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mansions on which he was employed, are the Casa Mangilli, that of 1749 was called to Coburg as professor. In 1750 he became'editor of Count Guido Erizzo, and the Palazzo Manin, which last, however (a the 'Coburg Zeitung,' his writing in which procured bim the com. work of Sansovino's), he only restored and altered in the interior. He mission to prepare a state-paper on the contests of the Duke of also rebuilt the Palazzo Pisani at Padua. The public work to which Würtemberg with his vassals. In the same year he was made prohe owes his chief reputation is the celebrated Teatro della Fenice, fessor of history and poetry at Altdorf, and in 1751 professor of erected in 1790-91, his design for which was selected from among theology at Halle, where his lectures were numerously attended, those sent in by twenty-nine other architects. Another structure of exciting attention by their acuteness, their philological penetration, the same class designed by him was the theatre at Trieste, but in the and the vast amount of reading they displayed; but he was deficient execution of the work very great liberties were takon. A third theatre in systematic order and in style. In 1757 be was made director of planned by him was never executed, but when he was some years the theological seminary, He was one of the earliest adherents and afterwards at Florence, he found that parts of his design had been supporters of what is styled in Germany Rationalism. The Rationalists adopted for a theatre then lately erected there. To the above may be combated the Deists, but they treated the Scriptures as any other added the facade of the Casa Vigo d'Arzeri, and a Casino at Padua; secular book; most of them denied their divine origin, explained the Casa Vela at Verona; the facade of the church Spirito Santo at away the miracles and prophecies, but considered the doctrines Udine; the facade of San Maurizio at Venice, begun by Zogari, and as true, and capable of being proved by reason. They advocated left unfinished by Selva, after whose death it was completed with the Protestant principle of the right of private judgment, and their some modifications by Diedo. The same fate attended bis last and critical investigations of the genuine texts of Scripture were frequently most favourite work, the small church Del Gesù, which was finished valuable. Semler's tenets and his merits may be seen in his remarks after his death by Diedo (author of many of the architectural descrip-on Wetstein's 'Prolegomena,' which he republished; as also in his tions in Cicognara's Fabbriche piu cospicue di Venezia,') and Giuseppe Abhandlung von der Untersuchung des Kanons,' in 1771, in 4 vola.; Borsato. Selva died rather unexpectedly, at the beginning of 1819, and in his Apparatus ad liberalem Veteris Testamenti Interpretaand therefore could not bave erected, as Nagler says he did, Canova's tionem, published in 1773. He attacked with much zeal Basedow, church at Possagno, the first stone of which was not laid till July 11th who had advocated some of the theories of Rousseau, and Babrdt, who in that year. Selva was also a writer upon subjects of his art; he as professed deism. In 1777 he was induced to consent to the application well as Diedo contributed to Cicognara's work above-mentioned; and of a part of the funds of the theological seminary to the establishment also translated Perrault's treatise on the orders, and Chambers's 'Civil of a philanthropic institution, of which also he had the direction ; but Architecture.'

was dismissed from both in 1779 by the minister Zedlitz, who had SEMIRAMIS, a queen of Assyria, who, according to some, reigned prevailed on him to sanction the new establishment. In 1778 bis about B.c. 2000, or, according to others, about B.c. 1250, while the account adoption of the Prussian edict respecting the national religion exposed of Herodotus i. 184, still further confuses the chronology. Her whole him to the reproach of inconsistency, and occasioned attacks on his history, as it has come down to us, is however a mere mass of fables. moral character that embittered the latter years of his life. He died She is said to have been the daughter of the goddess Derceto, and of op March 14, 1791. Among other works published by him we may extraordinary beauty and wisdom. (Diod., ii, 4.) She became the mention De Demoniacis,' 1760; Umständliche Untersuchung der wife of Onnes, who served in the army of Ninus, first king of Assyria, dämonischen Laute,' 1762; Versuch einer biblischen Dämopologie,' and followed her husband in the expedition of the king against Bactra 1776; Selecta Capita Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ,' 3 vols., 1767-69; the Semiramis showed the king how be might gain possession of the town. uncompleted 'Commentationes historicæ de antiquo Christianorum He followed her advice, and was victorious, and, being no less charmed Statu, 2 vols., 1771-72; Versuch Christlicher Jahrbücher, oder with her beauty than with her judgment, be made her his wife, where ausführliche Tabellen über die Kirchengeschichte bis aufs Jahr 1500," upon her former husband, in despair, put an end to his life. (Diod., ii. 2 vols., 1783-86; and 'Observationes novæ, quibus historia Christian6.) After a reign of fifty two years, Ninus died, or, according to orum usque ad Constantinum magnum illustratus,' 1784. He also others, he was murdered by his own wife Semiramis (Aelian, 'Var. wrote an account of himself under the title of 'Semlers LebengHist.,' vii. 1.), and left a son Ningas. According to some writers beschreibung von ihm selbst verfasst,' published in 2 vols. in Semiramis took possession of the throne by the right of succession ; 1781.82. according to others, she assumed the dress and appearance of her son SENAC, JEAN, was born at Lombez in 1693, and obtained the Ninyas, and deceived her subjects, in this disguise, until she had diploma of Doctor of Medicine at Rheims. He was appointed first accomplished such wonderful deeds that she thought it superfluous to pbysician to the king in 1752, and was a member of the Royal Academy conceal herself. She is said to have built Babylon and to have adorned of Sciences of Paris. He died December 20, 1770. The reputation of it with the most extraordinary spendour, and all this in a very short Senac is due to his great work on the structure of the heart, its action, time. She also built several other towns on the Euphrates and Tigrie, and its diseases, which was first published at Paris in 1749 in two to promote commerce among her subjects. (Diod., ii. 7-11.) On the quarto volumes, and was afterwards re-edited by Portal, and translated main road of her dominiops she erected an obelisk, 130 feet high, and into English and other languages. At the time of its publication this laid out a magnificent park near Mount Bagistanum, in Media, and at work was justly regarded as the best anatomical monograph ever written the foot of the mountain she caused to be cut on the face of the rock in France; and although recent investigations have detected in it her own figure and those of a hundred of her attendants, with Assy- numerous errors, and have deprived it of much of its intrinsic value, rian inscriptions. She is moreover said to bave formed a large lake it will always remain an admirable monument of the learning and the to receive the overflowing of the Euphrates, to have laid out several industry of its author. The other writings of Senac are unimportant; other parks near the town of Chauon, to have embellished Ecbatana, a complete list of them may be found in Haller's 'Bibliotheca to have provided that town with water from Mount Orontes, and to Anatomica,' t. ii., p. 159. have cut a bigh road through Mount Zarcæum. All these things were SENA'N, a Sabian physician, astronomer, and mathematician, whose done at her command, while she was traversing her own dominions names, as given at full length by Ibn Abi Osaibia (Oioún al-Ambá fi with a pumerous army. She left monuments of her greatness and Tabacát al-Atebbá,'' Fontes Relationum de Classibus Medicorum,' cap. power in every place that she visited. (Diod., ii

