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879

SECKENDORF, VEIT LUDWIG VON.

SEDAINE, MICHEL JEAN.

380

chamber in favour of the project for fortifying Paris. In health eminent theological attainments by which he was distinguished, of compelled him soon afterwards to retire from public business, and which his printed works are some proof, but there is still stronger the unfortunate fate of his daughter, the Duchesse de Praslin, evidence in his manuscript notes on the Scriptures, which still remain darkened the latter years of his life. He died however suddenly in the library at Lambeth. while at breakfast, on July 20, 1851. He was buried in the church When he left the academy, the natural course would have been that of the Invalides, and during the funeral some of the hangings caught he should have settled as the minister of a dissenting congregation. fire, endangering the whole building, but the fire was fortunately sub- He preached among the dissenters occasionally, but he never became dued with only the loss of several of the military trophies.

the settled pastor of any dissenting congregation. Perhaps the excel. SE'CKENDORF, VEIT LUDWIG VON, was born on the 20th of lences of his character were not appreciated as they ought to have December 1626, at Herzogenaurach near Erlangen. He belonged to been by the persons amongst whom he fell. However, it is certain an old and noble family of Franconia, and his father held a high post that he soon determined to abandon the path which had been cbalked in the army of Gustavus Adolphus during the Thirty Years' war. out for him, and he devoted himself to the study of medicine, attending The boy lived with his mother partly at Coburg, partly at Mühlbausen, lectures in London, and going afterwards to Paris. and partly at Erfurt. He began his studies at the gymnasium of There were persons however who were unwilling that the talents Coburg in 1638; but Ernest, duke of Gotha, invited him to the gym- and attainments of Secker should not be made available in the way nasium of Gotha; and after the death of his father, who was executed that was first intended, though not as a nonconformist, but as a minister in 1642 by a Swedish court-martial, the duke acted towards the youth of the Established Church; and particularly his early friend Butler, with all the care of a father. The young man showed great talent who had conformed and was become preacher at the Rolls, and Mr. and unusual diligence, and persons of the highest rank gave him their Talbot, to whom Butler introduced him, a son of the Bishop of protection and encouragement. From 1643 till 1646 he studied in the Durham. Secker was induced to enter fully into the question of conuniversity of Strasbourg; and applied most zealously not only to formity, and his deliberations issued in the determination to enter jurisprudence, history, and classical literature, but to philosophy and the church. He entered himself at Exeter College, Oxford, and in theology. After he had completed his studies, he made a journey a very short time was ordained by the Bishop of Durham; this was through the Netherlands, and was appointed page to the Duke of in 1723. Gotha, who not only superintended his practical training as a states. His progress in the church was rapid. He was made chaplain to man, but intrusted bim with the care of his library. Seckendorf now Bishop Talbot; had the living of Houghton-le-Spring, which he soon gradually rose from the lower to the highest offices in the duke's exchanged for that of Ryton, both in the diocese of Durbam; but in service, and in 1664 he was appointed privy councillor and chancellor. 1732 he was brought into a more public sphere of action, being In all bis offices he took a most active part in the important changes nominated one of the king's chaplains, and rector of St. James's, wbich the duke made in the administration of his dominions, as well Piccadilly. Early in 1735 he was made Bishop of Bristol ; in 1737 he as in the affairs of religion and the education of the people. For was translated to Oxford. In 1750 he gave up the rectory of St. reasons which are not known, Seckendorf, at the close of the year James's, in which parish he had accomplished some uselul reforms, 1664, left the service of the Duke of Gotha, and entered that of and was made Dean of St. Paul's. In 1758 he became Archbishop Moritz, duke of Zeitz, who appointed him his privy councillor, of Canterbury. In all the various situations which he was called to chancellor, and president of the consistory. In his new sphere Secken fill, his conduct was that of a conscientious, liberal, and pious man; dorf showed the same activity and good will towards the people as assiduous in the discharge of all his duties, acting with moderation before ; but owing to some measures which he had proposed, he and discretion. His printed works consist only of sermons, lectures, became involved in disputes with the clergy; and when Duke Moritz and charges. He died on the 3rd of August 1768, and is buried in an died in 1681, he laid down his offices, and retired to his country-seat, humble grave in the churchyard of Lambeth parish. Meuselwitz near Altenburg. In 1691 Frederic III., elector of Branden- SECUNDUS, JOHANNES, born in 1511, is one of the most esteemed burg, invited him to Berlin as his privy councillor, and also appointed of modern Latin poets. His verses are chiefly amatory, and modelled him chancellor of the newly established university of Halle. Secken after Catullus, whose passionate and tender spirit he bad caught, without dorf accepted the offer, but died on the 9th of December, 1692, at descending to the extent of his licentiousness. Like other learned Halle.

men of the age, he took a Latin name : why that of Secundus, does Seckendorf as a statesman showed great judgment and skill in the not clearly appear. His family name was Everts, which in other complicated affairs of the various houses of Saxony, but he was more languages is softened into that of Everardi and Everard. His father distinguished as a political writer, an historian, a scholar, and a theo- Nicholas or Klaas Everts, himself a learned man, and a distinguished logian. His principal political work is— Deutscher Fürstenstaat, jurist and magistrate, had five sons, all more or less eminent, among Gotha, 1665, which for a long time was thought the most useful whom however John's fame stands highest. He early showed that manual of political science. His theological and historical works are : taste for Latin poetry to which he owes his reputation; but he adopted

Compendium Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ,' Leipzig, 1666; this work was the law as his profession, and graduated with distinction at Bourges, completed by Artopæus ; "Der Christenstaat, Leipzig, 1685; Com. in 1533. That bis talents and acquirements were well known may mentarius Historicus et Apologeticus de Lutheranismo,' &c., 3 vols. be inferred from the archbishop of Toledo having chosen him for fol., Leipzig, 1688, &c.: it is chiefly directed against' Maimbourg, private secretary. Through this connection he obtained the notice Histoire du Lutheranisme.' Seckendorf also wrote several smaller and esteem of Charles V., whom he accompanied to Tunis in 1534. discourses in German, and gacred hymns, some of which are still Unfortunately the climate of Africa sowed in him the seeds of a sung in the Protestant churches of Germany, See Scbreber, mortal disease; and he was fain, instead of following up his fortunes • Historia Vitæ et Meritorum Viti Ludovici à Seckendorf,' 4to, by accepting an important post at Rome, to return to his pative Leipzig, 1733.

