity of He is probably the same who, three years afterwards (B.C. 295), appears resuming his warfare against the Protestants.

in another war against the Etruscans; and was left as proprætor at In 1617 Scioppius again went to Italy, and settled at Milan, ever the head of the Roman camp while the prætor Appius went to Rome. continuing his bitter enmity against the Protestants, who, as he now (Liv., x. 25, 26.) declared, ought all to be exterminated, with their women and children. 6. CN. CORNELIUS SCIPIO Asina. He is the first member of the This proclamation of a religious war is contained in his Classicum family from wbom we are able to trace the pedigree of the Scipios Belli Sacri, sive Heldus redivivus,' Pavia, 1619. When his rage had with certainty. The story about the origin of bis surname Asina is become exhausted he returned for a time to philological studies, and related by Macrobius. (Sat.,' i. 6.) He was consul at the time of wrote several very good grammatical works; but this quiet mode of the first Punic war (B.C. 260), together with C. Duilius, and obtained life did not suit his quarrelsome temper. In 1630 he returned to the command of the fleet; but in his attempt to take the island of Germany, and requested from the diet of Regensburg a pension for his Liparæ, he was blocked up by the Carthaginians with seventeen services, which being refused through the influence of the Jesuits, he vessels in a port of the island. His soldiers escaped on land, but became the most furious enemy of their whole order, though he had Scipio bimself surrendered to the enemy. (Polyb., i. 21.) Livy before frequently lent them his support. His first works against the (Epit.,' 17) gives another account of the manner in which he was Jesuits appeared without his name, but in 1634 he attacked them made prisoner. He must however have obtained his liberty soon openly in a work called Astrologia Ecclesiastica.' When he saw that after, for he was consul a second time in the year B.C. 254 (Val. Max., his own life became endangered by these ferocious attacks he retired vi. 9, 11), with A. Atilius Calatinus. He and his colleague took to Padua, where he began to occupy bimself with writing a commentary Panormus, the largest town in the Carthaginian part of Sicily, and then on the Apocalypse; but before he had completed tbis work he died, returned to Rome in triumph. (Polyb., i. 38.) Further particulars on the 19th of November 1649.

of his life are not known. Scioppius was a man of immense learning, of a prodigious memory, 7. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO Asins, son of Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina. and of great acuteness. In his knowledge of the Latin language he He was consul, in B.C. 221, with M. Minucius Rufus, and made a had no equal. With his talents and learning he might have been as successful campaign against the Istri, who harassed the Romans by great a man as Jos. Scaliger; but his quarrelsome disposition, his their piracy. (Oros., iv. 13.) Four years after (B.C. 217) he was strong inclination to satire, and his intolerance, constantly involved appointed interrex, to hold the comitia for electing the consuls. - him in disputes wbich reflect discredit upon his character. There (Liv., xxii. 34.) In the year s.c. 211, when the news arrived that are nevertheless among his numerous works some which are still very Hannibal was advancing with his army towards Rome, it was Scipio's useful to scholars, especially those on the Latin language. The num- advice to give up all Italy, and to draw all the armies within the ber of bis works is stated to be 104, but he did not publish them all walls of the city. (Liv., xxvi. 8.) under bis real name; many appeared under the fictitious names Nico. 8. L. CORNELIUS Scipio, a brother of Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina. demus Macer, Oporinus Grubinius, Pascasius Grosippus, Holofernes He was consul in B.C. 259, with C. Aquillius Florus. He put the fleet Krigræderus, Mariangelus a Fano, and others. The following list of the Carthaginians to flight, and attacked them in Corsica and contains the most important of his works which have not been already Sardinia, and destroyed the towns of Aleria and Olbia. For these mentioned :— Verisimilium Libri Quatuor, in quibus multa veterum services he was honoured with a triumph. (Liv., 'Epit., 17; Flor., Scriptorum loca emendantur, augentur, et illustrantur,' 8vo, Nürnberg, ii

. 2, 16; Val Max., v. 1, 2.) The year after bis consulship (B.C. 258) 1595, and Amsterdam, 1662; ‘Suspectarum Lectionum Libri Quinque, he is mentioned in the 'Fast. Cap. as censor. in quibus amplius ducentis locis Plautus, plurimis Appuleius, Diomedes 9. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO, son of L. Cornelius Scipio. He was consul Grammaticus, et alii, corriguntur,' 8vo, Nürnberg, 1597, and Amster- | in the first year of the second Punic war (B.C. 218). While bis dam, 1664 ; 'De Arte Critica et præcipue de altera ejus parte emen- colleague T. Sempronius Longus was sent with the fleet to Sicily, datrice, quænam ratio in Lat. Scriptoribus ex ingenio emendandis Seipio went to Spain; but when he heard that Hannibal was already preobservari debeat Commentariolus,' 8vo, Nürnberg, 1597, and Amster- paring to cross the Rhodanus (Rhône), he returned by sea to Massilia. dam, 1662; 'Elementa Philosophiæ Stoicæ Moralis,' 8vo, Maynz, 1606; The sufferings of his soldiers from this voyage prevented him from "Grammatica Philosophica, sive Institutiones Grammatica Latinæ,' going up the Rhône immediately; and wben, after the lapse of three 850, Milan, 1628 (a new edition with additions appeared at Amsterdam, days, he set out to meet Hannibal, the latter had already advanced into 8vo, 1664, and another at Franeker in 1704); "Paradoxa Literaria, in the interior of Gaul. Scipio therefore sent a part of his troops, under quibus multa de literis nova contra Ciceronis, Varronis, Quinctiliani, bis brother Cneius, who was his legate, to Spain, and with the rest he aliorumque literatorum hominum, tam veterum quam recentiorum, embarked for Italy, to join the other Roman forces there, and to sententiam disputantur,' 8vo, Milan, 1628, and Amsterdam, 1659 (this attack Hannibal on his descent from the Alps. An engagement work was published under the assumed name of Pascasius Grosippus); between the Carthaginian and Roman horse took place on the licinus, Auctarium ad Grammaticam Philosophicam, ejusque Rudimenta,' in which the Romans were defeated, and Scipio was wounded, and 8vo, Milan, 1629, and Amsterdam, 1664 (published under the name of compelled to retire across the river Po. He took up a position near Mariangelus a Fano); 'Arcana Societatis Jesu publico bono vulgata, Placentia, but he was induced by the Gauls to fortify himself on the cum Appendicibus utilissimis,' 8vo, 1635; Consultationes de Schola- Trebia, and to wait for the arrival of Sempronius, who had been called rum et Studiorum Ratione, deque Prudentiæ et Eloquentiæ parandæ back from Sicily. When the latter arrived, Scipio, still suffering Modis,'12mo, Padua, 1836, and 8vo, Amsterdam, 1660 and 1665 : Mer- from his wound, advised bim not to engage in a battle with Hannibal; curius Quadrilinguis, id est, de Linguarum ac nominatim Latinæ, but Sempronius, anxious to strike a decisive blow, and seeing that Germanicæ, Græcæ, et Hebraeæ nova et compendiaria Discendi the enemy only profited by delay, offered battle. He was defeated, Ratione,' 8vo, Basel, 1637. Scioppius also wrote notes on the and the Carthaginians became masters of nearly the whole of Northern Minerva' of Sanctius, which first appeared at Padua in 1663, and Italy. (Polyb., iii. 40, &c.; Liv., xxi. 32, &c.) which have subsequently been incorporated in the various editions of In the summer of the year B.c. 217, Scipio, whose imperium was the Minerva