. 14; Zonar., 'Lex.,' ii. 10, sec. 4), are ABOU Said SenáN BEN THÁBET BEN CORRAH. He was 1637.) From Persia she turned to the west, and conquered the greater born at Harran in Mesopotamia, and his father, his brother, and his part of Libya and Æthiopia. She also made war against an Indian son were among the most celebrated physicians of their time. (THABET.] king, Stabrobates, with a great army and a fleet on the river Indus. He was physician-in-ordinary to Moctader and Caher, the eighteenth (Diod., ii. 16, &c.) Semiramis was at first successful, and numerous and nineteenth of the Abbasside kalifs of Baghdad, who reigned from towns submitted to her, but at last she was wounded by the king, and A.H. 295 to A.H. 322 (A.D. 908-934). By the former of these princes ho entirely defeated in battle. According to some traditions she escaped was advanced to the dignity of the 'Rais alai 'l-Atebbá' (" chief of the to her own country, with scarcely the third part of her army; accord physicians,' or 'archiater '). He was also appointed public examiner, ing to others, she fell in the battle: and a third tradition states that A.H. 319 (A.D. 931); and the kalif, in consequence of an ignorant soon after her return she was murdered by her own son Ninyas. Some practitioner's having killed one of his patients, ordered that no one also believed that she had suddenly disappeared from the earth, and for the future should be allowed to practise as a physician until he returned to heaven. (Diod., ii. 20.) As we have said the accounts had been licensed to do so by Senán : the number of persons in Baghdad given of her must be regarded as mere myths; but her name occurs who underwent this examination is said to have amounted to 830. among the cuneiform inscriptions which have been recovered and (Arab. Philosoph. Biblioth.,' apud Casiri, ‘Biblioth. Arabico-Hisp. placed in the British Museum, and which are being deciphered by Sir Escur.,' tom. i., pp. 437-439). The anonymous author of this work Henry Rawlinson for publication by the trustees of the British relates, as Gibbon says, "a pleasant tale of an ignorant but harmless Museum. (SARDANAPALUS.)

practitioner," who presented himself before Senáu for a licence to SEMLER, JOHANN SALOMO, one of the most influential German practise; which anecdote is told also with additional circumstances by writers on theology, was born at Saalfeld, now a dependency of Saxe- Abul-Faraj, ‘Chron. Syr.,' p. 187; and Hist. Dynast., p. 197. The Meiningen, on December 18, 1725. His father was archdeacon of kalif Cáher showed his favour to him by wishing him to embrace Saalfeld, and he was early initiated into the doctrine of the Pietists, Islám. This he refused for some time, but was at last terrified by whose opinions were predominant at the court of the then reigning threats into compliance. As however the kalif still continued to behave Duke of Saalfeld. Soon after his removal to the University of talle, with great severity towards him, and at the same time transferred his to which he was sent in 1742, he abandoned the doctrinal views in favour to another physician, Isa Ben Yusuf, he fled to Kborasan : he which he had been brought up, but retained much of their devotional afterwards returned to Baghdad, and died A.H. 331 (A.D. 912). The feeling. By a defence of some passages in Scripture which had titles of several of his works are preserved in Casiri (loco cit.), relating been controverted by Whiston he made himself a reputation, and in chiefly to astronomy and geometry. Like his father Thabet, he appears





to have written also several works relating to the religious doctrines, and we dissent from nearly every judgment of Seneca that we rites, and ceremonies of the Sabians.

bave hitherto seen. Seneca, by confession of every authority, dreaded SENECA, LUCIUS ANNÆUS, was probably boru a few years Nero, had cause to dread him, and therefore even to save his lifo before the Christian era, at Cordoba in Spain, and was brought to from impending danger would have strong reason for joining the Rome while quite a child for the prosecution of his studies and for his conspiracy. Piso and Seneca were intimate friends. Natalis had health. ('Con. ad Helv.,' 16.) He was the second son of Marcus said that he had been sent by Piso to visit Seneca during his Annæus Seneca, the rhetorician, and the author of 'Suasoriæ, Contro- illness, and to complain of his having refused to see Piso, and that Fersiæ, Declamationumque Excerpta,' whose memory was so strong Seneca, in reply, had said that frequent conversations could be of no that he could repeat two thousand words in the same order as he service to either party, but that he considered his own safety as heard them. He had the reputation of being a man of tasto, but involved in that of Piso. (Tacitu, 'Ann.,' xv. 60.) Granius Sylvanus, when we consider that his taste was so comprehensive as to admit a tribune of the prætorian cohort, was sent to ask Seneca whether he hundred to the rank of orators in a century whose orators fame limits recollected what passed between Natalis and bimself. Sylvanus pro. to five or six, we may reasonably doubt its value and delicacy. As ceeded to his country-house near Rome, to which Seneca bad either was natural with such a man, he assiduously directed the studies of accidentally or purposely (Tacitus does not decide which) returned his son to rhetoric, a preference which Lucius soon rebelled against, from Campania on that day; and be there delivered his message. and, placing himself under Papirius Fabianus, Attalus, and Sotion, Seneca replied, that he had received a complaint from Piso of his devoted himself to philosophy. In common with many others who having refused to see him, and that the state of his health, which aspired to wisdom, young Seneca travelled into Greece and Egypt, required repose, had been his apology. He added that he saw no and in his 'Quæstiones Naturales' (a remarkable work, which shows | reason why he should prefer the safety of another person to his own. bim to have been master of the soientific knowledge of his time), he We do not see in Seneca's life anything contradictory to the supposibas judicious and accurate remarks on Egypt and on the Nile. But tion of his being implicated in any conspiracy whatever : certainly not his father at length succeeded in convincing him that worldly interests in one against Nero. ought not to be sacrificed to philosophy, and he undertook the business Nero, satisfied of his treason, ordered him to put himself to death. of an advocate. He became quæstor, and under the emperor Claudius He bore this fate with Stoic fortitude, and opened a vein in each arm. rose to distinction; but the particulars of his life are at this period His advanced age however caused the blood to flow so slowly that it nowhere traceable with any degree of certainty, and we must therefore was found necessary to open also the veins in his legs. This still not suspend our judgment as to the truth of Messalina's accusation against succeeding, Statius Annæus gave him a dose of poison, but, owing to him of adultery with Julia, daughter of Germanicus. (Tacit., Ann.,' the feeble state of his vital powers, it produced little effect.' He then xiii. 42.). His intimacy and connection with her were certainly very ordered his attendants to carry him to a warm bath, where he was equivocal, and the manners of the time still more so; but then speedily suffocated, A.D. 65. His wife Paulina is asserted by his Messalina, who was humbled by the pride of the princess, and who biographers to have "refused every consolation except that of dying nowhere manifested any nice sense of right and wrong. is not worthy | with her husband, and earnestly solicited the friendly hand of the of much credit. The result howover was Julia's exile and subsequent executioner.” Dion Cassius asserts that Paulina, who was considerably aesassination, and Seneca's banishment to Corsica. Here, according to younger, was forced to have her veins opened owing to the stoical his account, he spent bis time in the study of philosophy, and writing exhortations of her husband, and to fulfil her frequent promise of his treatise on Consolation.' The stoicism looks very well on paper, never surviving him. Tacitus says (xv. 63) that her veins were opened but, unfortunately for his credit, we find him courting the emperor in in compliance with her own wish, and that the blood was stopped by a servile strain of adulation, and begging to be restored to favour. her attendants at the command of Nero: he adds that it is doubtful

