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REID, MAJOR-GEN. SIR WILLIAM, K.C.B.
REIMARUS, HERMANN SAMUEL. thege moral notions might be expressed algebraically, after this under the duke again in Belgium. In 1816, having attained the rank manner :-the benevolence or moral desert of an agent was analogous of captain, he served in the expedition against Algiers, assisting in the to a fraction, which had the good performed for the numerator, and operations connected with the bombardment of that place. For some the dispositions of the agent for the denominator. Reid, after examin- years after this period he was adjutant of the corps of Sappers and ing in his essay the nature of mathematical proof, and the subjects to Miners; and he became also one of those students of science, to which it had been applied by Hutcheson, showed that mathematics whom the lectures delivered by the professors of the Royal Institucould by no means have a necessary relation to morals, because the tion of Great Britain' have afforded opportunities of enlarging and truths to which the two sciences respectively refer addressed them- correcting their early instruction, which have proved so important to selves to different faculties of the mind. In 1752 the professors of many persons engaged in the active business of life. On Feb. 21, King's College, Aberdeen, elected Reid to be their professor of moral 1839, he was elected F.R.S. In 1838 as lieutenant-colonel he was philosophy. After this appointment he founded a private literary appointed Governor of Bermuda; and in 1846 Governor of the Windsociety, which met once a week, and its object was the discussion of ward Islands. Great improvements in the agriculture of Bermuda philosophical subjects for the mutual improvement of the members, were effected by him, and in both governments his firm and conamong whom were Doctors George Gregory, Campbell, Beattie, and ciliatory conduct gained the confidence and good-will of the entire Gerard, including of course the projector. Though Reid had as yet population. Two years afterwards he returned to England, and in published pothing but the 'Essay? mentioned above, his character as 1849 was appointed commanding engineer at Woolwich. In 1850 and a philosopher was established ; and in 1763 the University of Glasgow 1851 he directed the officers of Engineers and the Sappers and Minera, invited him to succeed Dr. Adam Smith in the chair of moral philo- preparatory to and during the Great Exhibition. On the resignation sophy. He entered upon its duties in 1764, in the discharge of which of Mr. R. Stephenson, C. E. (STEPHENSON, ROB r], Colonel Reid was he laboured indefatigably to carry out his principles. In the same requested by the Royal Commission to succeed him as chairman of year he published his Inquiry into the Human Mind, the substance the executive committee, to the duties of which office he gave unreof which he had previously delivered to his pupils at Aberdeen, and mitting attention until the close of the Exhibition. In September also read to the society, just named. The principal object of this 1851 he was appointed Governor of Malta, and on the termination of work was to counteract the influence of that scepticism which Hume his services at the Exhibition, for which he declined remuneration, had founded on the spiritual and ideal system of Berkeley. About received the honour of K.C.B., and shortly afterwards proceeded to the time that the 'Inquiry' was published, the author received the Malta, the government of which he has continued to retain to this degree of D.D. from the University of Aberdeen. In 1773 he pub-time (April 1857). lished, in Lord Kames's 'Sketches of the History of Man,' 'An General Reid is the second in point of time of the investigators of Analysis of Aristotle's Logic. In 1781 Dr. Reid withdrew from the laws of storms, to whom both science and navigation have become public labours; but he did not cease to pursue his favourite occupa- so greatly indebted during the last quarter of a century, and to whose tions. In 1785 he published his Essays on the Intellectual Powers, labours a remarkable finish has been given, with respect to theory, by of which the substance had been delivered, as he tells us, annually for the philosophical skill, first of Sir John Herschel, and more recently more than twenty years to a large body of the more advanced of Professor Dove of Berlin; while Mr. Dobson, in papers commustudents at Glasgow, and for several years before at Aberdeen. In nicated to the British Association, has shown their influence as 1788 came out his 'Essays on the Active Power of the Human Mind.' exciting, or rather permissive causes, of the explosions of fireDr. Reid does not appear to have published any more works than damp in coal-mines. A paper had been published in the American those already mentioned; but he gave his attention to various other Journal of Science' by Mr. Redfield, and this was placed in the subjects, both in his private studies and in relation to his college hands of Lieutenant-Colonel Reid, whose attention had been prelectures. Upon commencing his duties at Glasgow, he divided his viously drawn to the subject when employed in Barbadoes as Major course into four parts, after the example of his predecessor, Adam of Engineers, in re-instating the buildings ruined by the hurricane of Smith; the first part comprised metaphysics; the second, moral 1831. Impressed with the importance of the subject, as well in its philosophy; the third, natural law; and the fourth, political rights. practical as in its scientific relations, he continued to devote much He also gave lectures on rhetoric. He read several essays at different attention to it, and became convinced of the rotatory character and times before a philosophical society of which he was a member. definite path which had been ascribed to these storms by Mr. Redfield. Among these were An Examination of Dr. Priestley's opinion con. He embodied his views in an elaborate paper ‘On Hurricanes,' occucerning Matter and Mind ;'. 