climate, only to die at Tournai, October 8, 1536, at the early age SECKER, THOMAS, a learned and eminent prelate of the English of twenty-five. church, who was successively bishop of Bristol and Oxford, and arch- His Latin poems are-Elegies (3 books), ‘Basia,' Epigrams, Odes, bishop of Canterbury, was born at Sibthorpe in Nottinghamshire in Epistles, Funera (elegies in the English meaning), and Miscellanies, 1693.

one book each. There are many editions, among which that of The early history of this distinguished person is essentially different Leyden, 2 vols. 8yo, 1821, is recommended. His works are published from that of many other persons whose early life, progress, and final jointly with those of his brothers Nicholas and Adrian, who assumed success in the church we have had to describe; for while they have respectively the names of Grudius and Marius, under the title usually gone from the endowed grammar-schools to the universities of Poemata et Efigies Trium Fratrum Belgarum. There are translathe realm, Secker (being born of parents who were not members of the tions of the Basia' into English, French, &c. Of the former, that of Church of England, but dissenters from it), after he had been trained 1775, with the Life of Secundus, and of the latter, that by Tissot, in the grammar-school at Chesterfield in Derbyshire, where a sister 1806, are said to be the best. much older than himself and her husband Mr. Milnes resided (two SEDAINE, MICHEL JEAN, a dramatic writer of considerable relatives who bad much to do with his early training), was sent to an merit, was born at Paris, July 4, 1719. On the death of his father, academy wbich the dissenters of the north of England had established who was an architect, he was reduced to follow the trade of a stone. at a village called Attercliffe, ahout fourteen miles from Chesterfield. mason. He continued however to study, and casually attracted the It was intended for the education of dissenting ministers, and for that notice of his employer, an architect named Buron, who, on discovering profession young Secker was designed. But after a residence of two his talents, gave him instruction, and finally took bim into partner. or three years, he was removed to another establishment of the same ship. This service he afterwards repaid by educating the painter kind, in which the studies appear to have been of a more liberal kind, David, who was Buron's grandson. Sedaine made his first appearance and the learning communicated to the pupil more exact and critical. as a dramatist in a piece taken from the Devil on Two Sticks,' This academy was kept at Tewkesbury, and at the head of it was played at the Opera Comique in 1756, which was very popular. After Mr. Jones, a divine of considerable eminence. Here Secker found writing for that theatre during several years with brilliant success, he Samuel Chandler going through the same course with bimself, who took a bolder flight, and brought out his Philosophe sans le Savoir,' was a minister of much celebrity among the dissenters, and author of on the more classical stage of the Comédie Française. This, which is various critical works, and Butler, the author of "The Analogy of esteemed his most sterling piece, had a great run. He also wrote for Natural and Revealed Religion,' who conformed and became bishop the Grand-Opéra; and thus, it has been observed, shone at once on of Durham. With both of these divines Secker formed an intimacy, three of the chief theatres of France. The well-known opera of and they remained on friendly terms during the remainder of their Richard Cour-de-Lion,' for which, and many other of Sedaine's lives. It was in these academies that the foundation was laid of those works, Gretry composed the music, procured for him, at the age of

381

SEDGWICK, REV. ADAM, M.A.

SEDULIUS, CÆLIUS.

sixty-five, admission to the Académie Française. He died on the formations, on which he is at issue with his friend and former collabo17th of May 1797.

rator, Sir R. I. Murchison, (MURCHISON, SIR RODERICK IMPEY), Gaiety, origivality, truth of dialogue, and skill in raising and sus- giving to the Silurian system of strata of that geologist all the lower taining interest in his plots, are the merits ascribed to Sedaine as an palæozoic formations above the Coniston grits, and claiming for his author. His style is censured for negligence, but it is forcible and own Cambrian system everything from the Coniston grits inclusivo flowing, and well adapted to his usual melodramatic composition. He down to the Skiddaw slate, and its equivalents the Bangor and bimself maintained that what were called his faults really contributed Longmynd group, the most ancient of British rocks. to his success. “They will have it,” he said, "that I can't write A more general work of considerable importance has also been proFrench; and I say that none of them could write Rose et Colas.'” duced by Professor Sedgwick. This is ' A Discourse on the Studies of This was said in mortification at havivg been left out of the Institut the University of Cambridge,' first published as a pamphlet, but the National, when the pre-existing Académies were remodelled into that fifth edition of which, published in 1850, is a volume of 764 pages, body. The catalogue of his plays amounts to thirty.two. There is a of which the expanded preface occupies 442. This work may be selection (Euvres Choisies de Sedaide') with a memoir, Paris, 1813. said to present a comprehensive enunciation of the author's views on