On the death of Messalina Claudius married Agrippina, who prevailed whether she was conscious of her veins being tied up. on him to recal Seneca, and to bestow on him the office of prætor The death of Seneca has been loudly applauded-has sometimes (Tacit., 'Anp.,' xii. 8), and she afterwards made him, with Afranius been called sublime ; but this is owing to an ignorance of the time and Burrhus, tutor to her son Nero. To Seneca's lot fell the instructing inattention to Seneca's own doctrines. With the Stoics death is nothing of the young prince in the principles of philosophy and the precepts ("mors est non esse," • Ep.,' liv.); it is not an evil, but the absence of of wisdom and virtue: with what success all the world knows. In all evil ("mors aded extra omne malum est, ut sit extra omnem fact an impartial scrutiny of the events of that period, and of Seneca's malorum metum," "Ep.,' xxx.). There is nothing after death-death connection with Nero, leads to the probable conclusion of his being a itself is nothing : pander to Nero's worst vices. Not to repeat the many stories current at Rome of his particular acts (which if not fully attested, are yet

“ Post mortem nihil est, ipsaque mors nihil.” (“Troades,' act. i.) equally so with those of his virtue and decorum), we will only insist with such a doctrine there could be no fear of death, and consequently on bis immense wealth, and demand whether Nero was a man likely we find that courage to die was common in Seneca's time. In fact his to have bestowed such munificent presents (avaricious as he was known death was like his writings-pompous, inflated, epigrammatic, and to be) upon one who had no other claim upon him than the instruction striking to common judgments, but bearing no inspection. His terse of precepts and axioms which he must have laughed at io supremo aphoristic style has rendered him one of the most frequently-quoted contempt? Juvenal speaks of "the gardens of the wealthy Seneca.” authors of antiquity; and it was Scaliger, we believe, who remarked He possessed, besides these gardens and country villas, a superb palace that he did more honour to the works of others than to his own. in Rome, sumptuously furnished, containing five hundred cedar-tables Besides his Physical Questions,' 'Epistles,' and various moral with feet of ivory, and of exquisite workmanship. His hard cash treatises, he is the supposed author of ten tragedies. On this matter amounted to 300,000 sestertia, or 2,421,870l. of our money; a sum, however there is much dispute, some declaring these tragedies to be the magnitude of which might well excite the sarcastic inquiry of the composition of five or six Senecas; but Quintilian, whose authority Suilius, by what wisdom or precepts of philosophy Seneca had been is superior to every one on the matter, speaks of Seneca without surenabled in the short space of four years to accumulate it? (Tacit., name or qualification, and in quoting a verse from the 'Medea,' cites xiii. 42, &c.) We will not affirm with his enemies that he instigated it as a verse of Seneca, and not of one of the Senecas. ('Instit. Orat.,' or abetted Nero in the murder of his mother, though we know that ix. 2.) Further, Quinctilian, in his list of the Roman poets (x. 1) (in Seneca became the foe of his former protectress, and Seneca was the which each name is accompanied by a distinguishing epithet), makes author of the letter wbich Nero sent in his own name to the senate, no mention of any author of these ten tragedies; but he says of in which she was charged with conspiring against her son, and with Seneca that he wrote orations, poems, epistles, and dialogues, thus having committed suicide on the discovery of her guilt.