'Observations on the Utopia of Sir pying seventy pages of the second volume of the Papers on Subjects Thomas More ;' 'Physiological Reflections on Muscular Motion. The connected with the Duties of the Corps of Royal Engineers,' which last essay was read by Dr. Reid to his associates a few months only was published in 1838. In the same year appeared bis celebrated before his death, which took place October 7, 1796, in the eighty- work, founded upon the contents of that paper, entitled 'An Attempt seventh year of his age. After bis death, his Essays on the Intellec- to develope the Law of Storms by means of Facts arranged according tual and Active Powers' were published by Mr. Dugald Stewart, as to Place and Time;' of which three enlarged editions have since been
The Philosophy of Dr. Reid,' with a life of the author prefixed, from published. In 1849 he published "The Progress of the Development which this account of him is chiefly taken.
of the Law of Storms and of the Variable Winds, with the Practical The moral and social qualities of Dr. Reid were such as naturally Application of the subject to Navigation. The subject has also to inspire esteem, and in private life no man could be more highly received the attention of Mr. Henry Piddington of Calcutta, and Mr. esteemed than be was. As a writer, his language is simple and manly, Alexander Thom of Mauritius, both of whom have produced valuable and bis style clear and forcible, without any pretence to ornament. works on the subject, and the former (from whom rotatory storms have Opinions vary as to the merits of bis philosophy. His aim was to arrive received the appropriate and distinctive appellation of Cyclones), a at the general laws which regulate our mental operations by the series of investigations of Indian hurricanes in the journal of the inductive method, which, he thought, had never been applied to this Asiatic Society of Bengal, of the most precise character; while a subjeot. He has the merit of showing the unsatisfactory nature of peculiar theory of their origin and causes has been advanced by Mr. certain moral systems proposed by his predecessors, though it must be James P. Espy, a second American inquirer on this subject. owned that he occasionally fails to perceive the real purpose of parti. General Reid is also the author of many papers in the publication cular systems and lines of argument: indeed, Reid, as Hamilton of the Royal Engineers already cited, and in the Philosophical Magaremarks in one of his notes, “was but very superficially versed in the zine,' some relating to professional topics and others on various subjects literature of philosophy." Whether he has himself laid the founda- of natural science, chiefly physical and chemical. It is to him that tion of a system that will prove satisfactory is very doubtful. Perhaps the service, of which he is so distinguished an ornament, as well as the laws which regulate the material world will never be found the cultivators of science in several departments, are indebted not altogether applicable to the operations of mind. In all attempts that only for the original suggestion, but also for the plan of executing by have bitherto been made so to apply these laws, some conclusions officers of the Royal Engineers, of the valuable 'Aide-Mémoire to the have inevitably followed, which our sense of right and wrong refuses Military Sciences' noticed in a former article. [PORTLOCK, JOSEPH to admit, and this men will ever regard as a safer guide than any Ellison.) To this work Sir W. Reid was also a contributor. (SUPP.] scheme of philosophy however ably propounded. As to Dr. Reid's REIMÁRUS, HERMANN SAMUEL, was born at Hamburg, view of Aristotle's logic, it appears only just to say that he probably December 22, 1694. Early in life he devoted bimself to the study of never read Aristotle's logic in the original and did not clearly under languages, and he became distinguished for his knowledge of the stand it. A new and collected edition of Reid's works, edited with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He pursued his studies at the university Notes and Supplementary Dissertations by Sir W. Hamilton was in of Wittenberg, and upon the completion of his course, in 1717, he part published in 1846, but at Hamilton's death in 1856 the work was maintained some theses. On the Differences of Hebrew Words,' which still incomplete. (HAMILTON, SIR WILLIAM.] The student of Reid established his character for learning and acuteness. He then began should on no account omit to examine most carefully the notes of Sir to travel, and, having passed over several parts of Germany, he stayed William Hamilton.