prolonged at the end of his consulsbip, went to Spain with a fleet of SCI'PIO is the name of a family belonging to the patrician gens 20 ships and 8000 land-troops (Polyb., iii. 97), to join his brother

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Cneius, who had already acheived important things in that country. then scarcely twenty-four years of age, at last offered to take the His intention was to drive the Carthaginians from Spain, and thus to command of the army in Spain. The people were struck with admira. cut off the supplies which Hannibal was to receive from that quarter. tion at the courage of the young man, and gave him the command, Cneius on his arrival from Massilia had landed at Emporium, and with proconsular power, which was afterwards prolonged to him for soon after the greater part of the eastern coast of Spain declared for several years (B.c. 210-206). him. His mildness also induced several of the island tribes, who The extraordinary power which young Scipio exercised over his were discontented with the oppressive rule of the Carthaginians, to contemporaries was perhaps partly owing to superstition, for he was join the Romans. A battle near the town of Scissis, in which the believed to be a favourite of the gods. Ever since he had taken the Carthaginians were defeated and their general Hanno taken prisoner, toga virilis, he went every morning into the Capitol, where he spent made the Romans masters of pearly the whole country between the some hours in solitude and meditation. Hence all he did was consiIberus (Ebr.,) and the Pyrenees. Cneius now took up his winter dered by the people to be the result of his intercourse with the gods. quarters at Tarraco (Tarragona). (Liv., xxi. 60, &c.; Polyb., iii. 76.) Scipio bimself partook in this opinion, and cherished it; an i the In the year following, a short time before his brother Publius arrived, extraordinary success of all his enterprises must have strengthen d his Cneius defeated the Carthaginian fleet in the mouth of the Iberus. belief. Towards the end of the summer, in B.C. 210, or, as Livy (Liv., xxii. 20; Polyb., iii. 96, &c.) About the middle of the summer (xxvi. 41) says, at the beginning of spring, Scipio set out for Spain Publius arrived, and the two brothers marched against Saguntum, with an army of 11,000 men, landed at the mouth of the Iberus, and where Hannibal had left the Spanish hostages on his setting out undertook the command of the whole Roman forces in Spain. He towards Gaul. The treachery of a Spaniard, called Abelux or Abilys, was accompanied by his friend Lælius. His first object was to gain delivered them up to the Scipios, wbo wisely sent them home to their possession of New Carthage, where the Carthaginians kept their Spanish relatives, and thus gained a hold on the affections of a great number hostages. Lælius made the attack with the feet from the sea-side, of Spanish tribes, who gladly shook off the yoke of the Carthaginians. while Scipio conducted the operations on land. The town soon fell In B.c. 216 the Scipios gained a victory at Ibera over Hasdrubal, who, into the hands of the Romans, and the generosity with which Scipio after the arrival of a fresh Carthaginian army under Himilco, intended treated the Spanish hostages gained over a great number of Spaniards. to make a landing in Italy and to support his brother there. The The hostages of those tribes who declared themselves allies of the whole army of Hasdrubal was defeated and routed, his camp was taken, Romans were sent home without ransom. A short time after the and be himself escaped with only a few followers. (Liv., xxiii. 28, &c.) conquest of this place Scipio went to Tarraco, where he received The Spaniards, who had heen heavily taxed by the Carthaginians, embassies from various Spanish tribes, who offered to become the willingly submitted to the Romans, but the Scipios knew the fickle- allies of the Romans or to recognise their supremacy. Scipio is said ness of the Spaniards, and, in order to keep up friendly relations not to have set out against Hasdrubal until the year following, but it with them, they did not levy any heavy contributions, but applied can scarcely be conceived why the Carthaginians should bave been so to the senate at Rome to provide them with the means of supporting long inactive, and it is a probable supposition that the battle with their armies. In the meanwbile Mago arrived with another army Hasdrubal, which Livy and Polybius assign to the year B.C. 209, was from Africa, and laid siege to the revolted town of Illiturgi on the fought very soon after the taking of New Carthage. (Zonaras, ix. 8.) Baetis. Here again the Scipios gained a great victory, and soon after Io this battle Scipio gained a great victory; 8000 Carthaginians were another near lotibili, where the Carthaginians on their flight from slain, and 22,000, with their camp, fell into the hands of the victor. Illiturgi bad taken refuge. In the year B.c. 214 the important town Many of the Spaniards now wished to proclaim Scipio their king, but of Castulo deserted the cause of the Carthaginians and joined tbe he refused the honour. (Liv., xxvii. 19; Polyb., x. 40.) Hasdrubal Romans, and when the former made a new attempt against Illiturgi, fed with the remainder of his army towards the Tagus and the they were beaten by Coeius, and completely defeated in the neigh. Pyrenees. Scipio did not follow him, partly because he thought his bourhood of Munda. They were not more successful in several other enemy too much weakened to be dangerous, and partly because he attempts. During the following year the Carthaginians were engaged feared lest he might expose bimself to the combined attacks of the in a war in Africa against Syphax, and the Scipios had time to two other Carthaginian generals, Mago, and Hasdrubal, son of Gisco. strengthen themselves in Spain. But the uninterrupted series of Hasdrubal Barcas, the defeated general, however, bad carried consi. brilliant victories of the Scipios was now at an end. In B.C. 212 the derable wealth with him in his flight, and with these means he raised Carthaginians resumed the war in Spain, and took 20,000 Celtiberians an army in Spain, to lead into Italy to the assistance of his brother into their pay. Publius Scipio commanded two-thirds of the Roman Hannibal, hoping thus to bring the war to an end in Italy. During forces, and was arrayed against Mago, Hasdrubal, son of Gisco (who these preparations of Hasdrubal, Scipio was engaged against the two were supported by Massinissa), and the Spanish chief Indibilis. Cheius other Carthaginian generals, one of whom (Mago) was defeated, in was opposed to Hasdrubal Barcas. Publius, in his assault on the ranks B.C. 208, by the proprætor Silanus, in the country of the Celtiberians, of Indibilis, was cut down with the greater part of bis army. His and Hanno, who came with an auxiliary army from Africa, was taken brother Cneius, abandoned by the faithless Celtiberians, withdrew as prisoner. After this success of the proprætor, Scipio united his forces far as he could. From the manæuvres of the enemy, he conjectured with those of Silanus to attack Hasdrubal, son of Gisco. But as this tbe fate of his brother. On his retreat he found himself at last com- general had retired to the south of Spain, and had distributed his pelled to make a stand upon a hill which was of such a nature that army in the fortified places on the Bætis as far as Gades, Scipio it was impossible for him to fortify himself. Nearly the whole of his (through his brother Lucius) only took the important town of Oringis, army was cut to pieces, and Cneius himself fell among the rest, 29 and then gradually returned across the Iberus. The power of the days after the death of his brother. The catastrophe took place in Carthaginians in Spain was however already broken, and in the year the spring of the year B.C. 211. (Becker, Vorarbeiten zu einer following (B.C. 207) Scipio gained possession of nearly all Spain by a Geschichte des Zweiten Punischen Krieges,' in Dahlmann's ‘Forschun. victory, the place of which is not clearly ascertained, some calling it gen,' ii. 2, p. 113.)