appearing to include the tragedies under the term poems. Seneca however soon found that the tyrant who had made such ment drawn from Seneca's own silence respecting them, or respecting singular use of his precepts, and whose vices had so enriched his any poetry of his whatever, is but negative, and is nullified by Tacitus, philosophical abode, had cast jealous eyes upon this very wealth. He who distinctly asserts him to have written verses ever since Nero bad therefore with consummate address offered to surrender the immense taken to write them. ('Ann.,' xiv. 52.) But apart from these historical treasures which he had accumulated, and begged permission to retire evidences, we believe internal evidence to be quite sufficient to convince on a small competency. Nero would not accept this. Seneca then the most sceptical-evidence not only of style and epigram, but of shut himself up, " kept no more levees, declined the usual civilities uniform coincidence in thought and expression. which had been paid to him, and under pretence of indisposition Of the intrinsic merit of these tragedies there is as much difference avoided appearing in public. (Tacit., ' Ann., xiv. 53, &c.) Nero now of opinion as of their authorship. They have been lauded by comattempted to poison him by means of Cleonicus, but he failed in the mentators and abused by critics. They have been judged from a false attempt. Shortly after Antonius Natalis, when on his trial for his point of view. They have been considered as imitations of the Greek share in the conspiracy of Piso, mentioned Seneca as one of the con- dramas, and have been considered as dramas. Both these points of spirators. All Seneca's biographers loudly deny this. Wishing to view are erroneous. They were never written for representation, but keep their Stoic free from the slightest taint, they adopt the most for reading aloud. This simple fact overturns all criticisms. Not absurd conjectures, assert the most puerile motives, and suppose any being intended for the stage, any dramatic objection must be thing and everything that could clear him of the charge. One says unfounded; nor could they for the same reason have been imitations Natalis wished to curry favour with Nero by implicating Seneca. But of the Greek, wbich were written for representation. The proof of was Nero a man to need such roundabout measures ? Another confi. this fact is to be seen in the history of the Roman drama and literature dently asserts (upon a ‘perhaps' of Brucker) that Nero himself by any one who looks attentively, and is to be seen also by a scrutiny instigated the charge. Upon wbat authority is this said? These are of the pieces themselves. The plot is often concluded in the first act, the most reasonable of the suppositions. We dissent from them all, but still he goes on through the other four with great patience. The


The argu.



SENEFELDER, ALOIS. scenes are not linked together; the incidents are not prepared. Now proof-impressions, and that the inkstand was dry; and as the matter Seneca could not have been ignorant of the common rules of tragedy, was urgent, he wrote the list on the prepared stone with his chemical known universally in his day; and if he bas pot attended to them, we ink, intending to copy it at leisure. Some time afterwards, when are forced to conclude it is with intention that he has done so. about to clean off this writing, it occurred to him that, by the appli

His tragedies were written to be read, and they were read with great cation of aquafortis and water, he might etch the stone so as to leave applause. They have not the rudest attempts at dramatic delineation. the writing in suficient relief for printing from. The experiment A story is chosen, always a well-known one, on which to string succeeded; and as soon as he had brought this new invention into a descriptions, declamations, and epigrams. The dialogue is the most practical form, be applied himself to the means of bringing it into appropriate form for such exbibitions, and consequently he has told operation, so as to gain a livelihood by it. his story in dialogue. This seems to us the whole matter. Considered Being unable otherwise to raise the necessary capital for the con. in this point of view, they possess great merits of a certain order. struction of a press, the purchase of stones, paper, &c., Senefelder Their delineations are uniformly Stoical; their sentiments elaborated enlisted as a private in the artillery, as substitute for a friend, who from philosopby, with very little poetry in them; their epigrams promised him a premium of two hundred florins, with which he hoped admirable. Seneca was not a poet. There was no poetry possible to procure the means for carrying on his operations in his leisure at his time, and if it bad been, Seneca's mind was of a reflective, not of hours, until he could procure his discharge. With these views he an emotive cast. And although most of the poetry in these tragedies went to Ingolstadt with a party of recruits. But he was doomed to is critical, conscious, and reflective, although we seldom see that disappointment; for it was discovered that he was not a native of spontaneity of thought and feeling which in true poets springs up from Bavaria, and therefore could rot serve without a special licenca. the simplest reflection-yet we cannot but be struck with certain While at Ingolstadt, he was led to conceive the peculiar fitness of his passages of unquestioned power and freshness both of thought and new process for printing music; and he suggested it to a musician of expression. There is a magnificent flash of dramatic feeling and the Elector's band, pamed Gleissner, who was preparing some music expression in his 'Edipus,' which is worthy of Sophocles or Shakspere, for publication. In connection with this person å few works were and not borrowed from the former, as so many of his beauties were published, which proved the capabilities of the art. The Elector It is when Edipus has put out his own eyes, on learning that his wife Charles Theodore sent a present of a hundred florins to the printers, Jocasta was also his mother (Jocasta has killed herself, and her corpse and promised on exclusive privilege for the exercise of their art; but is before bim on the ground), and determining to wander, blind as he the Electoral Academy of Sciences, before which Senefelder laid a is, from Thebes, the birthplace of his woes, he makes two steps in copy of the first work, with an account of the process, acted very advance, but arrests himself for fear of stumbling against his mother : differently. He bad mentioned the small cost of the press as an “ Siste, ne in matrem incidas.”

illustratiou of the economy of his invention, and was grievously

disappointed when, instead of an honourable mention in the TransacThis is very pathetic, and shows an intensity of dramatic consciousness tions of the Society, he received a present of twelve florins, with an which we find powhere else in Seneca. It is in bis ' Medea' that the intimation from the vice-president that his memoir had been favourably celebrated prediction occurs wbich is generally applied to the discovery received; and that, as the expense of the press did not, according to of America; with what critical propriety, any one may judge who will his own statement, exceed six florins, he hoped a double compensation take the trouble of turning to it. Venient annis,' &c.)

would satisfy his expectations. The tragedies of Seneca were translated into English by Jasper The promising aspect of affairs at this time, about 1796, was clouded Heywood, son of the epigrammatist; by Alexander Neyle, by Jobn by the difficulty of constructing a more efficient press than had been Studely, by Thomas Nuce, and by Thomas Newton; and there appeared used in the first operations. A rolling-press bad been used in the first a complete edition in 1581, entitled 'Seneca his Tenne Tragedies, instance; but owing to a circumstance which escaped the notice of translated into English, Mercurii nutrices horæ' (Collier, Hist. Dram. Senefelder, he failed in his attempt to make a new one. He therePoet.,' iii., p. 14); but the translators by no means adhered to the fore made a machine, in which the pressure was obtained by a stone original, interpolating lines, speeches, and chorusses, as they thought of three hundred pounds weight falling from a height of ten feet; a fit. The editions of Seneca are very numerous. The most recent plan which produced good prints, but broke the stones after a few edition of all his works is that of C. F. Fickert, 3 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1842- impressions." Having a narrow escape from being killed by the 45; the Bipont, 1809, and that of Rubkopf, Lips., 1797-1811, are each falling stone in this press, Senefelder abandoned it, and constructed ip 5 vols. 8vo.