a considerable time at Weimar, where he took the opportunity of REID, MAJOR-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM, K.C.B., F.R.S., was publishing a collection of minor productions. Having returned to born in 1791, at Kinglassie in Fifeshire, being the eldest son of the Hamburg, he was in 1727 made professor of philosophy in the univer. Reverend James Reid, a clergyman of the Scottish Church. He was sity of that city, and he filled this office with much honour to himself educated in the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, and entered during the space of 41 years. Reimarus married in 1728, Johanna the army as a Lieutenant of Royal Engineers in 1809. He served Frederica, the third daughter of the celebrated J. A. Fabricius. This under the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsula until the European connection with Fabricius proved to bim the occasion of many and peace, afterwards under General Lambert in America, and subsequently great advantages, and he also assisted Fabricius in some of his most
BIOG. DIV, VOL. V.
important literary labours. Towards the end of his life Reimarus tatio Parergica, accedit Georg. Schubarti, de Comitibus Palatinis devoted his hours of leisure to the study of natural history, of which Cæsareis Exercitatio historica,' Jenæ, 4to, 1679. 8, 'Syntagma he acquired an extensive knowledge. He had naturally a feeble con- Inscriptionum Antiquarum, Lips., fol., 1682. This collection only stitution, and he was long a sufferer from ill-health. He died March 1, contains the inscriptions omitted, or badly explained, by Gruter. It 1768. His principal works are :-1, “A Commentary on the Life and was regretted by the learned that the editor should not have pubWritings of John Albert Fabricius, Hamburg, 8vo, 1737 ; 2, 'A lished at the same time another work of Reinesius 'Eponymologium Letter to Cardinal Quirini concerning the works of Dion Cassius,' Criticum,' of which the original manuscript was in the bands of Th. Hamburg, 4to, 1746; 3, “The Roman History of Dion Cassius,' Ham- Fritsch, a bookseller at Leipzig. (See Klefeker, Biblioth. Eruditor. burg, 2 vols. folio, 1750, in the publication of which he availed himself Præcocium,' p. 313.) 9, 'Dissertatio critica de Sibyllinis Oraculis,' of materials which had been prepared by Fabricius, who had projected Jepa, 4to, 1702, at the end of a work by George Schubart, 'Enarratio an edition of this author. 4, A Dissertation on the Counsellors of Parergica Metamorphoseos Ovidianæ de Diluvio Deucalionis.' 10, the Great Sanhedrim,' Hamburg, 4to, 1751; 5, ' A Discourse on the Judicium de Collectione MSS. Chemicorum Græcorum quæ extant Principal Truths of Natural Religion,' Hamburg, 8vo, 1754 ; 6, 'Ob- in Biblioth. Gothana,' inserted in the Catal
. Cod. MSS. Biblioth. servations, Physical and Moral, on the Instinct of Animals,' Hamburg, Gothanæ,' Lips., 4to, p. 88, 1714; and in the Biblioth. Græca’ of 2 vols. 12mo, 1760. He is said moreover to have written the essays Fabricius, vol. xii. p. 748. 11, *De Vasis Umbilicalibus, eorumque which were published by Lessing, in 1774 and 1777, and known by Ruptura Observatio Singularis,' Lips., 4to, 1624. 12, Chymiatria, the name of the Wolfenbüttel Fragments.'