Silpia or Bacula, some Ilipa, and others Carmo. Scipio, now in the 10. CN. CORNELIUS SCIPIO Calvus, the brother of P. Corn. Scipio almost undisputed possession of Spain, began to turn his eyes to (No. 9). His exploits in Spain bave just been described. He was Africa, and, accompanied by his friend Lælius, he ventured to pay & consul, in B.c. 222, with M. Claudius Marcellus, with whom he made visit to King Syphax, with whom Lælius bad already commenced an expedition against the Insubrians, and took Acerræ and Mediolanum. negociations. Here Scipio is said to have met Hasdrubal, son of (Polyb., ii. 34; Plut., “Marcell., 6.) At the beginning of the second Gisco, and to have made a very favourable impression on Syphax as Pupic war he went, as we have seen, to Spain as legate to his brother well as on Hasdrubal. After a short stay in Africa, Scipio returned Publius.

to Spain, where he first punished several towns for their faithlessness, 11. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO AFRICANUS MAJOR, the son of P. Cornelius and subdued some of the Spanish chiefs who ventured to claim their Scipio (No. 9). If it be true that at the age of seventeen he fought in former independence. During these occupations Scipio was attacked the battle of the Ticinus (B.C. 218), and rescued bis wounded father, by a severe illness, from which however he recovered in time to quell he must have been born in B.C. 235. He was in the battle of Canns an insurrection of 8000 Roman soldiers, who were discontented from (B.c. 216) as a tribune, and was among those who after the defeat not having derived from their conquests those advantages which they escaped to Capusium. Here the chief command of the remaining bad expected, and who are said also to have been bribed by the Carthatroops was unanimously entrusted to him and Appius Claudius ginians. Mago had in the meantime withdrawn to the Balearic Pulcher. (Liv., xxii. 53.) On this occasion it was owing to his presence Islands, and thence to Liguria. Gades, the last place which the Carthaof mind that the remnants of the Roman army did not in their despair ginians possessed in Spain, was now taken from them, and thus the quit Italy. (Val. Max., v. 6, 7.) In B.C. 212 Scipio was curule ædile, war in Spain was at an end. though he had not yet attained the legitimate age. The tribunes of Towards the close of the year B.C. 206, Scipio surrendered the com. the people andeavoured to prevent his election, but they were obliged mand of the Roman forces in Spain to the proconsuls L. Lentulus to give up their opposition, for the people, who seem to have perceived and L. Manlius Acidinus, and returned to Rome, (Liv., xxviii. 38.) He the extraordinary abilities of the young man, elected him almost delivered to the ærarium the immense treasures which he brought from ananimously. . (Liv., xxv. 2.) In B.č. 211 his father and uncle. fell Spain. He evidently wished for a triumph, but the senate paid no in Spain, and the Carthaginians again took possession of the country, attention to his wisbes, for no one had ever triumphed at Rome before which they had almost entirely lost. When Capua had fallen again he had held the consulship. In the year B.C. 205, Scipio was made into their hands, and Italy no longer required their exclusive

attention, consul with P. Licinius Crassus, who was at the saine time pontifex the Romans determined to act with more energy against the Cartha- maximus, and was consequently not allowed to leave Italy. If there. ginians in Spain. On the day of the election, no one ventured to fore a war was to be carried on abroad, the command necessarily come forward to undertake the command in this war. Young Scipio, devolved upon Scipio. His wish was immediately to sail with an