* SEDGWICK, REV. ADAM, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Woodwardian physical philosophy and natural theology, and their relations to the Professor of Geology in the University of Cambridge, one of the Christian religion. It expresses them in an especial manner on most eminent living geologists, was born about 1786 at Dent, in what may be termed the philosophy of geology and palæontology. To Yorkshire. He took his B.A. degree in 1808, and in the following year it all may be referred who desire to learn the sentiments of Professor became a fellow of Trinity College, of which he is now (1857) a senior Sedgwick, acquired by a life of application to the acquisition and fellow, and also vice-master. In 1818 be succeeded Professor Hailstone extension of knowledge, upon any of the great questions of science, in the chair of geology founded at Cambridge by the celebrated Dr. and its bearings on revelation, which the progress of discovery for Woodward [WOODWARD, JOHN), and frequently termed the Wood nearly a century past has evoked, and upon the authority of the men wardian professorship. In the same year, on the 21st of February, he by whom they have been raised. It was originally delivered as a was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He was one of the secre- sermon in the chapel of Trinity College, (at an annual commemotaries of the Cambridge Philosophical Society at its establishment in ration), directed against what has been termed by some writers 1819, and has frequently been an office-bearer since, continuing of “the utilitarian theory of morals as being not merely false in reasoncourse to be a leading member of that body, whose . Transactions' ing, but as producing a degrading effect on the temper and conduct of have done so much honour, not only to the science of the university, those who adopt it.” “In this line,” it has been remarked, "he had but to British science in general. Gradually becoming a leading Fellow been preceded by the present master of Trinity (Dr. Whewell), in Four also of the Geological Society of London, and having filled several Sermons on the Foundation of Morals, and by the late Archdeacon offices in it, he was elected the president at the anniversary of 1829, Hare, (HARE, JULIUS CHARLES], in various sermons preached before holding the office for the stated two years following. He is a pre- the University of Cambridge. These three great men (who had a most bendary of Norwich cathedral, and is also university-secretary to his noble and tender friendship for each other), had and have long been Royal Highness Prince Albert as chancellor. In the fourth volume of seeking to counteract the influence which they think Paley, in his the . Bibliograpbia Zoologiæ' of Agassiz, Strickland, and Jardine, pub-Moral Philosophy,' has injuriously exercised on the studies of their lished in 1854, thirty-two papers by Professor Sedgwick, including a Alma Mater." 'Syllabus of Lectures ' separately published, are enumerated ; ten by SEDLEY, SIR CHARLES, an English poet, the son of Sir John him and Sir R. I. Murchison in conjunction, and two by him and Mr. Sedley of Aylesford in Kent, was born in 1639. His mother was Williamson Peile. These papers are contained in the Transactions' Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry Saville, warden of Merton College, of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; the Transactions' (second Oxford. At the age of seventeen, in the year 1655-56, he became a series), 'Proceedings,' and Quarterly Journal' of the Geological Society fellow-commoner of Wadham College, and taking no degree, retired to of London; the Reports ' of the British Association; the first and bis own county, where he lived till the restoration of Charles II. second series of the 'Appals of Philosophy;' the Philosophical After this event he came to London, and, to use the words of Antony Magazine ;' and the 'Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal.' They à Wood, set up for a satirical wit, a comedian, poet, and courtier of relate exclusively to geology, and principally to that of the palæozic ladies. A thorough debauchee he in 1663 was fined very heavily for a and of the older metamorphic and the crystalline rocks. He bas since most disgusting drunken frolic in which he had been engaged, the parcommunicated several other papers to the Geological Society and the ticulars of which are told by Wood. ('Athene Oxon.') Shortly after 'Philosophical Magazine.

' He is reputed to be the author of an this be represented the borough of New Romney in Kent. Several of claborate and powerful article in the 'Edinburgh Review' on the his speeches in parliament are printed among his works. During the views advocated in the work entitled ' Vestiges of the Natural History reign of James II., Sedley, whose daughter was one of the mistresses of Creation.'

of that monarch, appears to have retired from the court, which he Professor Sedgwick has given more attention perbaps than any other bad much frequented in the lifetime of Charles. At the Revolution English geologist, except the late Sir H. T. De la Beche, to the study he joined the party of William. He died August 20, 1701. of the crystalline rocks, which, in their actual position, are the bases Sedley's works, with a short memoir prefixed, were published in apon which the entire series of our sedimentary formations reposes. 1722. They consist of various short amatory poems, a few speeches While his numerous descriptive essays on English geology evince a in parliament, translations from the classics, and the following plays: regard for mineralogical and chemical distinctions which have not been The Mulberry Garden,' a comedy; Antony and Cleopatra,' a tragedy; duly regarded by some geological inquirers, he has not been misled, Bellamira, or the Mistress,' a comedy. ("Tunbridge Wells, or a Day's as the late Dr. Macculloch was, by his mineralogical knowledge, to Courtship,' a comedy; The Tyrant King of Crete,' a tragedy; The undervalue those principles of the classification of rocks which are Grumbler,' a comedy, are also attributed to him.) derived from the organic remains they include, and which, as yet, are As a poet Sedley is in simplicity and ease of expression, in sprightprincipally zoological. He has been eminently successful in deter- linese of fancy, in the skilful treatment of common and trivial subjects, mining the relative position of the great masses constituting the surpassed by none of his contemporaries. He is extremely licentious, palæozoic rocks of the north of England, especially where the original but his licentiousness is of a refined kind, and his pages are not disstratification has been thrown into disorder by subsequent geological figured by the grossness of language so common in his time. The best operations, or where the original characters of the strata have been of his short poems are printed in Ellis's • Early English Poets.' His changed or even obliterated by metamorphic action. His application plays have little merit, and he is one of those writers whose works of general physical knowledge to this branch of the science has been might pass into oblivion without real loss either to taste of morality. of inestimable advantage in the progress of geology in England. ŠEDUʻLIUS, CÆLIUS, a Christian Roman poet, is generally sup

No member of his university has contributed in a higher degree to posed to have lived during the first half of the 5th century of our elevate its character as a school of the natural sciences. To him it is era; but who he was and where he lived is unknown. Some writers also indebted for bis care of the continually augmenting collections call him a presbyter, others an antistes, and others again call him a of the geological museum, the foundation of which was Dr. Wood- bishop. A few very late writers state that he was a disciple of Hilde. ward's own collection. He has bimself contributed to it a noble bert, archbishop of the Scots, and that he came from Scotland or Eeries of many thousand rock-specimens, chiefly British, and a still Ireland to France, and thence to Italy. But these statements are more valuable series of organic remains. For the arrangement of the either entirely groundless, or arise from the circumstance that the old latter, and of all the palæontological collections added to the museum Christian poet Sedulius was confounded with another Sedulius who during the last thirty-eight years, he secured the services for four lived in the 8th or 9th century of our era. years of a distinguished palæontologist, Mr. McCoy, subsequently There are four poems which are usually ascribed to Sedulius :-1, professor of geology and mineralogy in Queen's college, Belfast, and 'Mirabilium Divinorum, sive Operis Paschalis Libri (quatuor) Quinsince appointed to the chair of natural history in the University of que:' it is preceded by a prose letter to an abbot Macedonius, from Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Professor McCoy's descriptive wbich we learn that the poet treated of the same subject in prose also, catalogue of the British Palæozoic Fossils,' contained in these collec and that he himself divided the poem into four books, though in all tions, has been published by the university, introduced by an elabo- our editions it is divided into five books. Whether the fifth book was rate dissertation by Professor Sedgwick, entitled 'A Synopsis of the added by Sedulius himself at a later period of his life, or whether it Classification of the British Palæozoic Rocks, and this is almost was added by some one else, is uncertain. The poem, which is in the only separate work on geology which he has produced. In it he tolerably good hexameters, contains some portions of the history of the has enunciated his matured views, and as it were final decision on the Old Testament and the life of Christ. The language is purer than that subject of the classification and nomenclature of the older palæozoic of many of his contemporaries, and in some passages it is really poetical

