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SELDEN, JOHN.

SELEUCIDÆ.

390 resolutions which ultimately caused the exclusion of the bishops from course untouched by the Greek and Roman philosophers, nor was the house of peers. Afterwards we find him agreeing to a protestation much to be found upon it in modern writers. His purpose is there. that the House of Commons should maintain the Protestant religion fore rather historical than argumentative; but he seems so generally according to the doctrines of the English Church, and defend the to adopt the Jewish theory of natural law, that we may consider him authority, privileges, and person of the king. He also appears to have the disciple of the Rabbis as much as their historian.” (Hallam's offered no opposition to the illegal proceedings of this parliament in the Literature of Europe,' vol. iii. p. 334.) He published also A Brief affair of Sir John Hotham; but as he did not expressly favour them, Discourse concerning the Power of Peers and Commons ; '. Privileges the court continued to regard him as their friend, until the quarrel of of the Baronage of England; an edition of the Origines ' of Euty. the king with his Commons arose about the militia, when Selden chius; De Anno Civili et Calendario Judaico,' &c. spoke against the commission of array which Charles had been driven As a learned lawyer Selden holds a high rank. His 'Dissertation to resort to on being deprived of all authority over his own army. on Fleta,' which, like most of his other works, is written in Latin, Lord Falkland, by the king's desire, wrote a friendly letter to Selden, shows him to have been thoroughly acquainted with the origin of our asking his reasons for the strong opinion which he gave in this own law, and its gradual development under the influence of the question. In his answer Selden still urged the illegality of the com- civil law. Some few errors have been detected in this valuable essay, mission, but at the same time he inveighed against the ordinance for but it is an evidence of learning and research of which there have the militia, which the parliament had declared as being "without any been few similar instances among English lawyers since his time. To shadow of law or pretence of precedent, and most destructive to the say that Selden wrote Latio with ease and sufficient correctness and government of the kingdom." He further declared his intention of elegance is no great praise, considering the age in which he lived. speaking against this ordinance, and he did his utmost to obtain the Whitelocke, his biographer, Wilkins, Baxter, and Clarendon, all bear rescinding of it, though without success.

testimony to the excellence of his character and his learning. Charles about this time becoming displeased with the wavering Clarendon, who was his intimate friend, says, “Mr. Selden was a conduct of the Lord Keeper Littleton, inclined to take from him the person whom no character can flatter or transmit in any expressions great seal, and give it either to Banks or Selden. He did not doubt equal to his merit and virtue," the affection of the latter to his person, yet knowing that he was in Wood says of him: “After he had continued there (the Temple) a years, and preferred ease to any preferment, and private studies to sedulous student for some time, he did, by the help of a strong body public business, he abandoned the idea ; indeed throughout his whole and a vast memory, not only run through the whole body of the law, life Selden was devoted to retirement and to literary pursuits, and it is but became a prodigy in most parts of learning, especially in those not easy to decide to wbich party he most inclined; it is probable which were not common or little frequented or regarded by the that he was respected by the king, who knew bis honesty. His last generality of students of his time. So that in few years his name public acts of any importance were the discussions in which he took was wonderfully advanced not only at home but in foreign countries, part in the Assembly of Divides at Westminster, to which he was and was usually styled the great dictator of learnivg of the English appointed one of the lay members, and where he is said to have nation, He was a great philologist, antiquary, herald, linguist, perplexed his ecclesiastical antagonists by the depth of his learning statesman, and what not.” (Wood's 'Athenæ.') and the variety of his knowledge. In 1643 he took the Covenant, and There was an apparent indecision and variableness in Selden's public in the same year the parliament made him chief keeper of the rolls conduct, which makes it difficult to determine what bis political and records in the Tower. In 1645 he was one of the twelve como principles really were. The most favourable and perhaps the most moners appointed to be commissioners of the Admiralty; and he was correct judgment is, that he was sincerely opposed to the arbitrary chosen to succeed Dr. Eden as master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, an measures of the crown, and equally unwilling to go all lengths with honour which he declined. In the following year the parliament, the parliaments. sensible of his services, voted him the sum of 5000l. “Though some Selden was very intimate with Ben Jonson, who addressed a there are that say that he refused and could not out of conscience poetical epistle to him, in which he styles his friend “monarch in take it, and add that his mind was as great as his learning, full of letters." Selden's name has been made familiar to many persons by a generosity and harbouring nothing that seemed base" (Wood's small volume entitled Table-Talk,' which has been many times reAthena'); and though these latter acts are proof of his adherence to printed. This valuable little collection of acute and learned remarks the popular party, yet he continued to be much esteemed by many of was first publisbed in 1689, thirty-five years after Selden's death, in a the royalists, and Charles, even if he had the will, was by this time quarto pamphlet of sixty pages, with the title of Table-Talk; being deprived of the power to retaliate. Selden had great influence in the the Discourses of John Selden, Esq., or his sense of various matters House of Commons, and he frequently used it for the best purposes. of weight and high consequence, relating especially to Religion and He procured the restitution of the endowment of the Arabic pro- State. In the dedication, his amanuensis, Richard Milward, by whom fessorship in Oxford, which had been seized on the attainder of Laud, it had been compiled, states that he had had the opportunity of hearby whom it was founded ; and he succeeded in preserving the library ing Selden's discourse for twenty years together, and that of what is of Archbishop Usher from dispersion. He remained in parliament bere collected “the sense and notion is wholly his, and most of the after the execution of the king, though it does not appear what his words." Selden's Table-Talk' contains many just remarks on matters conduct or opinions were in that transaction. He withdrew from moral and political, expressed in a forcible manner; but though they public affairs as much as possible, and declined to write an answer to are not wanting in originality, they can hardly be said to be marked the 'Eikon Basilike,' at the request of Cromwell. Selden died by depth, and many of them are rather characteristic of a man of the November, 30, 1654, at the Carmelite or White Friars, the house of world than of a retired student. Elizabeth, countess dowager of Kent, whose estates he had latterly SELEUCIDÆ, a Greek dynasty in Asia, founded, after the death of managed. He had lived with the countess for some time, and it was Alexander the Great, by SELEUCUS, the son of Antiochus. His father reported that he had been married to her. He was buried in the was one of the generals of Philip, and he himself accompanied Temple Church, where a monument was erected to him. He be- Alexander in his Asiatic campaigns, in which he so distinguished queathed bis very valuable collection of books to his executors, of himself as to be ranked among his greatest generals. On the division whom one was Sir Matthew Hale, to be placed in some convenient of the empire at the death of that prince, Seleucus was intrust-d with library or college. His original intention was to give it to the Uni. the important command of the body of cavalry called the Companions, versity of Oxford, but having taken offence at the authorities of the which had been before held by Hephæstion and Perdiccas ; and he Bodleian, for requesting a bond of restitution from him on an occa- was also, according to Justin, made commander of the camp. The sion of his desiring to borrow one of their MSS., he struck the satrapy of Babylon was bestowed upon him in the new partition, bequest from bis will. Hale and his co-executors however, considering after the death of Perdiccas (B.O. 321). In the war which followed, themselves executors of his will, and not of his passion," sent the he took the part of Antigonus against Eumenes. After the death of books, about 8000 volumes, to Oxford, where a noble room was the latter (B.C. 315), he received Antigonus into his territory with allotted for their reception. It is said the executors first offered them great appearance of friendship; but taking offence at the tone of to the society of the Inner Temple, but the society, neglecting to superiority which his guest assumed, and dreading his power, he provide a proper place for them, lost the valuable gift.