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army to Africa, but the more cautious senators, and especially Q. any further advantages, was compelled to decide the affair by a last Fabius, were decidedly opposed to his plan, partly because Hannibal, and desperate effort. In a personal interview between the two generals as long as he was in Italy, appeared too formidable to be neglected, Scipio was inexorable as to the conditions. Hannibal's army was in a and partly perhaps because they were influenced by jealousy. All bad condition; and in the ensuing battle, to the west of Zama, the that Scipio could obtain was that Sicily should be assigned to him as victory of Scipio was complete. This defeat (in B.C. 202) was the his province, with 30 vessels, and with permission to sail over to death-blow to Carthage. Africa in case he should think it advantageous to the republic. But Scipio, on his return to Italy, was received with the greatest enthu. he did not obtain from the senate permission to levy an army, and he siasm : be entered Rome in triumph, and was henceforward distin. therefore called upon the Italian allies to provide him with troops guished by the name of Africanus. Scipio now for several years and other things necessary for carrying on the war. As they were all continued to live at Rome, apparently without taking any part in willing to support the conqueror of the Carthaginians in Spain, he public affairs. In B.c. 199 he obtained the office of censor with was soon enabled to sail to Sicily with nearly 7000 volunteers and 30 | P. Ælius Pætus (Liv., xxxii. 7), and in B.C. 194 he was made consul a ships. (Liv., xxviii. 45, &c.; Plut, ‘Fab. Max.,' 25.) Soon after his second time with Tib. Sempronius Longus (Liv., xxxiv. 42), and arrival in Sicily he sent his friend Lælius with a part of his fleet to princeps senatus, a distinction with which he had already been Africa, partly to keep up the connection which he had formed there, honoured in B.c. 196, and which was conferred upon him for the third on his visit from Spain, with Syphax and Massinissa (for to the latter time in B.C. 190. (Liv., xxxiv. 44; xxxviii. 28.)' In B.C. 193, during Scipio had sent back a nephew who had been taken prisoner in the one of the disputes between the Carthaginians and Massipissa, Scipio battle of Bæcula), and partly to show to his timid opponents at Rome was sent with two other commissioners to mediate between the parties; how groundless their fears were. He himself employed his time in but nothing was settled, though, as Livy (xxxiv. 62) observes, Scipio Sicily most actively in preparing and disciplining his new army, might easily have put an end to the disputes. Scipio was the only

Massinissa, dissatisfied with the Carthaginians, was anxious for the Roman who thought it unworthy of the republic to support those arrival of Scipio in Africa, but Syphax had altered his policy, and Carthaginians who persecuted Hannibal; and there was a tradition again joined the Carthaginians. The enemies of Scipio at Rome at that Scipio, in B.c. 193, was sent on an embassy to Antiochus, and last got an opportunity of attacking him, and they nearly succeeded that he met Hannibal in bis exile, who in the couversation which took in depriving him of his post. Without being authorised by the senate, place declared Scipio the greatest of all generals. (Liv., xxxv. 14.) Scipio had taken part in the conquest of Locri in Southern Italy, and whether the story of the conversation be true or not, the judgment had left his legate Q. Flaminius as commander of the Roman garrison ascribed to Hannibal is just; for Scipio as a general was second to in that place. The legate treated the Locrians with such severity and none but Hannibal himself. In the year B.C. 190 some discussions cruelty that they sent an embassy to Rome to lay their complaints arose in the senate as to what provinces should be assigned to the two before the senate. As Scipio, although acquainted with the conduct consuls, Lælius and L. Cornelius Scipio, brother of the great Africanus. of Haminius, bad nevertheless left him in command, his enemies Africanus, although he was prioceps senatus, offered to accompany his attacked him on this and other grounds, and Fabius Maximus even brother as legate, if the senate would give him Greece as bis province, proposed that he should be recalled. A commission was sent out to for this province conferred upon Lucius the command in the war inquire into the state of affairs, and to bring Scipio home, if the against Antiochus. The offer was accepted, and the two brothers set charges against him were found true. Scipio proved that his army out for Greece, and thence for Asia, Africanus took his son with him was in the best possible condition; and the commissioners were so on this expedition, but by some unlucky chance the boy was taken surprised at what they saw, that instead of recalling the consul, they prisoner, and sent to Antiochus. The king offered to restore him to bade him sail to Africa as soon as he might think it proper, and to freedom, and to give a considerable sum of money, if the father would adopt any measures that he might think useful. Scipio in consequence interpose his influence to obtain favourable terms for the king. Afriof this sailed, in B.C. 204, as proconsul, with a large army, from Lily. canus refused; but the king, notwithstanding, soon after sent the boy bæum to Africa, and landed in the neighbourhood of Utica. Here he back to his father, who just then was suffering from illness, and was made successful incursions into the neighbouring country, and Has. absent from the camp. To show his gratitude, Africanus sent a drubal, who attempted to prevent them, suffered a great defeat. But message to Antiochus, advising him not to engage in a battle until he Scipio could not gain possession of Utica, which was of the greater im himself had returned to the Roman camp. After the great battle near portance to him and his fleet, as the winter was approaching, and be Mount Sipylus, Antiochus again applied to Scipio for peace, and the was obliged to spend the season on a piece of land extending into the latter now used his influence with his brother Lucius and the council sea, which he fortified as well as he could. Towards the close of the of war on behalf of the king. The conditions of the peace wera winter the Carthaginians, noited with Syphax, intended to make a tolerably mild, but they were afterwards made much more severe general attack on Scipio's army and fleet, but being informed of their when the peace was ratified at Rome. (ANTIOCHUS.). The enemies of plans, he surprised the camps of Hasdrubal and Syphax in the night, Africanus at Rome had now another charge against him. The peace and only a small number of the enemy escaped Syphax withdrew with Antiochus, and the conditions proposed by Africanus and his into his own dominions, but was defeated by Massinissa and Lælius, brother Lucius, were regarded by the hostile party as the result of and taken prisoner with his wife and one of his sons. Massinissa bribes from Antiochus, and of the liberation of the son of Africanus. married Sophonisba, the wife of Syphax, who had formerly been a charge was therefore brought against the two brothers, on their engaged to him, but bad been given to Syphax for political reasons. return to Rome, of having accepted bribes of the king, and of having Scipio, fearing the influence she might have on Massinissa (for she was retained a part of the treasures which they ought to have delivered up a Carthaginian), claimed her as a prisoner belonging to the Romans, to the ærarium. At the same time they were called upon to give an and Massinissa poisoned her, to save her from the bumiliation of account of the sums of money they had taken from Antiochus. captivity. The fears and apprehensions of the Carthaginians now Lucius was ready to obey; but his brother Africanus with indignation increased to such a degree that they thought it necessary to recall snatched the accounts from the hands of his brother and tore them to Hannibal from Italy, and at the same time they sued for peace. pieces before the senate. (Liv. xxxviii