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2, Collatio Veteris et Novi Testamenti.' This poem is written in plans. In March 1810 he sent out for Mocha. A letter, dated elegiac verse, and in such a manner that the first words of every hexa. Nov. 17, 1810, and addressed to Mr. Lindenau of Gotha, was the last meter form the second half of the pentameter which follows. It con. account that he himself sent to Europe. In 1815, Von Hammer of tains narratives from the Bible, so arranged that those taken from the Vienna was informed by Mr. Buckingham, in a letter written at Old Testament always appear in juxta-position with those taken from Mocha, that Seetzen bad suddenly died in 1811, in the neighbourhood the New Testament. 3, A Hymnus,' written in Iambic dimeters, in of Taes, while he was on his way to the Imam of Sana to recover bis which the verses of each stanza begin with the letters of the alphabet in luggage, &c., which had been seized at Mocha, and that it was their usual succession (Acrosticha). It is a panegyric upon Jesus, and generally believed that the unfortunate traveller was poisoned by the one of the best productions of the Christian poetry of the age. 4, command of the Imam. A report which was afterwards brought over

De Verbi Incarnatione' is composed of verses taken from Virgil, to this country from Bombay, agreed in the main points with that of which by slight alterations are combined into a Christian poem. Mr. Buckingham. The diary of Seetzen's journeys, and his maps,

The editio princeps of Sedulius is the 'Ascensiana,' 4to, Paris, with plans, and drawings, were for some tire supposed to be lost, but out date. The latest editions are by Cellarius, Halæ, 8vo, 1704 and nearly the whole have been recovered, and were placed in the hands 1739; by J. Arntzen, Leuwarden, 8vo, 1761; and by Faustino Arevalo, of Professor Kruse of Dorpat. Rome, 4to, 1794.

SEʻGNERI, PA'OLO, was born in 1624, at Nettuno in the Campagna Comp. Bähr, ‘Die Christlichen Dichter und Geschichtschreiber of Rome. He studied at Rome under the Jesuits, and afterwards Roms,' p. 54, &c.

entered that order. He applied himself more particularly to sacred SEE'TZEN, ULRICH JASPAR, was born on the 30th of January, oratory, and became a distinguished preacher. He formed a style of 1767, at Sophiengroden near Jever. His father was in good circum- bis own, avoiding both the dryness of his predecessors and the turgidity stances, and gave his son an excellent education, which was com- of his contemporaries, and he is one of the few really eloquent preachers menced at Jever, and completed in the university of Göttingen, where that Italy has produced. (Maury, ' Essai sur l'Eloquence de la Chaire.") Seetzen from 1785-88 studied medicine, the natural sciences, and Segneri's Quaresimale, or series of sermons for Lent, is still read especially agriculture and political economy. Here he became with pleasure and profit. The author is rather too fond of figures acquainted with Alex. von Humboldt and Link, with whom he and antithesis; at times he indulges too much in profane and even conceived the plan of travelling into distant countries which were mythological erudition, in doing which he conformed to the vitiated then little known. Seetzen chose Asia and Africa as the fields of his taste of his age, which is known as that of the Seicentisti, but he is enterprise, and was encouraged in his design by Heyne, Gatterer, one of the purest writers of that age, and his language has been Eicbhorn, and Blumenbach. After the completion of his studies, he approved by the Crusca Academy. Segneri was an earnest and truly returned to Jever, and made several journeys through Germany and Christian preacher. In that vocation he visited almost every corner Holland. He however never lost sight of the great object of his life, of Italy, and he always won the attention and affection of bis audience. and studied with great care what had then been written upon Asia He composed also • Laudi,' or prayers in verse, of an easy and popular and Africa. After he had made all the preparations which private style, to be sung before and after his sermons. study enabled him to make, he applied to Blumenbach for his advice Pope Innocent XII. chose Segneri for his own preacher, as well as and support. Tbis great naturalist recommended Seetzen to Baron of the College of Cardinals, in which office he continued three years, von Zach, who, though at first not favourably disposed towards the until 1694, when he died at Rome. He was succeeded by father extensive plans of Seetzen, soon altered his opinion, and not only Casini, who nearly equalled him in eloquence, and surpassed bim in instructed the young man in astronomy, but induced the Duke the boldness and freedom with which he spoke truth, however unwelof Gotha to provide Seetzen with the necessary instruments for come it might be to men in power, which however did not prevent making astronomical observations, and afterwards also to grant him Pope Clement XI. from making him a cardinal. Segneri composed, an annual sum for the prosecution of his objects. It was also resolved besides his sermons, several pious tracts, such as 'Il Cristiano Istruito, that a museum should be formed at Gotha, and the duke intrusted which contains many excellent precepts for living a Christian life. Seetzen with considerable sums to purchase any interesting objects (Corniani, Secoli della Litteratura Italiana ; Maffei, Vita del connected with the arts, religion, and literature of the countries Segneri.) tbrough which he was about to travel.