fled to Egypt, and joined Ptolemy Soter, Lysimachus, and Cassander Selden was a diligent student, and his literary labours only ended in a league against him. with bis life. In the treatise entitled 'Mare Clausum, published The defeat of Demetrius at the battle of Gaza enabled Seleucus to in 1635, he maintains the right of England to exclude the fishermen recover Babylon with a very small force. From this period, B.C. 312, of Holland from the seas, which she asserted to be her own, in commences the era of the Seleucidæ. Shortly afterwards hé answer to the treatise of Grotius, entitled 'Mare Liberum,' which obtained possession of Media, in consequence of his victory over denied the right. The controversy arose from a dispute between the Nicanor, the satrap appointed by Antigonus over this province, whom British and the Dutch concerning the herring fishery on the British he is said to have killed with his own hand. After the sea-fight, coast. Selden maintained that a dominion over any part of the sea B.C. 306, in which Demetrius defeated Ptolemy, Seleucus, following may be acquired. This work greatly raised his reputation at Court, the example of the three other great monarchs, assumed the diadem where his arguments were considered conclusive. In 1640 appeared and the title of king. Extending his dominions partly by force and his great work, 'De Jure Naturali et Gentium, juxta Disciplinam partly by conciliation, he conquered Bactria, and probably most of Ebræorum.' "The object of the author," says Hallam, "was to trace the provinces enumerated by Appian (“Syriaca,' 55), which Diodorus the opinions of the Jews on the law of nature and nations, or of moral calls the Upper Satrapies; and is said, in consequence of these obligation, as distinct from the Mosaic law; the former being a law to victories, to have assumed the title of Nicator. Making an expediwhich they held all mankind to be bound. This theme had been of tion against Sandrocottus, an Indian king, he was induced to form an

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alliance with him, strengthened by which he returned with a large 22. Antiochus Asiaticus, expelled by Pompoy, B.C. 65. End of the army to the war with Antigonus, which was finally concluded by the dynasty of the Seleucidæ. battle of Ipsus, B.C. 301. In the division of territory which followed, With few exceptions, the kings of this race were weak and depraved, Seleucus obtained for his share Syria and the inland part of Phrygia, enfeebled by the vices of their age and country, or not less by the and he made further accessions till he acquired Cappadocia, Seleucis, decaying state of their empire. The decline of this monarchy, comand, according to Appian (“Syriaca'), all the provinces conquered by mencing from the latter years of the reign of its first founder, was Alexander between Phrygia and the Indus. Having now leisure to accelerated by the maritime and commercial superiority of Egypt promote civilisation, he planted many cities, the most celebrated of owing to the possession of Cyprus, Cilicia, and Tyre, by the formation which were Antioch in Syria and Seleuceia near Babylon : in peopling of the independent kingdoms of Bactria and Parthia, and the growth these he gave great privileges to the Jews. In consequence of the of the power of the kings of Pergamus. After the defeat of Antiochus close alliance between Ptolemy and Lysimachus, Seleucus took in Magnus by the Romans, the Seleucidæ could only maintain a hopeless marriage Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes; but struggle with hostile neighbours and disaffected subjects. How far wishing bim to give up Cilicia and Sidon, and finding him unwilling the destipies of the eastern world might bave been changed had to accede to his demands, he soon engaged in a war with him, wbich Seleucus made the Eupbrates the boundary of his empire, and aban. was terminated in the defeat of Demetrius, who was taken prisoner, doned his western conquests, is a question not undeserving consideraB.C. 286, and died after three years' captivity. Before this marriage, tiop. Seleucus, by a former wife, Apama, the daughter of Artabazus, had The coins of this dynasty are very numerous. Those of Seleucus had a son Antiochus, who conceived a strong passion for his mother Nicator are distinguished from the rest by their exact resemblance in in-law Stratonice, to gratify which Seleucus resigned her, making over type, style, and weight to those of Alexander the Great. The young to him at the same time the majority of the seventy-two satrapies head of Hercules in the lion's skin, Jupiter Ætophorus seated, the comprised in bis great empire and reserving for himself those only to head of Pallas on the obverse, and of Victory holding out a wreath the west of the Euphrates. At the close of his reigo, he made war on the reverse, are copied, with the pame of Seleucus instead of Alexupon Lysimachus, and, upon his defeat and death, conceived the ander. There are others with a horned head of Seleucus, said to design of conquering Macedonia Passing over to Europe for this refer to his extraordinary effort of strength in holding a bull by the purpose, he was treacherously killed by Ptolemy Ceraunus, whom he horns; and we are told by Appian (“Syriaca') that his statues in conhad received with great kindness on bis flight from Egypt. This was sequence were represented horned. We also find the anchor as a type, B.C. 280, in bis eighty-second year. The character of Seleucus is much which probably refers to a prodigy at his birth, recorded by the same praised by ancient historians. His military talents are generally author, and prophetic of his future destiny. admitted, and he was not deficient in the virtues of civilisation. Å On the coins of the later Seleucidæ we have as a very general type liberal spirit is shown in bis treatment of Demetrius after he fell into Apollo, either standing or seated on the cortina, holding in one hand his bands, and in other anecdotes recorded of him. The prudence of an arrow, in the other å bow strung. Other types are winged heads, the later measures of his reign, the division his empire and bis probably relating to Perseus, the great ancestor of the Macedonians; expedition into Macedonia, may be doubted. He was possessed of the elephant, and the prow of a vessel, in reference to the naval and great personal strength and courage.