another on a different principle. Such obstacles, and the difficulty SENEFELDER or SENNEFELDER, ALOIS, the son of a per- of finding suitable persons to employ in the new process, brought the former at the Theatre Royal, Munich, was born in the year 1971. establishment into discredit, and prevented the proprietors from The history of this persevering inventor, and of the difficulties with obtaining their expected exclusive privilege during the life of Charles which he bad to struggle in bringing the art of lithography into suc- Theodore. cessful and profitable operation, supplies an interesting illustration of The lithographic printing here alluded to appears to have been the power of genius to overcome the most adverse circumstances. mechanical, as Senefelder informs us that he discovered chemical When young, Senefelder was inclined to follow the profession of his printing-the art which has since attained so high a degree of excelfather, who preferred placing him at the University of Ingolstadt, where lence and utility-in 1798. Some of the earliest specimens of the he devoted himself to the study of jurisprudence, occasionally indulging art, as applied to pictorial subjects, were executed under the super. bis predilection for the stage by performing at private theatres, and intendence of the Rev. Mr. Steiner, director of the Royal School by employing bis leisure time in dramatic composition. In 1789 he establishments. In 1799 Senefelder obtained an exclusive privilege wrote a comedy, called 'Die Mädchenkenner,' which was published, for Bavaria for fifteen years, and carried on a considerable business, and by which he cleared fifty florins. Losing his father soon after, employing his two brothers and two apprentices. As the process was he was compelled from want of pecuniary means to discontinue his no longer kept secret, many persons visited the offices, among whom studies; and he tried for some time to devote himself to the stage. was Mr. André of Offenbach. "With this gentleman Senefelder entered Disappointed in his hopes of success as a performer, he resolved to into partnership, and commenced arrangements for obtaining patents try his fortune as an author, and published a second play, which did and establishing presses in Vienna, London, Paris, and Berlin. While not pay his expenses. While this was passing through the press, engaged in this project, he visited London, but without succeeding in Senefelder made bimself acquainted with the process of printing, and his object. Unfortunate circumstances led to a hasty dissolution of became desirous of procuring the necessary apparatus for printing his this promising partnersbip, in 1800. For some time afterwards, Mr. own works. Being too poor to gratify this desire, he endeavoured to Von Hartl, who is described as imperial court agent, took an active discover some other mode of printing, but was defeated in several part in promoting the invention, the application of which to cottonplans by want of means. One of the projects he abandoned from this printing then excited much attention. À fair prospect which now cause was a kind of stereotyping. He then tried etching on copper, appeared opening for Senefelder was destroyed by the derangement but found difficulties arising from his want of practical knowledge, and in the cotton manufacture caused the suspension of commercial still more from the expense of the copper-plates, which he ground and intercourse between England and the Continent, by Bonaparte ; and polished after using, to make them available for more than one some improvements which he had effected in calico-printing became operation. To diminish this difficulty, he used a piece of fine Kellheim useless to bim by being divulged by a person employed, before a stone for his exercises in writing backwards; and subsequently tried patent was secured for them. In 1806 an extensive lithographic printing from it instead of copper, though without much success. Of establishment was formed at Munich, by Senefelder, in connection this use of stone, merely as a substitute for copper, Senefelder disclaims with Baron Aretin and others. This partnership lasted about four the invention; but his experiments upon it were important, as leading years, during which period a great variety of works were executed; to the discovery of chemical lithography. The next step towards this some of them for the government. Several other lithographic estabdiscovery was occasioned by an incident which curiously illustrates the lishments were also in successful operation in 1809, when Senefelder situation of the needy inventor. Being unacquainted with the compo- obtained an engagement which rewarded him for the vicissitudes of sition, used by engravers for covering defective places in their etching the early part of his career, and placed him in comfortable circum. ground, or enabling them to rectify mistakes, he bad invented a kind stances for the remainder of his life. A lithographic office was formed of chemical ink for the purpose, consisting of wax, soap, and lamp- about that time for printing the plans of a new survey of the kingdom, black. One day, when he had polished a stone-plate for etching, his of which a great number were required. Owing to an intrigue, the mother entered the room, requesting him to write a bill for the superintendence of this work was not, in the first instance, given to washerwoman, who was waiting for the linen. He found that he had senefelder; but in October 1809, he was appointed to the office of not even a slip of paper for the purpose, having used all in taking inspector of the Royal Lithographic Establishment, with a salary SENNERTUS, DANIEL



of fifteen hundred florins per annum, and with permission to carry on that principlo to which the ." diagonal bracing” system owes its his private business also. The subsequent improvements effected by strength, was original with his father at the time of its construction, Senefelder were attributed by himself to the ease and independence that is about the year 1786. which this honourable engagement afforded.

Sir Robert Seppings introduced other improvements into our system As early as 1809 Senefelder had commenced a collection of specimens of naval architecture. The admiralty presented him with 10001. as a to illustrate an account of bis invention; but circumstances impeded reward for his simple yet most useful invention of an improved block the completion of the work, which might probably never have been for supporting vessels, by which their keels and lower timbers were finished but for the exertions of Mr. Von Schlichtegroll

, director of much more easily and promptly examined and repaired. It was prothe Royal Academy of Munich, who, in 1816 and 1817, published duced while he filled the office of master-shipwright assistant in Beveral letters on the subject, urging the publication of a work that Plymouth dockyard, and is described in the Transactions of the should perpetuate the memory of the invention, and set at rest the Society of Arts vol. xxii. p. 275-292, the Society baving awarded him erroneous rumours then prevalent on the subject. Senefelder there their gold medal for it in the year 1804. His plan for lifting masts out fore wrote and published an account of bis inventions and discoveries, of the steps, which superseded the employment of sheer hulks for that with a preface by Von Schlichtegroll, and a dedication to the king of purpose, has been the means of saving much expense and labour. His Bavaria This work was shortly translated both into French and new mode of framing ships has led to a much more extensive use of Evglish, the latter in 1819, in a quarto volume, entitled 'A Complete short and small timbers, which were formerly of little value; but the Course of Lithography,' &c. It has no pretension to literary merit, but most valuable of all the reforms of construction for which the navy cannot fail to prove interesting as a simple and circumstantial record of England is indebted to him was the substitution of round for flat of the experiments and difficulties attending the invention of a highly sterns, which afford increased strength to the framework of the ship, important art. The illustrations of various styles, some of wbich are greater protection against pooping in heavy seas, an almost equal curious, add to the value of the work, to which is prefixed a portrait power of anchoring by the stern and by the bow, a more secure and of Senefelder.