SEGNI, BERNARDO, was born at Florence about the end of the On the 13th of June, 1802, Seetzen set out from Jever, accompanied 15th century. He studied the law at Padua, but afterwards proceeded by a surgeon who had been educated at Göttingen at the expense of to Aquila in the kingdom of Naples, where he followed the profession Seetzen himself. The proposed subjects of his inquiry in Asia and of a merchant. On his return to Florence after the fall of the republic, Africa were natural history, statistics, agriculture, commerce, the arts, he courted the new sovereigns of the house of Medici, and found favour mathematical, physical, and ancient geography, and archæology; in with Duke Cosmo I., who employed him in several missions and other fact, everything that might contribute to an accurate knowledge of affairs of state. Cosmo employed him also in translating the works of the countries. Seetzen stopped for a short time at Vienna, to learn Aristotle from the Greek into Italian. His translations of the Rhetoric, the art of drawing plans and maps; and thence he went, by way of Ethic, Politic, and the Treatise on the Soul, are the only parts that Bucharest and across the Balkan to Constantinople, where he arrived have been published. Segui also busied himself in writing a history on the 12th of December. After a stay of six months, which were of his own times and country: ‘Storie Fiorentine dall' anno 1527 all' spent in various preparations, he crossed over into Asia Minor, and anno 1555,' which he kept secret in his lifetime. In this history he travelled by land to Smyrna. Here bis companion was taken ill, and speaks with the freedom of a conscientious historian, and as such he he was obliged to leave him behind. Seetzen continued bis journey is placed among the best writers of Italy. The first part of Segni's to Haleb with a caravan, and arrived there towards the end of 1803, history refers to the same period as the latter part of that of Guicand stayed for nearly fifteen months, which he devoted to the study ciardini, both embracing the important event of the fall of the Florenof Arabic. From Haleb he proceeded to Damascus, through Syria and tine republic, with this difference, that Guicciardini's is a general Palestine, as far as the deserts of Arabia, and got much new informa- history of Italy, and Segni's a particular bistory of his native Florence. tion, and made valuable collections. In 1805, he returned to Damas. No less than three other Florentine contemporary historians havo cus; and, dressed in the costume of a Turk, he made excursions into treated the same period, namely, Varchi, who wrote, in a prolix style, Libanus and Antilibanus. The year after he began his travels in the Storia Fiorentina,' from the year 1527 to 1538; Nardi, who wrote country east of Hermon, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea. His journeys Istorie della Città di Firenze," from 1494 to 1531; and Nerli

, in bis in these districts were made under the greatest privations and general history, or rather chronicle, of Florence, Commentarij de! dangers; but they were amply rewarded by the discovery of the Fatti Civili occorsi in Firenze dall' auno 1215 all' anno 1537. Segni ruins of several ancient towns, the site of which had till then been however went farther than any of them, by continuing his narrative unknown to Europeans. He also penetrated farther south along the till the year 1555, thus embracing not only the period of the profligate eastern shore of the Dead Sea, and he proceeded around the southern sway of Alessandro de' Medici, included

in the histories of Varchi and shore to Jerusalem. From this place he travelled to Joppa, and but the subsequent and more important reign of his saccessor, thence by sea to Acre, where he remained till the end of the year Duke Cosmo I.

, who was the real founder of the Tuscan dynasty, and 1806. We now lose sight of bim for some months, as the documents who, by the subjugation of Siena, the last of the three great Tuscan belonging to this period are missing; but in March, 1807, we find republics, united the whole of Tuscany into one principality. Segni him again at Jerusalem, from which place he travelled to Hebron, died at Florence, April 13, 1558. Horeb, Sinai, then back towards the north, and across the isthmus of There have been two other writers of the same family : Pietro Segni, Suez to Cairo, where he remained for two years. Here he purchased who translated and commented on the work of Demetrius Phalereus for the museum of Gotha a collection of 1574 MSS., 3536 archæo. On Elocution; and Agnolo Segni, who wrote a valuable treatise, logical subjects, and collected a great many specimens in mineralogy, Della Imitazione Poetica.' botany, and zoology. In 1808 ho visited the province of Faioum, and SEGUIER, PIERRE, was one of an ancient and distinguished examined the pyramide, the catacombs near Saccara, and the great French family which, in the space of three centuries (1460 to 1789), is lake of Birket-el-Karun. About this time he adopted externally the recorded to have had no less than sixty-eight of its members raised to Mohammedan religion, in order to gain the confidence of the Egyptians the highest legal dignities of France. Pierre Seguier, one of the most and the Arabs, and to be able to visit those places in Arabia to which eminent of them, was born at Paris in 1504. He began life as an Mussulmen alone have access. He then attempted to proceed to advocate, and, after filling various high offices, was raised in 1564 to Acaba, but was obliged to return to Suez. Soon afterwards however the rank of president à mortier, the highest grade but one in the he travelled by sea to Yambo and Jidda, and thence to Mecca and Parisian parliament. In that capacity the parliament, having refused Medina. In the two last places he made a great many drawings and to register an edict for the establishment of the Inquisition, deputed

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SEJANUS, LUCIUS ALIUS.

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bim to lay their remonstrances before the king, Henri II. ; and he had war-minister during seven years, in the course of which he introduced the distinguished honour of preventing, by the boldness and force of many ameliorations into the army, in discipline, in expenditure, in the bis arguments, the introduction of that odious tribunal into France. personal comfort of the soldiers, and in the management of the military His speech on this occasion has been preserved. (Garnier, Continua.' hospitals. He afterwarde lived in retirement til he was arrested by tion of Velly,' vol. 27.) He resigned bis office of president in favour order of the Convention in 1790; his furniture was sold by public of his second son Pierre, two years before bis death, which happened auction; and at the age of seventy, infirm, mutilated with many in 1580; and it is remarkable that every one of bis sods, six in wounds, deprived of an arm, and afflicted with the gout, he was thrown number, filled some high legal office. Antoine, as well as Pierre, was into the prison of La Force. He was deprived of his military pensions, president à mortier, and both of them enjoyed the special confidence as well as of his titles and his orders. Fortunately he had no property of Henri IV.