military forces of the empire. All the kings bearing the pame of The following list contains the successors of Seleucus, with the Seleucus struck coins, with the exception of the fifth ; and we may dates of their accessions, and a short notice of those who bore bis remark the long and pompous title of the last of these monarchs

ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, as contrasted with the falling 2. Antiochus Soter.

fortunes of the dynasty, and with the simple inscription on the coins 3. Antiochus Theus, B.C. 261.

of the founder, BAZIAENE EAETKOY. The scattered bistory of the 4. Seleucus Callipicus succeeded his father Antiochus Theus, B.C. 246. Seleucidæ has been collected from Justin, Appian, Diodorus, Polybius, The empire was at this time much weakened by the defection of and others, by the authors of the Universal History; Vaillant, Bactria and Parthia, and the wars of the Antiochi with Ptolemy Historia Seleucidarum ;' Fröhlich, ‘Annales Regum Syriæ ;' Clinton, Philadelphus. Immediately on the accession of Seleucus, his mother, Fasti Hellenici,' ii. ; and Droysen, Geschichte der Nachfolger jealous of any rival candidates for the throne, contrived the death of Alexanders.' Berenice, the Egyptian wife of the late king, and of her son. To avenge his sister's death, Ptolemy Euergetes invaded the dominions of Seleucus, and, passing the Eupbrates, overran them as far as Bactria. Seleucus, being hard pressed in this war, called in the aid of his brother Antiochus Hierax, promising hiin all the provinces of his empire in the lesser Asia. Strengthened by an alliance with some of the cities in Asia Minor (his treaty with Smyrna is still preserved among the Arundelian Marbles), he attempted to conclude a peace with Ptolemy, but which was broken off by his ambitious brother Hierax, wbo, supported by the King of Egypt and some of the Gaulish mercenaries, maintained himself for a long time against Seleucus, and being at length defeated, fled to Ptolemy, and perished in Egypt.

British Museum. silver. 5. In the latter part of his reign, Seleucus seems to have made two

Head of Seleucus II., with the diadem. Apollo standing leaning on a tripod ; expeditions against Parthia, in the latter of which he was taken

in his right hand an arrow; the inscription BAZIAENE EAETKOT, and

monogram, prieover by Arsaces, and it does not appear that he was ever released from his captivity. He died of a fall from his horse, and was succeeded by his son Seleucus Ceraudus, B.C. 226, a weak prince, who was cut off by a conspiracy in his own army while on his march to attack Attalus, king of Pergamus, who had seized the greater part of Asia Minor, B.c. 223.

6. Antiochus Magnus, brother to the late king.

7. Seleucus Philopator, B.o. 187, son of Antiochus, succeeded to an impoverished kingdom, and, reigning feebly for twelve years, was murdered by Heliodorus.

8. Autiochus Epiphanes, his brother, B.c. 175. 9. Antiochus Eupator, B.c. 164. 10. Demetrius Soter, B.C. 162.

British Museum. Silver. 11. Alexander Bala, a usurper, B.o. 150. 12. Demetrius Nicator, B.C. 146.

Head of Seleucus IV., with the diadem, and the inscription BAZIAENE

ZEAETKOT : Apollo seated naked on the cortina, in his right hand an arrow, 13. Antiochus Sidetes, B.C. 137 to 128.

in the left a bow strung; below, the monogram. 14. Seleucus, son of Demetrius Nicator, put to death by his own mother immediately on bis accession.

SELEUCUS. (SELEUCIDÆ.] 15. Antiochus Grypus, B.o. 125.

SELIM I., Emperor of the Turke, was the son of Bayezid or 16. Antiochus Cyzicenus, B.C. 112 to 95; after the first eighteen Bayacet II. He was born under the reign of his grandfather Moham. months of his reign, jointly with Grypus, till the death of the latter, med II., in 1467. Being governor of Trebizond in 1511, he revolted B.O. 96.

against his father, and marched to Constantinople. Though he was 17. Seleucus VI., and last of the name, surnamed Epiphanes defeated, and obliged to seek safety in flight, the Janissaries and the Nicator, the son of Antiochus Grypus, driven by Antiochus Eusebes spábis being in his favour, his father Bajazet was compelled to resign into Cilicia, was there besieged in Mopsuestia, and killed, B.C. 95. the throne to him, and he was accordingly proclaimed on the 23rd of 18. Antiochus Eusebes.