. 55; Gellius, iv, 18; Val. Max, The terms which Scipio proposed would have concluded the war iii. 7, 1.) The tribune of the people, C. Minucius Augurinus however in a manner honourable to the Romans. The Carthaginians how. fined Lucius; and when he was going to be thrown into prison until ever, whose only object was to gain time, made no objections be should pay the heavy fine, Africanus dragged him away; and the to the conditions, but only concluded a truce of forty-five days, tribune Tib. Gracchus, though disapproving of the violence of Afriduring which an embassy was to be sent to Rome. Before this canus, liberated Lucius from imprisonment. (Gellius, vii. 19; Liv., truce was at an end, the Carthaginian populace plundered some xxxviii. 56.) Africanus himself was now summoned before the people Roman vessels with provisions, which were wrecked off Carthage, and by the tribune M. Nævius, and he only saved himself by reminding even insulted the Roman envoys who came to demand reparation. the people of his victory at Zama. After these troubles he withdrew Scipio did not resent this conduct, and allowed the Carthaginian am- to his villa near Liternum, and it was owing to the interposition of bassadors, on their return from Rome, to pass on to Carthage unmo- Tib. Gracchus that he was not compelled to obey another summons. lested. About this time it was the autumn of the year B.C. 203) The estates of his brother Lucius however were confiscated (B.C. 187), Hannibal arrived in Africa, and soon collected an army in numbers but the sum produced by their sale did not make up the amount of far exceeding that of Scipio. He first made a successful campaign the fine. His friends and clients not only offered to make up the sum, against Massinissa. Scipio was at this time informed that the consul but their generosity would even have made him richer than he had Tib. Claudius Nero would come with an army to co-operate with him been before ; but he refused to accept anything beyond what was against Hannibal. Scipio, who wished to bring the war to a conclu absolutely necessary for his support. (Liv., xxxviii

. 60.). Africanus sion, and was unwilling to share this glory with any one else, deter: pever returned from his voluntary exile, and he spent the last years of mined to bring Hannibal to a decisive battle. The Carthaginian at his life in quiet retirement at bis villa (Senec., Epist.,' 86.) He is first avoided an engagement; but when Scipio, in order to deceive the said to have wished to be buried on his estate ; but there was, as Livy enemy, hastily retreated as if he intended to take to flight, Hannibal says, a tradition that he died at Rome, and was buried in the tomb of followed him with bis cavalry, and lost a battle in the neighbourhood his family near the Porta Capena, where statues of him, his brother of Zama. A tribune of Scipio soon afterwards cut off a large convoy Lucius, and their friend Q. Ennius, were erected. The year of his of provisions which was on its way to the camp of Hannibal, and this death is not quite certain; for, cording to Polybius, he died in the suddenly threw him into such difficulties, that he began to negociate same year with Hannibal and Philopoemen (B.C. 183); according to with Scipio for peace. The conditions however which Scipio now others, two years earlier (B.C. 185). proposed were so humiliating, that the Carthaginians would not accept In judging of Scipio Africanus as a general, we may adopt the them. Hannibal therefore, though he saw the impossibility of gaining judgment ascribed to Hannibal; but as a Roman citizen he is very far

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from deserving such praise. His pride and baughtiness were intoler the command in Africa, Scipio returned to Rome, where everybody able, and the laws of the constitution were set at nought whenever appears to have been convinced that he alone was able to complete the they opposed his own views and passions. As a statesman he scarcely conquest of Carthage. Cato said that Scipio alone was alive, while all did anytbing worth mentioning. By bis wife Æmilia, daughter of the other generals were mere shadows. (Liv., 'Epit.,' 49; Polyb., Æmilius Paullus, he had two daughters, one of whom married P. Cor. xxxvi. 6.) The consul Piso made very little progress in Africa, and Delius Scipio Nasica Corculum (Liv. xxxviii

. 57); the other, the cele. when Scipio was a candidate for the ædilesbip, he was unanimously brated Cornelia, married Tib. Sempronius Gracchus, and was the elected consul for the year B.c. 147, though he had not yet attained mother of the two Gracchi, the tribunes of the people. Africanus the legitimate age: he obtained Africa as his province. On his return had also two son8.

to Africa he was accompanied by Polybius and Lælius, and imme. 12. P. Cornelius Scipio, son of the great Scipio Africanus (No. 11). diately after his arrival he saved a considerable body of Roman soldiers, He was augur in B.C. 180. (Liv., xl. 42.) Cicero (“Brut.,' 19; 'De who had penetrated into one of the suburbs of Carthage. (Appian, Senect.,' 11; De Off.,' i. 33) says that he was a man of great mental viii. 113, &c.) He restored discipline in the Roman army. His first powers, but of a weakly constitution. He was the adoptive father of operation was to cut off all supplies which the Carthaginians had P. Cornelius Scipio Æmilianus Africanus Minor. His epitaph is given hitherto received from the interior of Africa, and in the following by Orelli (“Onomast. Tull.,' p. 187).

winter (B.C. 147.146) he succeeded in taking Nepheris, whence the 13. Lucius or CNEICS Scirio, the second son of Scipio Africanus Carthaginians till then had received their supplies by sea.

His com. Major (No. 11). He was, as we have seen, taken prisoner in the war mand of the army was prolonged for the year B.C. 146, and in the with Antiochus. He is described as a contemptible wan. In B.C. 174 spring of this year he made his attack on the city, which was defended he became prætor urbanus, by the modest withdrawal of his com- with the utmost despair, and by a decree of the senate he razed the petitor, who had been a scribe to his father; but he was in the same city to the ground. He is said to bave wept over its ruins, and to year exi elled from the senate by the censors. (Liv., xli. 27; Val. Max., have uttered the prophetic words of Homer :iii. 5, 1.) 14. L. CORNELIUS Scipio AsiaticUS, ASIAGENES, or AsiageNUS, son

έσσεται ήμαρ, ότ' άν ποτ' όλώλη Ίλιος ερή,

και Πρίαμος και λαός εμμελίω Πριάμοιο. of P. Cornelius Scipio (No. 9), and brother of the great Scipio Africanus (No. 11). He accompanied, as we have seen, his brother Africanus on