to stimulate the tyrants of the revolution further, and his life was SEGUIER, PIERRE, born at Paris, May 28, 1588, was the son of spared. Bonaparte when first consul set him at liberty, treated him Jean, sixth son of the above Pierre Seguier, lieutenant-civil of Paris, with marked respect, and granted him a pension of 4000 francs. He 8 steady friend, like his brothers above noticed, of Henri IV., and a died at Paris, October 8, 1801, in his seventy-eighth year. His character valuable public officer. Pierre Seguier, like his grandfather, rose is thus summed up by his son :-"When in power, he was guilty of no through various offices to the rank of president à mortier in 1633, and injustice; when oppressed by his country, he did not cease to love it. that of chancellor in 1635. Having rendered important services to He was a good husband, a good father, a good general, a brave soldier, Anne of Austria during the ascendancy of Richelieu, at the risk of a just and wise minister, and an excellent citizen." incurring that minister's vengeance, he obtained Anne's full confidence; SEGUR, LOUIS-PHILIPPE, COMTE DE, eldest son of the and, during her regency, rose to as high power and influence as a Maréchal de Segur, was born in Paris, December 10, 1753. He chose subject could well attain. At the breaking out of the war of the the army as a profession, and at an early age was made colonel of a Fronde he escaped narrowly with his life, in a resolute attempt to pass regiment of dragoons. He was one of the three first Frenchmen of the barricades to the usual discharge of his official functions; and in high rank who offered their services to the American deputies in the the sequel of those disturbances, the seals of office were for a time cause of American independence, the other two being the Marquis de taken from him. He was replaced in 1656, and continued chancellor la Fayette and the Vicomte de Noailles, but they were formally protill bis death, January 28, 1672, maintaining through life the honour hibited by the French ministry from leaving France. La Fayette of his family as an independent, able, and enlightened magistrate. He escaped, and reached America; Noailles obtained leave to go there was also a lover and encourager of art, and a man of elegant and about two years afterwards, but Segur was not permitted to leave accomplished mind. He was one of the originators, and president, France till May, 1782. He entered the Delaware in September 1782, with the title of protector, of the Académie Française, which during narrowly escaped being taken by the English, and with much difficulty thirty years held its sittings at his hotel.

reached the camp of the French general Rochambeau, under whom he SEGUIER, ANTOINE-LOUIS, of the same family, being descended fought till the termination of the American war. He then returned from a brother of the first-named Pierre Seguier, was born at Paris, to France, which he reached in June 1783. In the latter part of 1784 December 1, 1726; and owed (1748) to the regard of Louis XV. to his he was appointed ambassador to Russia, and arrived at St. Petersburg name and family his first step in the law, naunely, the office of king's March 19, 1785; he was treated by the Empress Catharine II. with advocate in the court of the Châtelet. In 1755 he rose to be advocate- especial favour, accompanied her in the great progress which she made general in the parliament of Paris, which office he held till the disso from St. Petersburg to the Crimea in 1787, and retained her confidence lution of that body in 1790, except that he resigned it in 1771 in as long as he remained at her court. He left St. Petersburg October consequence of the exile, and returned to it in 1774, on the return of 11, 1789, on his return to Paris. the parliament. In forensic eloquence he is reputed a worthy successor In 1790 he was sent as ambassador to the court of Frederic of to D'Aguesseau and other distinguished men of his predecessors, and Prussia. Having returned to France, he was twice arrested by the he possessed considerable literary acquirements. In the revolution he revolutionists in 1793, but obtained his freedom by his prompt was offered and refused the post of mayor of Paris ; and he lived eloquence. He then retired into the country, and was obliged to have retired until the appearance of an attack entitled 'Seguier treated as recourse to his pen for the means of subsistence. In 1798 he pubhe Deserves,' on which he took the alarm and emigrated. After lished his Théâtre de l'Hermitage;' in 1800, bis Histoire des Prin. sojourning in several places he fixed his abode at Tournai, but died of cipaux Evénemens du Regne de Frédéric-Guillaume II., Roi de Prusse;' apoplexy, January 25, 1792, leaving an unsullied character for integrity, 3 vols. 8vo, Paris; and in 1801, his 'Decade Historique, ou Tableau and a high reputation as a judge, a lawyer, and a statesman. Several Politique de l'Europe depuis 1786 jusqu'à 1796,' 3 vols. 8vo, Paris. In of his professional speeches and some of his writings are extant, but in 1803 he was chosen a member of the Académie Française, and about no collected form.

the same time he was appointed grand-maître de cérémonies to SEGUIER, JEAN-FRANÇOIS, of another branch of the same family, Bonaparte. After the Restoration he became a member of the was born at Nismes, November 25, 1703, and devoted himself early to Chamber of Peers. In 1819 he published his 'Contes Moraux et the study of antiquities. Having formed a close friendship with the Politiques,' 2 vols. 12mo, Paris ; in 1821, his 'Histoire Universelle, learned Scipio Maffei, during his visit to Nismes in 1732, he acompanied Ancienne et Moderne,' 10 vols. 8vo, Paris; in 1822, his 'Pensées, him in bis travels, and resided with him till his death in 1755. Seguier Maximes, et Reflexions, 18mo, Paris; in 1823, his Galérie Morale et then returned to his native place, and applied himself to the illustration Politique,' 3 vols. 8vo, Paris. In 1824 appeared his 'Euvres Com. of its splendid Roman remains. He displayed much ingenuity in plêtes,' 30 vols. Svo, Paris, which in 1828 were reprinted and augmented deciphering, from the holes in the stones to which metal letters had to 36 vols. His ‘Mémoires, Souvenirs, et Anecdotes,' were published been attached, the inscription formerly existing on the temple called in 1826, 3 vols, 8vo, Paris, an extremely amusing and instructive work. La Maison Carrée, which he conceived to have been erected in honour His death occurred in July 1830. of Caius and Lucius, the song of Agrippa and grandsons of Augustus. PHILIPPE-Paul, COMTE DE SEGUR, his son, born November 4, 1780, Later researches have shaken this opinion. Great part of his life was was one of Bonaparte's favourite generals; he accompanied him in the occupied, in concert with Maffei, in forming a collection of all known disastrous Russian campaign, of which he has written the history, ancient inscriptions: their work' however was never published in a Histoire de Napoléon et de la Grande Armée en 1812,' 2 vols. 8vo, complete form. Seguier continued to labour on this subject to the Paris, 1825, which has passed through pumerous editions. He wrote end of his life, and left ready for the press a bulky manuscript, now the 'Histoire de Charles VIII,' from his father's papers, and also in the king's library at Paris, which has never been printed. ("Inscrip- other works. tionum Antiquarum Index absolutissimus,' &c.) He died of apoplexy, SEGUR, JOSEPH-ALEXANDRE, VICOMTE DE, the second son September 1, 1784, leaving his library and valuable museum of medals, of the Maréchal de Segur, and brother of the Comte Louis-Philippe, natural history, &c., to the academy of Nismes, on the dissolution of was born at Paris in 1756. He entered the army, and rose to the which the collection was made over to the public library of that place. grade of maréchal-de-camp, but he was more fond of pleasure than