effective position for the rudder, and a stout platforın for a powerful The rapid extension of lithography, even before the publishing of battery, embracing a sweep of more than 180°. * This capital improvethis book, must have been highly gratifying to the inventor, who ment was strepously opposed by many distinguished naval officers, observed on this subject, “I esteem myself happy in seeing, in my who regretted the loss of those magnificent cabins, which were better own lifetime, the value of my invention so universally appreciated; and suited for their purposes of state than of service, but the good sense in baving myself been able to attain in it a degree of perfection which, of less prejudiced judges bappily prevailed, and secured for our ships in a thousand other inventions, has not been reached till long after the of war an additional claim upon the respect of our enemies. The death of the first inventor.” In 1819 the Society for the Encourage- select committee on finance of the House of Commons on several ment of Arts, &c., in London, voted their gold medal to Senefelder, occasions bore testimony to his official merits, and he received the as the inventor of lithography. Senefelder married about the time of marked approbation of both houses of parliament. his appointment to the office in wbich, we believe, he spent the Foreign nations were not tardy in acknowledging the value of the remainder of his life. He died at Munich, February 26, 1834, in his improvements in ship-building originated by Sir R. Seppings, and their sixty-third year.

author received many substantial proofs of their sense of his merits ; SENNERTUS, DANIEL, was born at Breslau in 1572. In 1601 the Emperor Alexander of Russia, and the kings of Denmark and he took the degree of Doctor of Medicine at Würtemberg, and in the Holland, presented him with memorials of their appreciation of following year was elected professor there. He died of the plague in what he had effected. We may safely affirm, that in the national 1637. During his life, and for many years after, Sennertus enjoyed record of the great benefactors of their country, there are few names the highest possible reputation as a learned and skilful physician. His which will deserve more grateful commemoration than that of the works, wbich are very uumerous and long, prove him to have been a object of this notice. In addition to the papers ou the diagonal skilful compiler from those of others. He was the first to endeavour bracing already alluded to, Sir R. Seppings communicated to the Royal to reconcile the then modern doctrines of Paracelsus with the ancient Society a paper On a new principle of constructing ships in the mer ones of Galen, wbich they had well nigh overturned ; and he appears cantile navy,' which was inserted in the Philosophical Transactions,' to have been much less credulous than most of his contemporaries on for 1820. Dr. Young's paper, also referred to above, though not comthe subjects of alchemy, the universal remedy, and others of the like municated to the Royal Society till 1814, had been presented the kind. The whole works of Sendertus were published in folio at form of a report to the Board of Admiralty in 1811. It will be found Venice in 1645, and in subsequent years at Paris and Lyon.

reprinted in Dr. Peacock's edition of the Miscellaneous Works' of SEPPINGS, SIR ROBERT, F.R.S. the distinguised naval architect, Young, (vol. i. p. 535-562) together with the official correspondence received his education as a shipwright under Sir John Henslow, relative to it between the latter and Sir J. Barrow. Sir R. Seppings was surveyor of the davy, and continued in connection with the important an honorary member of the Cambridge University Philosophical Society, service of our dock.yards during a period of fifty years. He was the aud a corresponding member of the Philosophical Society of Rotterdam. author of many improvements of the first order in our naval architec- It had been proposed by the University of Oxford to confer upon him ture, including the system of diagonal bracing and trussing, which he the honorary degree of D.C.L., at the commemoration of 1836, but devised while he was master shipwright of Chatham Dockyard. Tbis severe indisposition compelled bim to decline it. He died at bis house system formed the subject of two memorable papers in the Philoso- at Taunton in Somersetsbire, on the 25th of April 1810, aged Seventyphical Transactions' of the Royal Society, for the years 1814 and 1818, two, leaving several children; his wife's decease had taken place a few one by Sir R. Seppings in each of those years, and one by the cele- years before. brated Dr. T. Young, For. Sec. R. S. (YOUNG, THOMAS.) in the former, SEPU'LVEDA, JUAN GINE'S DE, an eminent Spanish scholar and and wbich attracted an unusual amount of public attention. The great historiad, was born at Pozoblanco near Cordova, in 1490. After purprinciple of this method was such an arrangement of the principal suing his studies, first in Cordova and then at the university of limbers as would oppose a powerful mechanical action to every change Alcalá, he embarked for Italy in June, in 1515, and reached Bologna, of position of the ribs and other timbers in every part of the ship, where he obtained admission into the college founded by Cardinal thus firmly compacting together the entire fabric, and preventing that Albornoz. There he made rapid progress in theology and the learned perpetual racking of beams and working of joints which in the ancient languages under the guidance of the celebrated Pom ponazzi (Peter). system of ship-building, produced hogging, creaking, leakage, and translated part of Aristotle, and wrote the life of Cardinal Albornoz: rapid decay; and filling up likewise every vacuity between the De Vita et Rebus Gestis Ægidii Cardinalis Albornotii,' lib. iii., fol., timbers, which are occasionally the unavoidablo receptacles for Rome, 1521. Sepulveda afterwards went to Rome, where he found á foul air, filth, vermin, and various other sources of rottenness and protector in Cardinal Carpi, who gave him a lodging in his palace. disease. These important improvements, though opposed to the Thence he passed to Naples, where he assisted Cardinal Caetano in inveterate prejudices of the older shipwrights, a body of men who revising the Greek text of the New Testament. In 1529 Sepulveda have not sufficiently valued and understood, in this country at least, returned to Rome and entered the service of Cardinal Quiñones; but the just principles of mechanical action, in the practical operation of in 1536, having been appointed chaplain and historiographer to ship-building, were universally adopted in the navy under the Charles V., be quitted Italy and arrived in Spain, where he was enlightened administration of Mr. Charles York, and the powerful entrusted with the education of the eldest son of that emperor, afteradvocacy of Sir John Barrow in the 'Quarterly Review;' and the merit wards Philip II. About this time, Bartholomé de las Casas, bishop of of their author was acknowledged by his appointment as surveyor of Chiapa, so celebrated for his endeavours to alleviate the sufferings of the navy, and by the award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society, the Indians, was pleading their cause at court with all the zoal and of which he became a Fellow on the 10th of November 1814. fervour of a true philanthropist. Sepulveda, having been prevailed