hoc est Medicina Nobili et Necessaria sui Parte, Chymia, instructa et REINEʻSIUS, THOMAS, was born at Gotha in Saxony, on the exornata,' Geræ-Ruth, 4to, 1624. C. G. Müller edited in 1819 bis 13th of December 1587. He was tolerably versed in the Greek and Observationes in Suidam,' Lips., 8vo. Another work appeared under Latin languages at the age of twelve; and being afterwards sent to his name, which was in fact the production of Fortunatus Fidelis, Wittemberg, the professors wished him to apply to theology. His entitled 'Schola Jurisconsultorum Medica, Relationum aliquot Libris inclination however led him to medicine: he continued his studies at comprehensa, quibus Principia Medicinæ in Jus transumpta ex proJena, and then travelled through various parts of Germany and Italy, fesso examinantur,' Lips., 800, 1676. Several other works have also remaining some time at Padua, for the sake of the medical lectures been wrongly attributed to him. Some letters of Reinesius are to be delivered there. On his return through Basel, he took his degree of found at the end of his eulogium, in the Elogia Clarorum AltenM.D. in that university, and then passed some time at Altdorf, in the burgensium,' by Fred. Gotth. Gotter, Jena, 8vo, 1713. Bayle, in his hope of procuring a professorship by the interest of his relation Dictionnaire,' and Niceron, in vol. xxx. of bis . Memoirs,' have given Caspar Hoffmann. He married, and, in 1617, settled in the practice an interesting account of him. His Life, written by himself in of his profession at Hof in Franconia. Thence, on the invitation of German, and found among his manuscripts, has been made use of in the margrave of Bareith, he removed to that town, having the posts the account given by Witten, ‘Memor. Philosoph.,' dec. viii., p. 461, of the margrave's physician and inspector of the public schools. In &c. J. Brucker bas inserted a more detailed life, in German, in bis 1627 he accepted the place of public physician of the town of Alten- Ehrentempel der deutscher Gelehrsamkeit,' dec. iii., p. 110, Augsburg, burg, in which be resided several years, and obtained the dignity of 4to, 1747. burgomaster. The elector of Saxony conferring upon him the rank REINHOLD, ERASMUS, was born October 21, 1511, at Saalfeld, of counsellor, he finally removed to Leipzig, where he died in 1667. about sixty miles southwest from Leipzig. He taught astronomy and Reinesius was a man of vast erudition, and may be reckoned almost at mathematics in the University of Wittenberg till 1552, when, being the head of learned physicians. By his printed letters it would appear obliged to quit that city on account of the plague, he returned to his that he was consulted as an oracle; that he answered very learnedly native province of Thüringen, where he died February 19, 1553. whatever questions were brought to him; and that he was extremely His published works are :- 1. Commentary on the Theoricæ nova skilled in the families of ancient Rome, and in the study of inscrip. Planetarum G. Purbachii,' 8vo, 1542 and 1558. This work, observes tions. A great eulogium is given of his merit, as well as of his learned Delambre, supplied in some respect the omissions of Purbach, and and classical works, by Grævius, in the dedication of the second must have facilitated the understanding of several passages of the edition of Casaubon's Epistles, dated Amsterdam, August 31, 1655; Syntaxis of Ptolemæus. In the dedication, Reinbold shows himself so aud by Haller, who calls him (Biblioth. Medic. Pract.') " a miracle of infatuated with judicial astrology as to be at the trouble of collecting learning", (ad miraculum doctus); and says that “in the accurate all the instances which appeared confirmatory of the notion that solar study and comparison of ancient writers, and in sagacity in discover- eclipses were the harbingers of great calamities. 2. The first book of ing the true reading of corrupt passages, he was unrivalled.” He the Almagest, in Greek, with a Latin version and scholia, 8vo, 1549. partook of the liberality which Louis XIV. showed to the most cele- 3. Prutenicæ Tabulæ Cælestium Motuum,' 4to, 1551, 1571, and 1585. brated scholars of Europe, and received at the same time a very These tables were formed from the observations of Copernicus, comobliging letter from Colbert, which favour he returned by dedicating pared with those of Hipparchus and Ptolemæus. Reinhold had made to him one of his works. Reinesius appears to have had no small share some observations bimself