May 1512. Selim was then about forty-six years of age. His first 19. Philippus.

step after his accession was to march against bis eldest brother Ahmed, 20. Antiochus.

who was at the head of some troops in Asia. He defeated and put 21. Tigranes, king of Armenia till B.C. 69.

him to death, as well as another brother named Korkúd, and several

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of his nephews. Selim next invaded the dominions of Shah Ismaïl, England and Russia was excited by the increasing influence of the king of Persia, who had espoused the cause of his brother Ahmed; he French ambassador, Count Sebastiani; and Selim, as well as the defeated him in a pitcbed battle, and took Tabriz, the capital of Persia Emperor Alexander, having both violated the treaty of Kuchuk (September 1514). After annexing Diyar.bekr to his empire, and Kaïnarji by arbitrarily interfering in the domestic affairs of Moldavia recovering Bosnia, which had been occupied by the Hungarians, Selim, and Wallachia, a war broke out between Turkey and Russia, assisted in 1517, turned his arms against Kansú-al-Ghauri, sultan of Egypt, by England (December 1806). Admiral Duckworth forced the whom he defeated and slew at Merj.Dabik, close to Aleppo (August 24, passage of the Dardanelles, and threatened to bombard Constanti. 1516). Taking the route of Hamah, Hemts (the ancient Emesa), and nople. Sultan Selim displayed the greatest activity in preparing for Damascus, wbich cities made no resistance, and submitted to him, resistance, and Admiral Duckworth, fearing that his retreat would be Selim marched his army into Egypt. Close to Cairo he was opposed cut off, sailed back to the Mediterranean. Constantinople was saved by Tumín Bey, whom the Mamlúks had chosen for commander after but the Russians made continual progress on the Danube. The defeats the death of Kansú; but in the battle that ensued that prince was of the army were considered by the people as a consequence of the defeated and slain, and the dynasty to which he belonged completely • Nizam Jedid;' they manifested their dissatisfaction, and the overthrown. Master of Syria and Egypt, Selim returned to Constan: Janissaries, who saw their ruin in the new organisation, broke out in tinople, where he made a vow not to lay down bis arms until he had rebellion. To the number of 15,000 men, they occupied Pera, and subdued the whole of Persia. Death however prevented the execution directed their ordnance against the Seraglio. The Mufti joined their of bis project. As he was journeying from Constantinople to Adrian- party, and by a fetwa declared “that Sultan Selim III. had forfeited ople, he was attacked by a disease which terminated in his death at the throne because he had procreated no heir, and introduced the Ogrash-Koi, a village of Thrace, on the 22nd of September 1520. Nizam Jedid and several other innovations." He was deposed May 29, Selim was one of the most able and vigorous of the Othoman sove- 1807, and Mustapha IV., son of Abdu-l-Hamid, was elected in his reigns. He made greater additions than any of his predecessors to place. Selim was put in confinement, and strangled by order of the Turkish empire. His eminent qualities were bowever stained Mustapha, July 28, 1808. Mustapha was depo sed, and was succeeded by his excessive cruelty, of which he gave remarkable instances by Mahmud II. (MAHMUD II. ; MUSTAPHA IV.] during bis reign. He was succeeded by his son Suleyman, surnamed SELJUKIDES, or SELJUCIANS, a dynasty originally Tartar, and the Great.'

descended from a captain named Seljuk; they settled first in Trans. SELIM II., Emperor of the Turks, succeeded his father Suleyman oxiana, whence they made their way into Khorassan; and afterwards in 1566. The principal events of his reign were the suppression of a under the name of the Iranian, Kermanian, and Rumi dynasties, formidable rebellion in Yemen (1568-70), the taking of Tunis and La governed great part of the south of Asia. Goleta from the Spaniards, and the conquest of Cyprus, wbich after a The oriental account of the origin of this family, as far as can be vigorous resistance was taken from the Venetians in 1571. Io the gathered from somewbat conflicting statements, is as follows :—Seljuk same year was fought the celebrated naval battle of Lepanto, by which was the son of Dekak, one of the bravest and most trusted officers of the Turkish navy was almost annihilated. Notwithstanding this Bigú, chief or khan of the Kipchak Tartars, who inhabited the plain splendid success, the Venetians, in 1574, were obliged to make peace north of the Caspian. This prince, expecting from Seljuk the valour with the Turks upon very disadvantageous terms. During the and fidelity of his father, brought him up from his boyhood, and remainder of Selim's reign, the affairs of the Othoman empire were found all his expectations fulfilled in him; but the growing influence very prosperous. Selim died on September 12, 1574, and was succeeded of the favourite, and some insolence towards his master, provoked the by his eldest son Murád.

latter to banish him from his territories; and Seljuk in consequence SELIM III., son of Sultan Mustapha III., was born December 24, settled in the neighbourhood of Samarkhand and Bokhara, where he 1761. Mustapha III. was succeeded by his only brother Abdu-l. laid the foundation of a small state. He also embraced MohamHamid, and Selim was sbut up in the seraglio among the women and medanism, and is said to have been killed at the age of 107, in a eunuchs. Abdu-l-Hamid died April 7, 1789, and Selim then became skirmish with the pagan Tartars on the frontiers of the Mohammedan sultan. Selim was one of the most enlightened men of his nation and empire. Seljuk left three, or according to others, four sons; but the of the East. Before his accession, while confined to the seraglio, he most influential members of his family were his two grandsons, studied Turkish and European history, and conceived the plan of Mohammed or Togrul Beg, and Daoud or Giafar Beg, who sent their becoming the regenerator of Turkey. He had a regular correspondence uncle Israel to make terms of alliance with Mahmoud of Ghizni, the with distinguished Turkish statesmen, with Count de Choiseul, the then ruler of Khorassan. Mabmoud is said to have questioned Israel French ambassador, and it is said that he exchanged letters with the on the resources of his family, and to have received for answer, in king himself, Louis XVI. of France.