While the claims of Sir R. Seppivgs to the invention of the system upon by the enemies of Las Casas to refute his arguments, wrote a of diagonal bracing in naval architecture is indubitable, it may not be book, entitled 'Democrates Secundus, sou de Justis Belli Causis,' &c., out of place to record here the following point of information. It can in which he undertook to prove that the wars of the Spaniards in be no derogation to the merits of discoverers or inventors to show America were just, and founded on their right to subdue the inhabithat their progress is a portion of the general advance of the human tants of a world discovered by them; that it was the duty of the mind. Sir John F. W. Herschel has stated in a letter to Mr. C. R. Americans to submit to be governed by the Spaniards on account of Weld, Assist. Sec., R.S., inserted in the History of the Royal Society' their superior knowledge and wisdom; and that if they would not by the latter, that he is “disposed to think that the system of triangular voluntarily acquiesce in the Spanish yoke, they might and ought to arrangement adopted by Sir' W. Herschel in the wood-work of his great be compelled to do so by force of arms. He further declared that his telescope being a perfect system of diagonal bracing," or rather only object in writing that work was to establish the rights of the kings





of Castile and Leon over America. This work however was never manuscript, called • Aphorismi Magni Momenti de Medicina Practica' printed, for when Sepulveda applied to the Royal Council for per: (Uri, Catal. Codd. MSS. Orienta, Biblioth. Bodl., No. 598); the other, mission to print it, it was refused, and the book itself was condemned entitled “Kunnásh' (a word probably derived from a Syrian one, by the universities of Alcalá and Salamanca, to which the case was which means to collect), has been translated into Latin, and published afterwards referred. Upon this Sepulveda wrote his Apologia pro under the various names, 'Pandectæ,' Aggregator,'. Breviarium,' Libro de Justis Belli Causis contra Indos suscepti,' which appeared at Practica,' and 'Therapeutica Methodus.' Dr. Russell (Append. to Rome, 8vo, 1550 : but the edition was seized by order of Charles V., Nat. Hist. of Aleppo') says that the only manuscript of this work that and but few copies were saved. Sepulveda died in 1573, at the age of he had seen in the European catalogues was that of the Escurial eighty-three,

(Cod. 814), which however contains only a small part of it; and that Sepulveda was a man of great learning. Erasmus speaks of him in he had never met with any of this author's works in the East. The the Ciceronianus,' and classes him among the best writers of his time. object of the work is to collect and put together in an abridged form Besides his Latin translation of part of Aristotle, which appeared at the opinions of the Greek and Arabic physicians concerning diseases Paris, fol., 1531, and that of the Commentary of Alexander of Aphro- and their treatment. “As Haly Abbas ( Lib. Reg.,' Prol.) remarks,” disias upon the same, which he had previously printed at Rome, fol., says Mr. Adams (Appendix to Barker's ed. of Lempriere, London, 1527, Sepulveda left the following works :—De Fato et Libero Arbitrio 1838), “he treats of the cure of diseases solely as practicable by medi. Libri Tres,' 4to, Rome, 1526, being a refutation of Luther's opinions cine and diet, and has entirely omitted hygiene and operative surgery. on fate; “Ad Carolum V. Cohortatio ut factâ cum omnibus Christianis The list of the complaints of which he treats is far less complete than Pace, Bellum suscipiat in Turcas,' 4to, Bolonia, 1529 ; * Antapologia those of Rhases, Haly, and Avicenna, and in particular it is remarkable pro Alberto Pio in Erasmum,' 4to, Paris

, 1531 (this was written in that he makes no mention of elephantiasis, aneurism, and diseases of defence of Cardinal Carpi); 'De Ritu Nuptiarum et Dispensatione the chest and genital organs ; his description of Small-Pox, as further Libri Tres,' 4to, Rome, 1531, and London, 1553; 'De Convenientia stated by Haly, is very incomplete." Dr. Freind remarks (Hist. of Militaris Disciplinæ cum Christiana Religione. In this work, written Physic, vol. ii., p. 42), that he “ often transcribes out of Alexander in the form of a dialogue, and dedicated to the celebrated Duke of Trallianus, an author with whom few of the other Arabic writers seem Alba, the author undertakes to prove tbat the profession of arms is to have been much acquainted.” A fuller account of Serapion's medical in harmony with the doctrines of Christianity. It was translated into opinions may be seen in Freind (loc. cit.), Haller (“Biblioth. Med. Pract.;' Spanish by Barba, 4to, Sev., 1541. 'De Appetenda Gloria;' 'De tom. i., p. 443), and Sprengel ( Hist. de la Med., tom. ii., p. 277). Ratione dicendi Testimonium in Causis Occultorum Criminum,' 4to, The first edition of his work mentioned by Choulant ('Handbuch Vallad., 1538; 'De Regno et Regis Officio,' 8vo, Lerida, 1571. A der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Medicin') is the translation by history of the reign of Charles V., another of that of Pbilip II., and a Gerardus Cremonensis, printed in black letter in double columns, narrative of the conquests of the Spaniards in Mexico, all three works folio, Venet., 1479, by Rainaldus Noviomagensis Alemannus, with the in Latin, are still inedited. Sepulveda's works were collected and title, 'Jo. fil. Serapionis Opera, s. Breviarium etc. et (Serapionis published, with the exception only of his translations, at Cologne in Junioris) Liber Aggregatus in Medicinis Simplicibus ex transl. Sim. 1602. They bave since been reprinted, in 1780, at Madrid, by the Januensis interprete Abraam Judæo Tortuosiensi

, etc.' The last edition Royal Academy of History, in four volumes, folio, with a portrait of mentioned by Choulant is a reprint of the translation of Andreas the author and an account of bis life and writings.

Alpagus (which was first published in folio, Ferrar., 1488), Venet., There is another Spanish writer named SEPULVEDA LORENZO, who folio, 1550, with the title, 'Jo. fil. Serapionis Practica,' &c., and with flourished about the same time, and gained considerable reputation the work of the younger Serapion in the same volume. Albanus as a writer of romances. He published . Romances sacados de Histo- Torinus published an edition (Basil, folio, 1543), with the title, Jani rias Antiguas,' 8vo, Antw., 1551 and 1580; · Romances sacados de la Damasceni Therapeutica Methodi Lib. VII., &c., which alteration of the Historia de España del Rey Don Alonso,' 8vo, Medina, 1562; 8vo, author's name has increased the confusion that already existed respectAntw., 1580; ‘Otros Romances sacados de la Historia y de los Quarenta ing him. An extract from his work is printed in Fernel's Collection of Cantos de Alonso de Fuentes,' 12mo, Burgos, 1579; Cancionero de the Greek, Latin, and Arabic writers 'De Febribus' Venet, fob, 1576. Romances,' 12mo, Vallad., 1577.