, but his best instrument was a wooden of the pride and irritability that too often accompany the possession quadrant; and Tycho, on visiting Wittenberg in 1575, expressed his of great talents and learning. This involved bim in several angry surprise that so celebrated an astronomer should have been provided controversies, and is said to have been the cause of his leaving with no better tools. In this work the author gives a very clear Altenburg. In spite of his numerous occupations and the duties of his explanation of the equation of time. He assigns three reasons to office, he kept up a correspondence with several of the most eminent account for astronomical tables, constructed at one period, not according literary characters of his age, and several valuable collections of his with more recent observations, namely, the motion of the apogee, the letters have been published, viz. those to Caspar Hoffmann and variation of the excentricity, and the inequality of the precession. Christ. Ad. Rupert, Leipzig, 4to, 1660; to John Vorstius, Cologne, 4to, The last was sensible only in the systems of Thébith and Copernicus. 1667; to the elder and younger Nester, Leipzig, 4to, 1870; to The excentricity of the sun he makes from 0:0417 to 0·03219, and the Christopher Daum, Jena, 4to, 1670; and to John Andrew Bose, Jena, mean precession_50" 12" 5"" 8"'"'. From a comparison of the 12mo, 1700. Besides some notes on Manilius, inserted in the Stras- observations of Ptolemæus and Copernicus, he makes the length of bourg edition, 4to, 1655, and some observations on Petronius, Leipzig, the year 365 d. 5 h. 55 m. 58 8. ; and this determination was em8vo, 1666, he wrote the following among other works :-1, 'De Diis ployed in the Gregorian reformation of the calendar. He computes Syris, sive de Numinibus Commentitiis in Veteri Testamento Memo- the motion of the planets both after the manner of Ptolemæus and ratis Syntagma,' Lips., 4to, 1623. This work, though learned, is less that of Copernicus, whence Bailly concludes that he had no decided complete than that which Selden published afterwards on the same preference for either system. “ This conclusion," observes Delambre, subject. 2, 'De Deo Endovellico ex Inscriptionibus in Villa Vizosa appears to me hazarded. The most that can be inferred is that the Lusitaniæ repertis Commentatio Parergica,' Altenb., 4to, 1637. 3, partisans of the ancient system were yet the more numerous, and that ''IoTopoúueva Linguæ Punicæ Errori populari, Arabicum et Punicam Reinhold sought to conciliate all parties. He says nothing which can esse eandem, opposita,' ibid., 4to, 1637. This curious dissertation has lead the reader to suspect the existence of two different systems. He been inserted, as well as the preceding one, by Grævius, in the 'Syn- neither speaks of the motion of the earth nor of that of the sun. His tagma Variar. Dissertat. Rariorum,' Ultraj., 4to, 1702. 4, Variarum tables resemble our own, which still give the motions of the sun, notLectionum Libri Tres Priores, in quibus de Scriptoribus sacris et withstanding that we are all Copernicans. It cannot be supposed that profanis, classicis plerisque, disseritur,' ibid. 4to, 1640. These three he who wrote a commentary on the work 'De Revolutionibus,' &c., first books were to have been followed by three others, which never who repeated all the calculations and reconstructed the tables of appeared. It is a thick volume of about seven hundred pages, of Copernicus, had not a sentiment of preference for a system which he multifarious and (as Haller says) incredible learning, chiefly, but not had studied more than any one of his day.” The Prutenic tables were exclusively, classical. It also contains a good deal of matter relating the result of seven years' labour, and were so called in compliment to to medicine, and explains several obscure and difficult passages in the the author's benefactor, Albert, marquis of Brandenburg and duke of ancient physicians and those of the middle ages. Some of the expla- Prussia. The 'privilege,' printed at the head of the work, which nations of Reinesius were attacked with much bitterness by André bears the date July 24, 1549, refers to several other compositions Rivinus, to whom Reinesius published a reply under the title of which the author contemplated publishing, such as ephemerides, Defensio Variarum Lectionum contra Censuram Poëtæ L. (Laureati),' tables of the rising and setting of the stars for various epochs and Rostoch., 4to, 1653. 5, 'Inscriptio vetus Augustæ Vindelicor. eruta latitudes, &c. 4. • Primus Liber Tabularum Directionum, discentibus et Commentario illustrata,' Lips., 4to, 1655. 6,' Ænigmati Patavino prima elementa Astronomiæ, necessarius et utilissimus. His insertus Edipus è Germania, hoc est Marmoris Patavini Interpretatio,' ibid., est Canon Fæcundus ad siugula scrupula quadrantis propagatus. Item 4to, 1662. 7, De Palatio Lateranensi ejusque Comitiva Commen- nova Tabula Climatum et Parallelorum, item Umbrarum. Appendix