the quaint style of the East, that if Israel were to send to his camp He resolved to put himself at the head of his armies, but he was one of two arrows which he carried in his band, fifty thousand horsedissuaded from it by the diwan, who were afraid of troubles in Con. men would be despatched to his orders; on sending the other arrow, stantinople. The war meanwhile was carried on with great loss. fifty thousand more; and that if he despatched the bow, it would The Turks were beaten at Martinestie by the uvited Austrians and be answered by sending to him two hundred thousand horsemen ; io. Russians ; the Austrians took Belgrade; the Russians, Bender and formation which so startled Mahmoud that he confined the ambasIsma'll; and Turkey would have been overrun, but for the interven- sador till his death in one of the castles of Khoras-an. Oriental bistion of England, Prussia, and Sweden. Thus peace was concluded toriaus differ to the passage of the Seljuk family into in A.H. 1205 (A.D. 1791) at Szistowa with the Emperor Leopold II., Khorassan, some of them placing this event under the reign of the successor of Joseph II., who restored bis conquests to Turkey ; Mahmoud, and others under that of his son Massoud. It appears and with Russia in A.A. 1206 (A.D. 1792) at Jassy. By the peace of certain however that Abu Taleb Mohammed Rocneddin (the pillar of Jassy the Porte consented to the incorporation of the Crimea with the true religion), named also Togrul Beg, or, as the Greeks have Russia, and the Dniester became the frontier between the two empires. corrupted it, Tangralopex, was crowned at Nisbapour, A.H. 429 Sultan Selim now began his work of reformation, but during a long (A.D. 1038), being the first of the Iranian dynasty of the Seljukides. period bis efforts were checked by troubles in Syria and Egypt : by The conquest of Nishapour was followed by that of Herat and Meru, the rebellion of Paswán Oghlu, pasha of Widdin; and by the increasing and shortly after of pearly the whole of Khorassan. The whole of power of Ali Pasha of Janina. (ALI PASHA.] The conquest of his reign of twenty-six years was occupied in wars with the sultans of Egypt by Bonaparte led to a war with France. The grand-vizir, the Gaznevide dynasty, and in successive conquests of the provinces Yusuf Pasba, was routed in the battle of Abukir, and his army was of Persia ; and on his death, and that of his brother Jafar Beg, the completely destroyed by the French, but Egypt was taken by the whole conquests of the two devolved upon the son of the latter, Alp English, who restored it to the Porte in A.H. 1218 (A.D. 1803). Pre- Arslan, who during the life of his father and uncle had distinguished viously to this, Selim bad concluded an alliance with Russia, Naples, bimself for his bravery and generalship. and England, in consequence of which a united Turkish and Russian Alp Arslan, signifying the courageous lion,' is the Turkish surname fleet took possession of the Ionian Islands, which, conformably to a of this prince, whose original surname was Israel, and who received, treaty concluded between Selim and the Emperor Paul, were con- on his embracing Mohammedanism, the name of Azzoddin, or 'strength stituted into a republic, A.H. 1215 (A.D. 1800). Selim acquired the of religion,' from the kalif Kaim Bimrillah. The beginning of his protectorship of this new republic on condition of consenting to the reiga was chiefly occupied in the suppression of revolts which were incorporation of the kingdom of Georgia with Russia. Peace with raised in various parts of the empire; and many singular stories are France was concluded in A.H. 1217 (A.D. 1802), no change taking place, told of the uniform and almost miraculous good fortune which except that France acquired the free navigation on the Black Sea, a attended him. In A.D. 1070 he signally defeated the Greeks at privilege which was soon afterwards granted to England and to several Akblat, a city near Lake Vap; and in 1071 again encountered a other European powers. Having thus secured bis political position, larger army of this nation, commanded by the emperor Romanus Selim at last began his reforms. His administrative division of the Diogenes in person, completely routed his army, and took the empire has been mentioned above. In order to regenerate his army, emperor himself prisoner. The generosity with which Alp Arslan the discipline of which was entirely slackened, be appointed a como restored to liberty his illustrious captive, is a frequent theme of mission, from which the troops received a new organisation, the praise with the oriental writers, who are fond of adducing this con“Nizam Jedid,' by which they were put on a footing similar to that queror as an example of bravery, generosity, and the instability of of European armies. He also introduced several changes into the greatness. Alp Arslan, after many important conquests in Georgia, system of taxation : be gave a pew organisation to the diwan; but in set out on his long-projected expedition for the conquest of Turkestan, order to fill the treasury he debased the money. These reforms were and in this he ended his life. Incensed at the obstinate defence of á the pretext for many rebellions. In the meantime the jealousy of fortress wbich he had taken, he bitterly reproached the governor of

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it, and ordered bim to be cruelly put to death. The captive, taking that of the Atabegs of Irak. With the death of Massoud, in 1152, a concealed knife from his boot, rushed upon the sultan; the latter, ended the domination of the Seljuks in Irak. Of bis successors, confiding in bis own strength and unerring archery, bade bis guards Malek Shah II., who is variously represented as the grandson or leave to him the punishment of the rebel; the arrow of the unrivalled great-grandson of Malek Shah I., bowman for this once missed its aim, and Alp Arslan received a Mohalomed II., brother of Malek Shah, and mortal wound. He died a few hours after, in the tenth year of his Suleyman Shah, son of Mohammed I., and reigu (A.D. 1073), confessing with his dying breath the presumption Malek Arslan, his nephew, little is recorded but their mutual which had been the cause of his fate.

dissensions and alternate depositions one of the other. The last. Malek Shah, surnamed Moezzeddin Abulfatah, son of Alp Arslan, named of these died in 1175, and was succeeded by succeeded his father in 1073, and in the beginning of his r«ign defeated Togrul II., the last sultan of this dynasty, reigned eighteen years, his two uncles, who had rebelled against him; one of these he after perpetually insulted and harassed by the Atabegs of Baghdad, and wards poisoned in prison, as he found that his own troops were growing was at last slain in a contest with thein in 1193. mutinous in the idea of making the captive their leader. In 1075 Aftis, The Seljuks of Kerman, or Karamania, beginning their empire with one of the generals of Malek Shah, took Damascus, and subdued the this province, extended it afterwards to Fars, Mekran, part of