( Iliad,' vi. 448, &c.) his campaigos in Spain. In B.o. 193 he was prætor in Sicily. In After he bad made the necessary arrangements in Africa, and andi B.C. 190 he was made consul with Lælius, and obtained Greece as his bilated an enemy who, though humbled, was still looked upon by province, with the command in the war against Antiochus, with whom Rome with jealousy, Scipio returned to Italy, and entered Rome in he had already had some negociations in B.C. 196. (Polyb., xviii. 33.) triumph. In B.c. 142 he was censor with L. Mummius, and at this The senate at Rome do not appear to have had any great confidence time of increasing luxury he fulfilled the duties of his office with the in his talents as a general (Cic., 'Pbil,' xi. 7), as it was only owing to greatest strictness, and without any respect to person or rank. In the the offer of his great brother to accompany bim as his legate that he lustrum which he performed at the close of his census, be did not pray, obtained Greece as his province. After the conclusion of the war with as had been customary before, for the increase of the republic, but Antiochus he assumed the name of Asiaticus, and entered Rome in only for its preservation. (Val. Max., iv. 1, 10.) It was probably after triumph. (Liv., xxxvii. 58, &c.) According to Valerius Antias (Liv., his censorship that he, together with Sp. Mummius and L. Metellus, xxxix. 22), he celebrated in B.c. 185 magnificent games for ten days. travelled through Egypt, Syria, Asia, and Greece, to look into the state The money expended on these games he is said to have collected in of affairs in these countries. (Cic. 'De Rep.,' vi. 11; comp. 'Acad.,' Asia during an embassy, on which he had been sent to settle some ii. 2.) The war against Numantia in Spain had been carried on for a disputes between Antiochus and Eumenes, shortly after his con- long time without success ; Scipio was considered the only man who demnation. In B.c. 184 be was a candidate for the censorship, but he could bring the war to a termination, and, although absent at the time was defeated by his competitor Cato, the great enemy of his family, of the elections, he was made consul for the year B.C. 134. . On his who in his censorship took away from Scipio Asiaticus his horse. arrival in Spain he found the Roman army in a most deplorable state, (Liv., xxxix. 44.)

and here, as in Africa, he had to restore military discipline before he 15. P. CORNELIUS Scipio ÆMILIANUS AFRICANUS MINOR, son of L. could venture upon any enterprise. The brave inhabitants of NuÆmilius Paullus, and adopted son of P. Cornelius Scipio (No. 12). mantia held out against him till famine rendered further resistance He must have been born about B c. 185, for in B.c. 168 Scipio, then a impossible. The town fell into the hands of Scipio, after most of the youth in his seventeenth year, took a very active part in the battle of citizens had put an end to their own lives. Fifty of tbe survivors Pydna, in which bis father defeated King Perseus of Macedonia. were selected by Scipio to adorn his triumph; the rest were sold as (Liv., xliv. 44 ; Plut., ' Æm. Paul.,' 22.) From his earliest youth he slaves, and the city was razed to the ground. (Appian, vi. 84, &c.; had an ardent love of intellectual occupations, and cultivated the Liv., ' Epit.,' 57, 59.) While he was engaged in the siege of Numantin, friendship of men like Polybius, Papætius, Lælius, and others. It was the Gracchian disturbances began at Rome. Although his wife Semperbaps on this account that he appeared to his relatives to be wanting pronia was a sister of the Gracchi, Scipio approved of bis brother-inin youthful vigour, and no great hopes were entertained of him; but law being put to death, but still he was not, like many others, 'n with his partiality for science, and Greek refinement and art, he obstinate advocate of the privileges of a class, for we find him supesteemed no less the stern virtues of the best of the Romans. Old porting the lex Cassia tabellaria against the aristocrats (Cic., 'Brut, Cato was in this respect bis model. At the beginning of the third 25.), whence he was considered by some as a man of the people. (Cic., Punic war, B.c. 151, when no one was willing to enter his name either Acad.,' ii. 5.) Scipio was opposed to all violent measures ; caution as an officer or as a common soldier for the campaign in Spain, Scipio, was one of his prominent characteristics. But his opposition to the although he was at this time requested by the Macedonians to settle popular party deprived him of a great part of the favour and influence some disputes among themselves, came forward and declared that he which he had bitherto possessed through the people. The consequence would gladly accept any post that might be assigned to him. This was, that when, in B.c. 131, he was inclined to undertake the com. example inspired with courage even those who had hitherto kept back. mand in the war against Aristonicus, he only obtained the votes of (Liv., •Epit., 48; Polyb., xxxv. 4.). Scipio thus became military two tribes. (Cic., 'Phil.,' xi. 8.) But notwithstanding this slight, he tribune under L. Lucullus. Two heroic deeds of Scipio in this expe. still possessed great influence, for when the tribune Papirius Carbo dition are recorded : he was the only Roman who ventured to accept proposed a law that the people should be at liberty to re-elect their the challenge of a buge Spanish chief, whom he slew in single combat; tribunes as often as they pleased, the eloquent speech of Scipio Scipio also was the first to scale the walls of the town of Intercatia induced the people to reject the measure, though it was in their own wbile it was besieged by the Romans. These proofs of personal favour. (Cic., Læl., 25.) Soon after this however a circumstance courage, avd bis other virtues, filled even the enemy with admiration, occurred which called forth the bitterest opposition of the popular aud gained for him a greater influence over the Španiards than his party against him. Scipio had made a proposal in favour of the old avaricious general, Lucullus, was able to acquire." (Appian, vi. 54.) Italian veterans, which had been approved by the senate, and accordThe year following, B.C. 150, Scipio was sent by Lucullus to Africa, tó ing to which the disputes arising out of the distribution of the public request Massipissa to send a number of elephants over to Spain. land should not be decided by the distributors, but by other persons. Scipio was most honourably received. Massinissa and the Cartha- This measure produced a delay in the distribution itself, and the givians were just preparing for battle; Scipio beheld the contest from popular leaders, F. Flaccus, C. Gracchus, and Papirius Carbo, made an eminence, and as soon as the Carthaginians were apprised of his the bitterest invectives against Scipio in the assembly, and called him presence they entreated bim to act as mediator between them and the enemy of the people. When Scipio repeated his approval of the Marsinisea. But he was not able to effect what they wished, and he death of Gracchus, the demagogues cried out, "Down with the tyrant!" returned to Spain with the elephants. (Appian, viii., 71, &c.) When After these fierce debates Scipio went quietly home accompanied by the war between Carthage and Rome broke out, Scipio, then still the senate and a great number of Latins and Roman allies. (Cic., military tribune, wint to Africa, and here again distinguished himself Læl., 3.) In the evening he went into his bedroom with the intentso much by his courage, prudence, and justice, that he not only gained tion of writing a speech to be delivered the following morning. But the unlimited confidence of his own countrymen and Massinissa, but in the morning Scipio was found dead in his bed (B.c. 129.) (Appian, even of the Cartbaginians, who trusted po Roman but Scipio. Roman Civil.,' i. 19, &c.) 'An investigation into the cause of his death was ambassadors who were sent to the camp in Africa to report on the prevented by the multitude, and the event remained a secret. Public state of affairs, on their return to Rome were unbounded in their opinion pointed out many who were suspected of having murdered praise of Scipio and of the attachment of the soldiers to him. (Appian, him, and the heaviest suspicion fell upon Carbo. (Comp. Dr. Fr. wiii. 98, &c.) In B.c. 148, when the consul Calpurnius Piso undertook Gerlach, Der Tod des P. Cornelius Scipio Æmilianus, eine Historische

857

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SCOPAS.