Canonum secundi libri Directionum qui in Regiomontani Opere 'Theocritus,' Gr. et Lat., 4to, 2 vols., Lips., 1766 ; 'Oratores Græci,' desiderantur,' 4to, Tübingen, 1554. In this work the table of tangents Gr. et. Lat., 8vo, 12 vols., Lips., 1774-75; Plutarchi Opera Omnia, was first extended to each minute of the quadrant from 0° to 89°, and Gr. et Lat., 8vo, Lips., 12 vols., 1774-82, of which only the first appeared to every 10" from 89° to 90°. The last figure of the tangents here during his life; Maximus Tyrius,' Gr. et Lat., 8vo, 2 vols., Lips., given can nowhere be depended on, and above 70° the error is much 1774, Dionysius Halicarnassensis,' Gr. et. Lat., 8vo, Lips., 6 vols., greater. Like Müller, he showed himself very little acquainted with 1774-77, of which the last four were published after his death. Some the use to which such a table is applicable, notwithstanding the epithet of these latter works, as well as several translations, were hastily “fæcundus which they applied to it. Reinhold supposed, with executed in order to gain a livelihood, and most of them have been Copernicus, that the obliquity of the ecliptic varied from 23° 28' to superseded by more recent and accurate editions. A complete list 238 52'. 5. 'Tabulæ Ascensionum Obliquarum à 60° Gradu Eleva- both of his published works and his manuscripts is given by Reiske's tionis Poli usque ad finem Quadrantis, per Erasmum Reinholdum wife, in her continuation of his memoirs, which were published at supputatæ,' appended to the edition of Müller's Tables of Directions,' Leipzig, 8vo, 1783, under the title, 'J. J. Reiskens von ihm selbst printed in 1584. 6. There is also an anonymous work, printed in aufgesetzte Lebensbeschreibung,' pp. 816. His knowledge of Greek 1568, 8vo, entitled 'Hypotyposes Orbium Cælestium quas vulgo vocant was considerable, and he is universally allowed to have been one of Theoricas Planetarum Congruentes cum Tabulis Astronomicis,' which the best Arabic scholars that ever lived ; in both these languages is supposed to be the composition of Reinhold. See. Astron. Moderne,' however he is much too bold and hasty a critic to be implicitly i., pp. 142 and 146. (Astronomie du Moyen Age, pp. 272-274; Astron. trusted, and his alterations and conjectures are frequently unnecessary Moderne, i., p. 164; Zedler, Grosses Universal Lexicon, fol., Leip., 1742, and absurd. band 31, p. 206; Vossius, De Scientiis Mathematicis, c. 36, p. 14; REISKE, ERNESTINE CHRISTINE, whose maiden name was Dappelmayer, De Mathem., &c.)
Müller, the wife of the preceding, and a woman of great literary REINHOLD, ERASMUS, son of the preceding. He possessed some accomplishments, was born on the 2nd of April 1735, at Kumberg, a knowledge of astronomy, and submitted to Tycho a copy of the small town near Wittemberg in Prussian Saxony. In 1755 she became Prutenic Tables calculated to each 10"; but the want of fortune obliged acquainted with Reiske at Leipzig, where she was paying a visit, and him to adopt the medical profession.
notwithstanding that he was twenty years her senior, they conceived REISKE, JOHANN JACOB, a physician, and celebrated scholar, a mutual love and esteem for each other; owing however to the war whose fame rests chiefly on his knowledge of the Arabic, was born on which raged all over Saxony, they were not married till 1764. This the 25th of December 1716, at Zorbig, a small town near Leipzig. union, which contributed so much to Reiske's happiness during the His grandfather was an innkeeper, and his father a tanner. At the rest of his life, was also of service to the cause of literature, and age of twelve he was sent to the orphan-school at Halle, and was Christine Reiske deservedly occupies a distinguished place in the list entered at the University of Leipzig in 1733, where, being destined by of learned women. In order to help her husband by dividing with his relations to the theological profession, he spent five years chiefly him his literary labours, she acquired under his instructions such a in the study of the rabbinical writings and Arabic. He was soon knowledge of Latin and Greek that she was soon able to understand induced to renounce the first of these pursuits, but he became ex- the writers in those languages. From this time she was of the greatest tremely devoted to the second; and his passion for Arabic books was assistance to him: she copied and collated manuscripts for him, 80 strong that he almost deprived himself of the common necessaries arranged the various readings that he had collected, and read and of life in order to purchase them. The learned Wolf of Hamburg corrected the proof sheets of his works. Her attachment for him and having, in 1736, sent him the 'Narrations' of Hariri, he copied it her respect for his memory are strongly shown in the supplement to with great eagerness, and in the following year printed at Leipzig the bis ' Autobiography,' which she completed, from the 1st of January twenty-sixth Consessus' with Arabic scholia and a Latin version. 