SERAPION, commonly called Serapion Junior, to distinguish him SERA'PION (Sepaniwv), an eminent physician of Alexandria, in the from the preceding, an Arabian physician of whom nothing is known. 3rd century B.C., who belonged to the sect of the Empirici, and who He must certainly have lived after Ibn Wafid (commonly called Alben80 much extended and improved the system of Pbilinus, that the gnefit or Abenguefit), since he quotes him, and as that author died invention of it is by some authors attributed to him. (Celsus, ‘De A.H. 460 (A.D. 1068), Serapion may perhaps be placed at the end of Medic.,' lib. i., præfat.)

the 5th century after the Hegira, or the 11th after Christ. There Dr. Mead, in bis Dissert. de Numis quibusdam à Smyrnæis in remains a work by him, 'De Simplicibus Medicamentis,' of which there Medicorum Honorem cusis' (p. 51), believes that he was a pupil of is an Arabic manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Uri, Erasi-tratus, because his name appears upon a medal discovered at Catal. MSS. Orient,' No. 597), but which bas only been published in Smyrna, and because the followers of that celebrated anatomist lived a Latin translation. "This is,” says Mr. Adams (Appendix to Barker's in that town; but as the Empress Eudocia (Violar. apud Villoison, Lempriere, London, 1838), “one of the most important works of Anecd. Græc.,' tom. i., p. 381) mentions a rhetorician of Ælia Capito- Arabic medical literature, and contains a useful compendium of all the lina (Jerusalem) in Palestine who bore the same name, one would have most interesting information on this head in the writings of Dioscorides quite as much right (says Sprengel) to reckon Serapion among the and Galen, with some additional rewarks by himself and the older rhetoricians, if Hadrian, the founder of the town of Ælia, bad not Arabic authorities; the most original part of it is the ‘Introduction,' lived much later than the time of Serapion.

in which he classifies substances according to their medicinal proSerapion wrote against Hippocrates with much vehemence, and perties, and gives an ingenious dissertation on their actions. On the occupied himself almost exclusively with researches into the nature whole, he has made very few additions to the articles in the Materia of drugs. (Galen, De Subfigur Empiric.,' cap. 13, p. 68, ed. Bas.) Medica of the Greeks, and indeed sometimes gives to his Grecian Cælius Aurelianus (De Morb. Acut, lib. ii, cap. 6, p. 84) quotes his masters credit for the discovery of certain medicinal substances, for book Ad Sectas,' finds fault with the severe remedies that he pre- which it would rather appear that we are indebted to his countrymen. scribed in Angina Pectoris, and reproaches bim with baving neglected Thus, in his chapter on Serina, he quotes Paulus Ægineta, but seemdietetics. ('Ibid.,' lib. iii., cap. 4, p. 195.) One may presume that in ingly by mistake, for no account of this purgative is now to be found those early times a great many superstitious remedies were used for in the works of the latter. Where all is mostly unexceptionable, and epilepsy; for Serapion, besides castoreum, recommended also the there is nothing remarkably original, it is difficult to point out any 'brain of the camel, the rennet of the sea-calf, autid párns, the excre- subject which it handled in a more interesting manner than the others ments of the crocodile, the heart of the hare, the blood of the tortoise, I would refer however to his account of squills: he says that the and the testicles of the wild boar. (Coel. Aurel., ‘De Morb. Chron.,' Vinum scilliticum is given as a laxative in fevers, and in dropsy as a lib. i., cap. 4, p. 322.) Several authors make mention of some other pre- diuretic, to remedy indigestion, for jaundice and 'tormina' of the parations and antidotes, which bear his name, and which are scarcely belly, for an old cough, asthma, and spitting of blood, and for cleansing worth more than those above mentioned. (Celsus, 'De Medic.,' lib. v., the breast of gross humours; and forbids the use of it when there is cap. 28, sect. 17, p. 307; Aëtius, tetrab. ii., serm. ii., cap. 96, col. 296; an ulcer in an internal organ." There are however abundant proofs of Nicolaus Myrepsus, ' Antidot.,' sect. i., cap. 66, col. 375.)

his credulity and love of the marvellous in his accounts of the bezoar SERAPION, & Syrian physician, called by Wüstenfeld (“Gesch. der (cap. 396, p. 188, a), diamond (cap. 391, p. 187, b.), asphaltus (cap. Arab. Aerzte '), Yana IBN SERAPION BEN IBRAHIM, and commonly 177, p. 147, a.), &c. "Amber," says he (cap. 196, p. 150), "grows in called Serapion Senior, to distinguish him from another physician of the sea like mushrooms on land. In China there are some persons the same name, with whom he is sometimes confounded. Nothing is solely engaged in fishing for this substance. That which floats on the known of the events of his life, and the century in wbich he lived is sea is swallowed by the whale, and quickly causes its death. When only to be calculated from his being quoted by Rbazes, who died the animal's body is opened, the best amber is found near the vertebral probably A.H. 320 (A.D. 932). We are told by the anonymous author column, and the worst in the stomach." of the Arab. Philosoph. Biblioth.,' quoted by Casiri (“Biblioth. The first edition of this work mentioned by Choulan (Handbuch Arabico-Hisp. Escur., tom. i., p. 261), that “ duo de Re Medica edidit der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Medicin”) was published at Milan, volumina, id est Collectionem Magnam Libris XII., et Collectionem folio, 1473, in black letter, with the title 'Liber Serapionis aggregatus Parvam Libris VII. comprehensam, utramque Syriacè : quam in in Medicinis Simplicibus, translatio Simonis Januensis interprete AbraArabicum Sermonem convertere Musa Ben Abrahim Alhodaithi, et ham Judæo Tortuosiensi de Arabico in Latinum. The last edition Ben Bablul." We possess two works that bear his name ; one still in / mentioned by him was published at Venice, folio, 1552, with the title

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