858

Untersuchung,' Basel, 1839; and 'Zimmermann, Zeitschrift für die 21. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO Nasica, son of P. Cornel. Scipio Nasica Alterthumswissenschaft,' 1311, No. 52.)

Serapio (No. 20). He was consul in B.c. 111 with L. Calpurnius Piso 16. L. CORNELIUS SCIPIO, son of L. Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (No. Bestia, who went out against Jugurtha, while Scipio remained in Italy. 14). He was quæstor in B.C. 167. (Liv., alv. 44; Val. Max., v. 1, 1; (Sallust., 'Jug.,' 27.) He is described as a man who was inaccessible comp. Pighius, 'Appal. ad An.' 591.)

to bribes, and throughout his life behaved in the most exemplary 17. L. CORNELIUS SCIPIO, son of L. Cornelius Scipio (No. 16). manner, . (Diodor., : Fragm.,' xxxiv., p. 214, od. Tauchnitz.) He died According to Pighius he was quæstor in B.O. 96, ædilis curulis in B.C. during his consulship. (Cic., 'Brut., 34.) Cicero says that in wit 92, and prætor in B.C. 89 and 88. In B.c. 83 he was consul with C. and humour he excelled everybody. Junius Norbanus, and marched against Sulla, but he was suddenly 22. P. CORNELIUS Scipio Nasica, son of P. Cornel. Scipio Nasica abandoned by his whole army, which had been worked upon by the (No. 21). He was prætor in B.C. 94. He is mentioned by Cicero agents of Sulla. Scipio was taken prisoner with his son Lucius. He 1" Pro Rosc. Am.,' 27) as one of the advocati of Roscius of Ameria. was then indeed let go, but in B.c. 82 he was sent into exile, and spent His wife was Licinia, the daughter of the orator L. Crassus. (Cic., the remainder of his life at Massilia. (Appian, Civil.,' i. 82, &c.; Liv., Brut.,' 58.) He was the father of L. Licinius Crassus Scipio, whom Epit.,' 85; Cic., Pro. Sext.,' 3; 'Ad Att.,' ix. 15.) Cicero (" Brut.,' Crassus the orator made his adoptive son, and of Q. Metellus Pius 47) says of him, " dicebat non imperite."

Scipio, who was adopted by Q. Metellus Pius, and was father-inlaw 18. P. CORNELIUS Scipio Nasica, son of Cn. Cornelius Scipio of Pompey. Metellus Scipio was defeated by Cæsar, and fell in Africa. Calvus (No. 10). In the year B.c. 203, when yet a young man, and even 23. Cn. CORNELIUS Scipio HISPALLUS, the son of a brother of the before he had been quæstor, he was declared by the senate to be the two Scipios who fell in Spain (No. 9 and 10). He was consul in best of all good citizens, and commissioned to go with the Roman B.C. 176, but during his consulship he was seized with a paralytic matrons to Ostia to receive the statue of the Idæan mother, which had stroke, and died at the baths of Cuma. (Liv., xli. 20.) been brought from Pessinus. (Liv., xxix. 14.) In B.C. 200 he was one 24. CN. CORNELIUS Scipio HispaLLUS, son of Cn. Corn. Scipio of the triumvirs to complete the number of colonists in Venusia. Hispallus (No. 23). In B.C. 149 he was with Scipio Nasica (No. 20) (Liv., xxxi. 49.) In B.C. 196 he was curule ædile (Liv., xxxiii. 25); in among the commissioners to Carthage. (Appian, viii

. 80.) In B.C. 139 B.O. 194 he was prætor (Liv., xxxiv. 42), and the year following pro- be was prætor, and promulgated an edict according to which all prætor in Spain (Liv., xxxv. 1), where he fought several successful Chaldæans (astrologers) were to quit Rome, and Italy within ten days. battles to the west of the Iberus. In B.C. 192 he was a candidate for (Val. Max., i. 3, 2, who calls him Caius Corn. Hispallus.) the consulship, but he was not elected, notwithstanding his success 25. CN. CORNELIUS SCIPIO HISPALLUS, son of Co. Corn. Scipio in Spain, and notwithstanding the support of his cousin the great Hispallus (No. 24). He is mentioned only by Valerius Maximus (vi. Africanus. (Liv., xxxv. 10.) But the following year he was more 3, 3), who says that he was compelled to give up his province of Spain, fuccessful; he became consul with M. Acilius Glabrio (Liv., xxxv. 24), to which he had been sent as quæstor, on account of his inability, and and gained a signal victory and a triumph over the Boians. (Liv., that afterwards he was condemned for dishonest conduct Xxxvi. 38.) When L. Scipio Asiaticus was accused, Nasica came 26. L. CORNELIUS SCIPIO HISPALLUS, son of Cn. Corn. Scipio Hisforward as his advocate. (Liv., xxxviii. 58.) In B.C. 184 he was a pallus (No. 24). Pigbius (Annal. ad. An.,' 616) thinks that he is the candidate for the censorship, but M. Portius Cato was preferred to same of whom Appian (“Civil.,' i. 41) says that in the Marsian war he bim. (Liv., xxxix. 40.) In B.U. 183 and 182 he was one of the and L. Acilius were compelled to escape from Æsernia in the attire of triumvirs to establish a Latin colony at Aquileia. (Liv. xxxix, 55; slaves. xl. 34.) In B.c. 171 Spanish ambassadors came to Rome to complain For the history of the family of the Scipios compare Orelli, 'Onoof the extortions of their Roman governors, and when the senate masticon Tullianum,' p. 183, &c.; Paully, “Real-Encyclopædie der granted them the privilege of choosing patrons to conduct their cause Alterthumswissenschaft,' vol. ii., p. 650, &c. at Rome, Scipio Nasica was one of the patrons. (Liv., xliii. 2; The family tomb of the Scipios was first discovered in 1616, but it compare Cic., 'De Orat.,' iii. 33.)