1770, to the time of his death in 1774. The gratitude of Reiske, and The success of this essay caused him to take the resolution, contrary the ardour of his affection for one who lived only for him, are not less to the advice of his friends, of going to Holland for improvement in strongly expressed both in the 'Autobiography' just mentioned and the Arabic language. He ransacked all the Oriental treasures of the in the prefaces to some of his works. On the occasion of his publishing library at Leyden, wbilst for his subsistence he was obliged to become bis Demosthenes,' we have the following interesting note by his wife a corrector of the press. He passed his time in a state of indigence in his 'Memoirs':-"When the work went to press, only twenty thalers and discountenance that brought upon him hypochondriac affections, of the subscription money had come in. The good man was quite the effects of which never left him. During his stay at Leyden, he struck down with this, and seemed to have thrown away all bope. made use of the advantages the place afforded for the study of medicine, His grief went to my soul, and I comforted him as well as I could, and and on his return to Leipzig he was presented with a gratuitous degree persuaded him to sell my jewels, which he at length came into, after of Doctor of Physic; but his manners and habits were altogether I had convinced him that a few shining stones were not necessary to unsuited for the obtaining of professional practice. Poverty was his my happiness.". After her husband's death she published several perpetual companion, and his scanty resources were derived from works that he had left unfinished, namely, the last three volumes of correcting the press, translating, and performing other tasks for book- the 'Oratores Græci,' 8vo, Lips., 1775; • Libanii Sophistæ Orationes sellers. His condition soured his temper, and he made many enemies et Declamationes,' Altom., 4 vols. 8vo, 1783-87, Græce; 'Dionis by the severity of his censures. In the meantime, many valuable Chrysostomi Orationes,' Græce, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1784. She also works in Oriental and Greek literature were occasionally proceeding published two works herself, one at Mitau, 2 vols. 8vo, 1778-79, with from his pen, which made him well known to the learned world, and the title of 'Hellas,' and another entitled “Zur Moral: aus dem he was at length nominated rector of the college of St. Nicholas in Griechischen ubersetzt von E. C. Reiske,' 8vo, pp. 364, 1782, Dessau Leipzig. Thus placed in happier circumstances as to fortune, he and Leipzig, containing several moral works, translated by her from pursued his literary labours more according to his inclination, and the Greek into German. Concerning this last work see the Bibliotheca fulfilled the duties of his office with exemplary diligence. At the age of Critica,' by Wyttenbach (part viii. page 142), Amstel., 1783. She also forty-eight he married Ernestine Christine Müller, a young woman of gave to M. Boden, for his edition of the Greek romance of 'Achilles twenty-nine, noticed below, who was afterwards of great use to him in Tatius' (8vo, Leipzig, 1776), the various readings of a manuscript colhis editorial employments. He died on the 14th of August 1774. lated by herself. After her husband's death she lived successively at
The following is a list of some of the most valuable of his works, Leipzig, Dresden, and Brunswick, and died at her native town, Kumbeginning with those on Oriental subjects :-1, ‘Miscellaneæ aliquot berg, of apoplexy, on the 27th of July 1798. Observationes Medicæ ex Arabum Monimentis,' 4to, Lugd. Bat., 1746, RELAND, ADRIAN, was born at Ryp, a village in North Holland, a little work of much importance to all who take an interest in the on the 17th of July 1676. His father was a minister of that village, Arabic physicians, which was republished after Reiske's death by but afterwards removed to Amsterdam, where Reland was educated. Christ. God. Grüner, 8vo, Halæ, 1776. 2, ‘Abilfedæ Opus Geogra- He made such progress in learning that at eleven years of age he had phicum.' This translation of the Geography of Abdulfeda is to be passed through the usual classical course. The next three years he found in Büsching's Magazin für die neue Historie und Geographie,' spent in making himself acquainted with the Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, vols, iv. and v., Lips. 1770, 8vo. Unfortunately Reiske did not possess and Arabic languages, under the tuition of Surenhusius. At fourteen sufficient mathematical knowledge to understand the systematic part he was sent to Utrecht, where he studied under Grævius and Leusden, of such a work. 3, “Proben der Arabischen Dichtkunst in verliebten and three years after was admitted to the degree of Doctor in Philound traurigen Gedichten, aus dem Motanabbi, Arabisch und Deutsch, sophy, on which occasion he sustained a thesis, ' De Libertate Philosonebst Anmerkungen,' Leipzig, 1765, 4to. This contains only a part of phandi.' At seventeen be entered upon a course of divinity, under the poems of Motanabbi, the whole of which he had copied out during the direction of Herman Witsius and others; but he did not abandon his residence at Leyden, and wished to publish. A German translation the Oriental languages, which were always his favourite studies. After of the whole of his poems is among his unpublisbed manuscripts. 