SEGUR, HENRI-FRANÇOIS, COMTE DE, son of the Marquis de war, and attached himself chiefly to the drama. He wrote .Contes, Segur, was born in 1689, and died in 1751. His life was passed in Fables, Chansons, et Vers,' 8vo, Paris, 1801; 'Euvres Diverses,' 8vo, active service, chiefly in Spain, Italy, Bohemia, Germany, and Flanders, Paris, 1819; 'Les Femmes, leur Condition et Influence dans l'Ordre first as colonel and afterwards as lieutenant-general in the French army. Social,' 2 vols. 8vo; 4 vols. 12mo, Paris, 1820; ‘Romances et Chansons,'

SEGUR, PHILIPPE-HENRI, MARQUIS DE, son of the Comte 18mo, Paris, 1820; besides a great number of comedies, vaudevilles, Henri-François, was born January 20, 1724. He distinguished himself and operas, several of which are yet popular. He died July 27, 1805, when very young in the wars of Italy and Bohemia, especially at the at Bagnères. siege of Prague : at the battle of Rocoux a musket-ball entered his SEJA'NUS, LUʻCIUS Æ’LIUS, a native of Vulsinii, in Etruria, breast, passed through to the back, and had to be extracted by the was the son of Seius Strabo, a Roman knight. (Tacit., ' Ann.,' iv. 1.) spine; at the battle of Laufeld, in leading his regiment to a charge He first attached himself to the interests of Caius Cæsar, the grandson after it had been three times repulsed, his arm was shattered in such of Augustus, but afterwards gained the favour of Tiberius, who a manner that it was necessary to amputate it. By two successive and shortly after his accession appointed him to the command of the rapid promotions he was made marécbal-de-camp and lieutenant-general. Prætorian troops, in conjunction with his father, who had held the At Clostercamp he was pierced in the neck by a bayonet, received command under Augustus. He continued to increase in power and three sabre-wounds on the head, and was made prisoner. At the ter- influence till the whole administration of the state was eventualiy mination of the war he was appointed inspector-general of the infantry committed to him. Tiberius sent him with his son Drusus, in order In 1780 Louis XVI. called him to his councils as minister of war, and to suppress the insurrection of the legions in Pannonia (Tacit., ‘Ann.,' in 1783 raised him to the dignity of Maréchal de France. He was i. 24, &c.); and when his father, Seius Strabo, received the goveraBIOG. DIV. VOL V.

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ment of Egypt, Stjanus obtained the sole command of the Prætorian Charles soon summoped a second parliament on the speedy dissolutroops. These troops, which had previously been quartered in different tion of the first, and Selden was again returned for Bedwin. The parts of the city, be collected into one camp, and used every effort to impeachment of the Duke of Buckingham was at once determined on gain over to his interests. He also secured the support of the leading by the new parliament, and Selden was one of the members appointed members of the senate; and as his influence increased, so did his to prepare the articles, and was named a manager of the prosecution. ambition, and he resolved to secure, if possible, the imperial power. From this it appears that he had zealously joined the party in oppo. Drusus, the son of Tiberius, and the children of Germanicus, stood sition to the court, yet, though thus implicated, he escaped the fate of however in his way. He first determined to remove Drusus, against Digges and Elliot, who were employed in the same capacity, and were whom he had a personal hatred on account of a blow which he had thrown into prison accordingly. Another dissolution in 1626 stopped received from him; and in order to accomplish his purpose, he seduced the proceedings against the duke, but a forced loan which Charles was Livia, the wife of Drusus, and then holding out to her the prospect of driven to have recourse to in the assumed exercise of bis prerogative, marriage and his own accession to the Imperial power, he induced her called Selden, though not in the habit of appearing at the bar, to to consent to the murder of her busband, who was shortly afterwards defend in the Court of King's Bench Sir Edward Hampden, who had removed by poison. (Tacitu, ‘Ann.,' iv. 3, 8; Dion Cass., lvii. 22; by warrant of the council been imprisoned with four others for Suet., 'Tib.,' 52.)

refusing to pay his portion of the loan. They were brought up by Sejanus was anxious to marry the widow of. Drusus, but he was writ of Habeas Corpus, but Selden and his fellow.counsel were unsuostrongly dissuaded from it by Tiberius. He now began to fear lest cessful in their endeavours to obtain the discharge of the prisoners, Tiberius should suspect his designs, and accordingly he persuaded the who were all remanded on the judgment of Hyde. In Charles's third emperor, who was fond of ease, to retire from the city, and to leave parliament, which met in 1628, Selden was returned member for the management of public affairs in his hands. Tiberius first with Ludgersball; and on the proceedings against the Duke of Buckingdrew to Campania, and afterwards to the island of Capreæ. Sejanus, ham being renewed, he demanded that judgment should be given now released from any restraint, acted in the most arbitrary and against the duke upon the impeachment of the former parliament. oppressive manner. He procured the death of Agrippina, the widow He took an active part in the discussions which now occupied the of Germanicus, and also of her two sons Nero and Drueus, and House of Commons on the levying of tonnage and poundage, and in nothing now seemed to stand in the way of his wishes, when the the drawing up of the Petition of Rights, to which_Charles gave his suspicions of Tiberius became at length aroused, and he resolved upon consent in 1628. Court influence still protected Buckingham, and the death of bis favourite. Tiberius was obliged however to proceed the conflict between the king and his Commons might have begun with caution. At a meeting of the senate, wbich Sejanus was induced to earlier if immediately after the prorogation the duke bad not fallen by attend, he was arrested by Nervius Sertorius Marco, to whom Tiberius the hand of Felton. bad intrusted the tribunicial power, and was the same day condemned During this recese Selden devoted himself to literary pursuits. At (A.D. 31). His body was exposed to the fury of the people, and his the request of Sir Robert Colton, he transcribed the Greek inscriptions children and many of his relations and friends were also put to death. in the collection of ancient marbles which the Earl of Arundel bad (Dion Cass., lviii. 6-19; Tacit., 'Ann.,' v. 6, &c.; Suet., 'Tib.,' 65.) received from the East, and they were published by the name of