was soon forgotten, as few of its ruins had been laid open, and doubts 19. P. CORNELIOS SCIPIO Nasica CORCULUM, son of P. Corn. were raised as to its genuineness. In 1780 the tomb was again disScipio Nasica (No. 18). He was married to a daughter of Scipio covered close by the modern gate of S. Sebastian. Visconti and the Africanus Major, and distinguished himself in the campaign of pope took great interest in the discovery, and in the course of a year Æmilius Paullus in Macedonia. (Liv. xliv. 35, &c.; Polyb., xxix. 6.) the whole catacomb, though in a dilapidated state, was cleared and In b.c. 162 he was consul, but only for a short time, for he and his laid open. The inscriptions and other curiosities, among which wo colleague were obliged to abdicate, because a mistake had been made may mention the beautiful sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus, were transin the auguries for the election. (Cic., ‘De Nat. Deor.,' ii. 4; 'De ferred to the Museum Pio-Clementinum at Rome. The monuments Div.,' i. 35.) In B.C. 159 he was censor with C. Popillius Lænas, and with their inscriptions are described in Monumenti degli Scipioni, they made a decree, that only the statues of those men should remain publicati dal Cavaliere Francesco Piranesi,' Roma, folio, 1785; and in standing in the Forum who had held a magistracy, and that all the Lanzi, Saggio,' vol. i., p. 150, &c. For the inscriptions see Orelli, others should be removed. (Plin., Hist. Nat.,' xxxiv. 14; Aurel. Inscript. Lat., n. 550-559. Vict., ‘De Vir. Illustr.,' 44.) Scipio in his censorship introduced at SCOPAS, a celebrated sculptor, born in the island of Paros. Pliny Rome the use of a public clepsydra, and built a portico on the (Hist. Nat.,' xxxiv. 8) makes Scopas contemporary with Ageladas, Capitol. In his second consulship, s.c. 155, he gained a victory over Polycletus, Myron, and other distinguished artists who were living in the Dalmatians, and took the town of Delminium. (Liv., 'Epit.,' 47; the 87th Olympiad ; but from various circumstances, it seems probable Aurel. Vict, 1 c.) During this year there occurred a proof of the that he did not fourish till a somewhat later period. Like many stern severity of his character, and of his influence : at his proposal artists of antiquity, he united the two professions of sculpture and the sepate ordered a theatre to be pulled down, the erecting of which architecture; and the temple of Minerva Alea, at Tegea in Arcadia, bad been approved by the censors, and which was very near its com. was constructed under bis direction. (Pausanias, viii. 45.) The date pletion. Scipio thought a theatre injurious to the morals of the of the destruction of the temple which the new edifice was intended Romans. (Liv., ' Epit., 48.) When Cato insisted upon the destruc. to replace, and the period at which another work on which Scopas tion of Carthage, Scipio Corculum opposed him on the ground that was employed was completed, materially assist in establishing the age the existence of such a rival as Carthage was most wholesome to Rome of this artist. Pausanias says the older temple referred to was burned itself, as a check against corruption. (Plut., 'Cat. Maj. 27.) In B.C. during the archonship, in Athens, of Diophantus, in the second year 150 he became pontifex maximus. Respecting bis talents as an orator of the 96th Olympiad (about B.o. 388); and Pliny (xxxvi. 5) tells us and his studies, see Cic., 'Brut., 20, and De Senect.,' 14.

that Scopas was one of the sculptors employed on the tomb erected in 20. P. CORNELIUS SCIPIO NASICA SERAPIO, son of P. Cornelius honour of Mausolus, king of Caria, by Artemisia, his queen, who died Scipio Nasica Corculum (No. 19). Before the outbreak of the third (before the work was completed) in the 107th Olympiad, or about Punic war he was quæstor, and commissioned, with the consuls B.C. 350. Scopas, it is true, may have been living at the same time Censorinus and Manilius (B.C. 149), to demand from the Carthaginians with some of the later artists mentioned by Pliny, but a calculation the delivery of their arms to the Romans. (Appian, viii. 80.) His of the above dates will sufficiently prove almost the impossibility of suit for the ædileship was unsuccessful. (Cic., .Pro Planc.,' 21; Val. his practising as a contemporary artist with the great sculptors preMax., vii. 5, 2, in which passage however he is confounded with P. ceding and forming the Phidian age and school, and likewise exercising Corn. Scip. Nasica (No. 18.) In B.O. 138 he was consul with D. Junius his art at a date so distant from their time as three hundred and fifty Brutus Gallaicus. These two consuls were thrown into prison by the years before our era. He lived between B.C. 400 and 300, aud most tribunes of the people, because they were too severe in raising soldiers probably in the first half of that century. for their armies. (Liv., “Ep.,' 55; Cic., 'De Legg.,' iii. 9.). The chief Pliny furnishes a copious list of works by this artist. Among those enemy of Scipio among the tribunes was Curiatius, and it is he who which he says were particularly worthy of admiration was a series of is said to have given him the nickname Serapio. Scipio was a man of figures representing Neptune, Thetis, Achilles, Nereids mounted on vehement and irascible temper (Cic., ‘Brut., 28), and of inflexible dolphins, and attended by Tritons and other marine monsters. All aristocratic principles. His hatred of the measures of Tib. Gracchus these “were from the hand of Scopas," and Pliny adds, "it was a was so great, that during the election of the tribunes he placed himself splendid work (* præclarum opus') sufficient for the fame of his whole at the head of his party in their attack upon Gracchus in the Capitol. life.” It was preserved in the temple of Cneius Domitius, in the Circus This enraged the people so much against him, that the senate thought Flaminius at Rome. The same writer also mentions two statues of it advisable to send him on an embassy to Asia, although as pontifex Venus, one of Pothos, or Desire, one of Apollo, and a much admired maximus he was not allowed to quit Italy. He died at Pergamus soon Vesta in a sitting attitude; also a colossal sitting figure of Mars, and after his arrival in Asia. (Plut., 'Tib. Gracch.,'21; Cic., 'Pros. Flacc.,'31.) a Bacchus at Cnidus. Pliny tells us there was a doubt in his time

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