Segestan greater part of Syria, but was unsuccessful in an attempt to possess and Zabulistan, and perhaps part of India. The first of this line was himself of Egypt. Malek Sbah himself reduced Mawarapnabr (the Kaderd, nephew of Togrul Beg, who appointed bim governor of country beyond the Jibun) in 1078, and two years afterwards made Kerman, in 1041. He was poisoned in 1072, by his nephew Malek preparations to invade the dominions of Ibrahim, the ninth Gaznevide Shah I., who had taken bim prisoner in an attempt to invade his sultan. This intention however he was prevailed upon to relinquish, dominions. He left bis dominions to his son, and he received in marriage the daughter of Ibrahim. In 1090 the Soltan Shah, who was permitted by the conqueror of his father to successes of the Bataniws, or Assassins, made Malek Shah send them assume the government of them. He died in 1074, or, according to an embassy, requiring i bedience in a somewhat threatening tone; but other authorities, in 1084. The remaining princes of this dynasty the singular proof which the ambassador received of the devotion that these men bore their master (three of them having slain themselves Turan Sbab, died in 1095. successively at his command), induced the sultan to suspend his pro- Iran Shab, his son, slain by his subjects for bis cruelty in 1100. ceedings against them. Shortly after, the vizir Nizam-al-Mulk, who Arslan Shah, nephew of the last mentioned, reigned in peace 42 had been disgraced a little time before, was murdered by an emissary years, leaving his crown in 1141 to his son of this fraternity. Malek Shah died at Baghdad in 1092, leaving Mohammed, who died in 1156. behind him the reputation of being the greatest of the Seljukian Togrol Shah, son of Mohammed, died in 1167, leaving three sons, princes.

Arslan Shah, Barkiarok, the elder son of Malek Shab, was the virtual successor of Babaram Shah, and his father, though the latter had left his kingdom to his younger son Turan Shah, who reigned alternately as each could wrest the kingMahmud, then only six years old, under the guardianship of his widow dom from the others, until Turan Shah left the kingdom to Turkban Khatan. The queen-regent fixed herself in Ispahan, where Mohammed Shah, from whom it was taken by Malek Dinar, who she was besieged by Barkiarok; but fearing a revolt of the citizens, conquered Kerman in 1187, thus terminating this dynasty. she consented to divide the government with her stepson, taking for The Seljuks of Rum (a name somewhat loosely applied to the domiMahmud the province of Ispaban and its dependencies, wbile she left vions of the Greek emperors in Asia, but here including Asia Minor to Barkiarok the rest of his father's dominions. The death of the and part of the rest of what is now Turkey in Asia) take their origin infant prince shortly after however devolved the separated province from Kotolmish, nephew and general of Togrul Beg, who being sent again upon Barkiarok. His next opponent was his uncle Tajaddowlet by his uncle against the Greeks, and failing in his enterprise, rebelled Tatash, governor of all Syria, who was defeated and slain in 1095; from fear of his sovereign's displeasure. After long hostilities, which and this revolt was followed three years after by that of Mohammed, outlasted the life of Togrul Beg, his successor Alp Arslan concluded younger brother of Barkiarok, who, by the mutiny of the troops of a treaty with Kotolmish, in which it was agreed that the latter and his the latter, gained possession of Irak without striking a blow. From heirs should hold all the territory he could take from the Greeks, and this date till 1104 the brothers were engaged in perpetual skirmishes, that the sultan should furnish him with assistance for that purpuse. wbich were ended by a treaty in the year last mentioned, giving to In consequence of this arrangement, Kotolmish and his sons gained Mohammed Syria, Mesopotamia, Mousul, Azerbijan, Armeria, and possession of Persarmenia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia; these Georgia, and jeaving Barkiarok in possession of the rest. He died conquests were left to however in the year when this treaty was concluded, appointing as bis Suleyman, one of the five sons of Kotolmish, who is considered to successor his son Malek Shah. During this reign the Crusaders entered have begun his reign as the first Seljuk sultan of Rum in 1087. Syria.

There is however, some discrepancy between Oriental and Greek Mohammed, the brother of the late king, was too powerful to permit historians as to the source of Suleyman's power, the latter deriving the succession of an infant prince; and on the death of his brother it from an independent grant made to him by Alp Arslan, and not he marched to Baghdad, where he was invested with the sovereignty. from his father Kotolmish. Suleyman took Nice and Antioch, but He conquered part of India, and refused an immense ransom for an idol, was slain in 1085, under the walls of Aleppo, by the governor of which he ordered to be placed as the threshold of a magnificent college Damascus, Tajoddowlat, having been engaged during the greater part built at Ispahan, that the feet of the faithful might perpetually trample of his reign in assisting one competitor for the Greek throue against on it. He died in 1117, appointing bis son Mahmud Abulcassem his another, and in taking advantage of their quarrels for his own