SELDEN, JOHN, was born December 16, 1584, at Salvington, Marmora Arundeliana.' Dear Worthing, in Sussex. His mother, Margaret, was the daughter Parliament re-assembled in January 1629, and Selden appeared still of a knightly family of the name of Baker, in Kent, whom her hus more to have inclined to the discontented party. During the conband, John Selden, known by the name of the Minstrel,' obtained tinuance of the late prorogation the goods of several merchants had in marriage by means of some proficiency be had in music. Their been seized by the crown to satisfy the duty, among which were those Bon began his education at the free grammar-school at Chichester, of one Rolles, a member of the House. The Speaker, on an early day and at the age of fourteen entered at Hart or Hert Hall, in Oxford, after the meeting of parliament, being desired to put the question that a foundation since merged in the present Magdalen Hall in that the seizure of these goods was a breach of privilege, declared " he University. When about nineteen he was admitted a member of durst not, for that the king bad commanded to the contrary." Selden Clifford's Inn, and in 1604 removed to the Inner Temple.

instantly rose, and in strong words expostulated with the Speaker, By nature unfit, or by accident unable, to apply himself to the whom he considered bound to obey the commands of the Commons. more active business of his profession, Selden devoted this time of The House adjourned in a state of great excitement, and on its meethis life to the study of bistory and antiquities, both civil and legal, ing again, and the Speaker still refusing, two members held him in to the acquirement of languages, and the study of logic and of moral his chair; Hobart locked the door of the House; and Elliot and philosophy, with an application which was eventually rewarded by Stroud moved the question. The Speaker again declining to obey, a the honour of being considered one of the most learned writers of his short remonstrance against the levying of tonnage and poundage was age. At twenty-two years of age he wrote his first published immediately framed ; at Selden's desire it was read by the clerk, and treatise, the 'Analecton Anglo-Britannicon,' a work which surprised passed by acclamation rather than by vote. The king, exasperated his friends, and gave him an immediate reputation. This was fol- with his faithful Commons, the following day dissolved the parlialowed by other works, and in 1614 appeared his treatise upon * Titles ment, and Selden, with eome others concerned in the late proceedings, of Honour,' a book then and ever since regarded as one of authority. which were deemed seditious, was committed to the Tower. After In 1618 he was summoned before the High Commission Court för remaining there eight months, and for some time denied the use of publishing the History of Tithes,' wherein be allows the legal but books, or allowed to write, be was brought up by Habeas Corpus to denies the divine right of the clergy to the receiving of tithes. In the King's Bench, and on refusing to give security for his good bebathe early ages of christianity, tithes were, in imitation of the Jewish viour, though his discharge was offered him on that condition, his law, a source of church revenue, and were originally paid to the confinement was continued in the King's Bench prison, though with bishop, and not for the maintenance of a resident clergy; and it was less rigour. This appears from the fact that he was appointed by the not till later, when the people began to question this right, that students of the inns of court to prepare a masque, which they were Charlemagne first gave a legal confirmation to these ecclesiastical anxious to represent before the royal family, to show their disappro. claims. By denying then the divine right, the reason for the legal bation of Prynne's Histrio-mastix. In 1634 be consented to give injunction is abandoned, and the payment of tithes becomes a mere bail, and he was suffered to go at large. tax. Selden apologised in words which did not express a recantation A petition to the king, to whom it appears that Selden was less of opinions, but regret for having disturbed the church and offended obnoxious than the others of his own party, either through admiration the court. He was considered the instigator of the renionstrance on of his learning, or from conviction that his natural love of ease and the subsequent protestation of the House of Commons, which that retirement, which Clarendon speaks of, would make him less likely to House made in 1621, wherein under Selden's advice, though not proceed to violent measures, obtained for him, through the interest of then himself a member, it asserted its right to offer advice to the Laud, his entire liberation. Soon after he appears to have approached crown, and claimed the liberty of the subject. The king, in con- the court party, and to have gained even the personal favour of Charles, sequence of whose speech at the opening of the parliament these to whom he dedicated the well-known treatise, “ Mare Clausum.' memorable declarations were made, erased them from the journals of In the great case of ship-money we find no mention of Selden; and the House with his own hand, and dissolved the parliament. Selden as his knowledge and learning would have made him a valuable counsel was committed to prison, from which, through the interest of the in Hampden's behalf, it is probable that he either declined to defend, bishop of Winchester, he was released in five weeks.

or that Hampden's party thought it not prudent to request his aid on He first appeared in the House of Commons as member for account of his recent approaches to the court party: From this time Lancaster, for which place he was returned in the parliament which his behaviour may be thought somewhat inconsistent, unless we assembled in 1623, the last parliament of James I.; and in 1625, on consider his conduct in the Long Parliament, which assembled in the accession of Charles, in the parliamentum vanum,' which 1640, and to which he was unanimously returned a member by the assembled at Oxford, he sat for Great Bedwin. In the former of University of Oxford, rather as that of a retained advocate. He sat these years he gave a strong instance of independence or self-will, for on the committees of the lower house, which undertook the proceedwhich there seems no reason, for on being chosen reader of Lyon's ings against Strafford, though he was not one of the managers before Inn, he refused to perform the office. The register of the Inner the House of Lords, and his name also was enrolled as “one of the Temple contains an order passed in consequence by tbat society, that enemies of justice," a title given to those who favoured the earl. there should be a 'ne recipiatur' entered upon his name; that he be Though the friend of Laud, by whom he was desired to write many of fined, and for ever disabled to be called to the bench. This order bis works, he was nominated by the House to frame the articles of was repealed in 1624.

impeachment against the archbishop. He made no opposition to the

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