aggrandisement. After an interregaum of nine years, he was sucSanjar however, brother of the late king, who had held the govern ceeded by his son ment of Khorassan under him and his predecessor during twenty Kilij Arslan, of whom little is recorded by the Oriental historians, years, took advantage of his power to claim the succession, leaving and who is mentioned by the Greeks only in connection with their to Mahmud the province of Irak. In 1127 died Kothboddin, the own history. He repaired Nice, and fixed his government there, Kbarezm Sbah, or king of Karazm. This dominion, originally but was driven from it by the Greeks and Norman crusaders. After a dependent upon the office of chief cupbearer, to which the revenues reign troubled by perpetual assaults of the two powers just mentioned, of Kharezm were annexed, had grown into a virtual sovereignty, and he was drowned in an action against the general of Mohammed, though Kothboddin and his son Atsiz had actually performed alter sultan of Irak, after taking possession of Mosul at the invitation of Dately the office by wbich they held their land, the latter barassed the the inhabitants. The Greek writers introduce after him a sultan not sultan Sanjar with perpetual hostilities, and is generally considered as mentioned by the Oriental historians, whom they call the first actual sovereign of a dynasty which eventually overturned Saysan, who, they say, after suffering several defeats from the that of the Iranian Seljuks. In 1153, Sanjar, after gaining a signal Greeks, made with them a treaty greatly to the advantage of the victory over the Sultan of Gaur, was taken prisoner by the Turkmans, latter, but was treacherously blinded and afterwards murdered, in whom be had attempted to chastise for non-payment of their tribute, 1116, by and detained by them for four years. He escaped by a stratagem, but Masoud, his brother, who reigned till 1152, when he was succeeded died the year after his restoration to liberty, of grief, it is said, at the by his son ravages committed by the Turkmans during his captivity. He died in Kilij Arslan II., an active and prudent prince, who dispossessed his 1157, after a reign of forty years. He was succeeded by Mahmud, the two brothers of their share of the kingdom left by his father, availed son of his sister, who governed for five years in Khorassan, after which himself of the friendship or folly of the emperor Manuel to procure he was defeated and deprived of his sight by a rebel, who shared with supplies of money for raising soldiers, and in a contest with Manuel, origithe sultan of Kharezm the province of Khorassan, and thus put an nating in the building of two forts by the latter, he defeated the Emperor end to the Seljukian dominion there. Between Sanjar however and in a sanguinary battle, and obtained as an article of peace the destrucMahmud, the eastern historians count three Seljukian sultang- tion of the forts. This treaty, being only partially fulfilled on the

Mahmud Abulcassem, already mentioned as sultan of Irak, and his emperor's side, gave occasion to fresh hostilities, in the course of which two successors in that dignity,

Manuel died, and which ended in the aggrandisement of Kilij Arslan. Togrul and

In his old age, having divided his kingdom among his sons, he was Massoud. The reign of these sultaps, the last of whom died before treated by them with great unkindness; and Koth boddin, to whom the close of Sanjar's reign, are chiefly remarkable for their dissensions Iconium had fallen, with the possession of which the succession to with the kalifs of Baghdad, and for the establishment of a new dynasty, the empire was usually connected, imprisoned his father. The latter

successor.

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however contrived to make his escape, and was reinstated in his assistance of some cats that had been left ashore by the ships; of kingdom by his son Kai Khosrou. In consequence of this, Kai these and a few kids he made pets, and used to divert himself by Khosrou was invested with the government of Iconium, which had teaching them a thousand tricks." He had one narrow escape, having been taken by him from his brother; and he succeeded his father in fallen over a precipice while in the act of catching a goat:

on recoverthe kingdom. At the death of the latter, in 1192,

ing his senses, he found the animal dead under him. Thirty years Kai Khosrou, surnamed Gaiathoddin, obtained several successes in after, the first goat shot by Anson's crew was found to be marked as the beginning of his reign against the emperor Alexis ; but in 1198 above described. After his knife was worn out, he managed to forge he was dispossessed by his brother

others from old iron hoops. He had some difficulty in returning to Rokneddin, who, taking advantage of the death of his brother Koth. the use of speech, and in reconciling himself to the ship's provisions boddin, seized not only upon his dominions, but also on those of his and to spirits. Rogers made him his mate, and he returned to England other brothers. He died in 1203, leaving his son

in 1711. It is said that he gave his papers to Defoe, who stole from Kilij Arslan III., a minor, from whom however the throne was them the story of 'Robinson Crusoe ;' but the above extract, which wrested almost immediately on his accession by his uncle, the on that account we have given at full length, shows that whatever deposed sultan Kai Khosrou, who thus recovered his lost dignity: communications may have passed between Defoe and Selkirk, the He reigned after this, says the Oriental history, with great power and former can have borrowed little beyond the mere idea of a man being dignity ; be was afterwards concerned in the disputes of the pretenders left alone on a desert isle, there being scarcely anything common to to the Greek empire, and in one of these he perished in a personal the adventures of the real and the fictitious solitary. (Voyage of encounter with Lascaris, one of the competitors. He left two sons, Capt. Rogers, in Collect. of Voyages, 12mo, Lond., 1756 ; Chalmers,

Azzoddin Kai Kaus, who died after a reign of a year, in 1219, and Biog.)

Alaoddin Kaikobad, who succeeded his brother. He is the Aladdin *SELLON, PRISCILLA LYDIA, a daughter of Captain W. E. of the writers on the Crusades; and was one of the greatest princes Sellon, R.N., was born about the year 1820. She was led by the of this dynasty. He extended the dominions of his family in the public appeals of the Bishop of Exeter to devote herself, in coEast, and governed with extraordinary prudence and firmness. He operation with the clergy of Devonport, to the visiting of the sick and died in 1236. His son

poor of that place and of Plymouth, and especially in the endeavour Gaiathoddin Kai Khosrou II. was a voluptuous and uxorious prince, to seek out and bring under educational induence the wretched and during whose reign the dominions of his house became tributary to neglected children of those towns. Her name however first attracted the Mogols. He died in 1244. His son

public attention in 1849, when, in conjunction with the Rev. Dr. Pusey Azzoddin succeeded him, and being required by Oktay, the khan of of Oxford (PUSEY, E. B.), she commenced the experiment of estabthe Mogols, to come to do bim homage, be sent his brother Roknoddin lisbing an order of religious ladies at Devonport as a Protestant sister in his stead. The result of this was, that when a Tartar lieutenant hood, ip imitation or emulation of the religious orders of the Roman or viceroy was sent into Rum, it was with the commission to put Rok. Catholic Church. Their chief duties were to purse the sick, and to noddin in the place of his brother. A division was afterwards effected, carry on schools for the education of poor children in the three towns Azzoddin receiving the Western and Roknoddin the Eastern provinces. of Plymouth, Stonehouse, and Devonport. The institution at first was Azzoddin however was again deposed, and Roknoddin, whom he had placed under the superintendence and control of the Bishop of Exeter, attempted to murder, was placed in his room by the Tartars. On Dr. Phillpotts; and the sisterhood gained great applause for their this occasion Azzoddin fled to the Greek emperor (1261), who for efficiency in acting as nurses during the prevalence of cholera in some time amused him with promises ; but at length Azzoddin, per- 1848-49. A violent agitation however was raised at Plymouth against ceiving or fearing the emperor's intention to make him prisoner, Miss Sellon and her community, who were accused of being emissaries intrigued to bring the Tartars upon the emperor, and thus escaped. of Rome in disguise ; and on finding that some of the practices After this his name does not appear again in history. Of the remaining adopted in the sisterhood were not in accordanoe with the spirit of sultans,

the Established Church, the Bishop of Exeter withdrew from them Kai Khosrou III., son of Roknoddin, slain in 1283;

his episcopal sanction and patronage. As with the institutions whose Gaiathoddin Massoud II., son of Azzoddin Kai Kaus, who died in general system she has imitated, Miss Sellon's Protestant Sisters of 1288; and

Mercy are divided into classes, and such of them as reside in the Kai Kobad, the nephew of Massoud, who was put to death in 1300, establishment live in community and wear a peculiar garb, their time little is on record beyond the dates annexed to their names. From being given either to the active duties of benevolence, or to reading, the time of Gaiathoddin Kai Khosrou, the Seljuk sultans bad been in prayer, and religious meditation or quiet occupation. The chief fact mere pageants under the actual government of the Mogols, who difference between this Protestant and the Roman Catholic institutions summoned them to do the most servile homage, deposed and set them would indeed seem to be in the fact that in Miss Sellon's community up, and even put them to death at their pleasure. Out of the wrecks the vows are not irrevocable; but of course there are other differences of this empire arose that of the Othmans, or Turks, founded by arising from the peculiarities of the Romish discipline, which could Othman, a Seljuk captain.

only be distantly imitated in any Protestant establishment. Miss SELKIRK, ALEXANDER, was born at Largo, on the coast of Fife, Sellon afterwards established branches of her community at Bristol, in 1676, and bred to the sea. Having engaged in the half-piratical in London, and in other places, over which she exercises a general balf-exploring voyages in the American seas, into which the spirit of inspection in conjunction with Dr. Pusey. Her community however adventure then led so many of our countrymen, he quarrelled with having lost the sanction of the Bishop of Exeter, bas not succeeded his captain, one Straddling, by whom he was set on shore on the in obtaining the formal approval of any other member of the episcoupinhabited island of Juan Fernandez, with a few books, his nautical pal bench, and occupies accordingly a very anomalous position in the instruments, a knife, boiler, axe, gun, powder and ball, for his whole Established Church. equipment, in September 1704. After four years and four months' SELVA, GIANNANTONIO, was born of respectable parents, at residence, he was taken off by two English vessels, commanded by Venice, June 13, 1753, and had for his earliest instructor his uncle Captain Woods Rogers, in February 1709, in the account of whose the Abbate Gianmaria Selva, a man of considerable literary and scien. voyage we find the following passage.-"At first the terror and lone- tific attainments. His inclination leading bim to make choice of art liness of the place sunk deeply on his spirits; but in time he became as his future profession, he was placed under Pietro Antonio Novelli ipured to it, and got the better of bis melancholy. He had erected (a painter who died in 1804, aged seventy.five); but after he had two huts, one of which served him for a kitchen, the other for a grounded bimself in drawing and the elements of painting, be passed dining-room and bed chamber; they were made of pimento wood, to the study of architecture, and became a pupil of Temanza (TEwbich supplied him also with fire and candle, burning very clear, and MANZA, Tomasso). In 1778 he set out for Rome, where besides yielding a most refreshing fragrant smell; the roof was of long grass, studying the various architectural monuments of that capital, he and his wainscoting the skins of goats, near five hundred whereof he became intimately acquainted with Pindemonte, Piranesi, Battoni, had killed during his residence here, and caught above five hundred Quarenghi, and others, who either then were, or afterwards became more, which he marked on the ears, and then set at liberty. When distinguished, for among them was Canova, with whom he visited his ammunition was exhausted, he caught them by running; and so Naples, Pompeii, Caserta, and Pæstum. While at Rome, he also practised was he in that exercise, that the swiftest goat on the island obtained the notice and favour of his countryman the noble Girolamo was scarcely a match for him. On his being first abandoned here, he Zulian, who was there in quality of ambassador from the republic, relished bis food, which was boiled goat's flesh and crawfish, but and who was a liberal encourager of art. By him Selva was commisindifferently, for want of salt; however, in time he got the better of sioned to embellish and fit up a saloon in his palace expressly for an the nicety of his palate, and was well enough pleased with the seasoning entertainment given to the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his of the pimento fruit. When bis clothes were worn out, he made bride; before which he had been similarly employed by the Senator himself a covering of goat-skin, joined together with thongs which he Rezzonico to decorate an apartment for him, which was to have been had cut with his knife, and which he run through holes made with a done by Quarenghi, but that architect was then obliged to depart for Dail instead of a needle: he bad a piece of linen by him, of which he had Russian (QUARENGHI, GIACOMO.] On quitting Rome Selva visited made a sort of shirt, and this was sewn in the same manner. He bad France and England, in both which countries he diligently collected no shoes left in a month's time : bis feet, having been so long bare, information of every kind bearing upon architecture and building; and were now become quite callous; and he was some time on board returned to Venice at the close of 1780. There, as opportunity offered, before he could wear a shoe. The rats at first plagued him very he introduced various practical improvements, and among them greater much, growing so bold as to gnaw his feet and clothes wbile he slept : attention to internal convenience and disposition of plan, setting also however, he soon taught them to keep at greater distance, with the the example of a more sober taste in design. Among the private

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