4, a residence of six years at Utrecht he removed to Leyden, and soon • Abilfedæ Annales Moslemici, Leipzig, 1754, 4to. This volumé after the Earl of Portland chose him as preceptor to his son. In 1699 contains the translation of the Annals of Abulfeda (ABULFEDA), from he was elected professor of philosophy at Harderwick, but did not the birth of Mohammed to A.H. 406 (A.D. 1015-16): it is scarcely two- continue long in that
situation; for the University of Utrecht, on the fifths of that part of Abulfeda's work which treats of the history of recommendation of King William, offered him the professorship of the Mohammedans. Reiske did not translate the first part of this Oriental languages and ecclesiastical history, which he readily accepted, work, which has for its object the history of the time anterior to and filled with high reputation during the remainder of his life. He Mohammed. His other works consist of editions of various classical died of the small-pox at Utrecht, on the 5th of February 1718, in the authors, as 'Constantinus Porphyrogennetus,' Gr. et Lat, fol., Lips., forty-second year of his age. He wrote and published a great number 1751, 1754; 'Ciceronis Tusculanæ Quæstiones,' 12mo, Lips., 1759; of works on sacred and Oriental learning, the chief of which are the
following :-De Religione Mohammedica Libri Duo, 12mo, Utrecht, the writing-master; Van Thol, the advocate ; Uytenbogaert, the minis1705, a second edition of which, with many additions, was published ter; and Uytenbogaert, the gold-weigher. at the same place, 12mo, 1717 ; 'Dissertationum Miscellanearum Rembrandt's great power was portrait ; his pictures of that class Partes Tres,' 12mo, 1706, 1707, 1708. These three parts, which are are in the mass incomparably superior to his historical pieces, which not always found together, comprise thirteen dissertations upon though wonderful for their effects of light and shade, exhibit frevarious subjects, more or less connected with eastern history and quently an utter want of taste in design. Instead of acquiring fame antiquities, with the exception only of one, treating of the languages in the ordinary way by any merits or beauties of form, Rembrandt of America. • Analecta Rabbinica,' 8vo, ib., 1702 ; 'Antiquitates commanded it, in spite of drawing the most coarse and incorrect Sacræ Veterum Hebræorum,' 12mo, 1708; Dissertationes quinque through a rich and brilliant colouring, a consummate mastery of de Nummis Veterum Hebræorum,' &c. ; ' De Spoliis Templi Hyeroso- chiaroscuro, and not unfrequently a power of composition that has lymitani in arcu Titiano Romæ conspicuis,' 12mo, 1716; Oratio pro seldom been surpassed. Rembrandt is supposed to have acquired his Lingua Persica,' 4to, ib., 1701; and a dissertation on the Marbles of peculiar taste for a brilliant concentration of light from an appear. Puteoli, 12mo, ib., 1709. But his greatest work, and that in which ance that he had been familiar with from his infancy in his father's his learning of the eastern languages shines most conspicuous, is mill, where a strong beam of light coming from a small and lofty * Palæstina ex Monumentis Veteribus illustrata et Chartis Geographicis aperture cast on the surrounding objects that peculiar tone which accuratioribus illustrata,' which appeared first at Utrecht, 2 vols. 4to, we see so happily illustrated in his pictures. He arranged the light 1714, and was reprinted at Nürnberg, 1716. Besides the above works in his own painting-room upon similar principles, and generally fixed Reland wrote many others, as the 'Dissertatio de Philippi Imperatoris a drapery behind his sitter of such colour as he intended to paint the Patris et Filii credito temere Christianismo,' a funeral oration to the ground. memory of Mary, wife of William III. of England, a dissertation on Rembrandt had a contempt for the antique; and the ordinary cant the progress of philosophy at the beginning of the 18th century, &c. of connoisseurs about grace, sublimity, and grandeur only excited his
REMBRANDT, HERMANSZOON (son of HERMAN) VAN Ryn, ridicule. His antiques, as he used to call them, were some old pieces or Rhyx, was the son of Hermann Gerritz, a miller. He was of armour, unique weapons, curious turbans, and various antiquated born on the 15th of July 1606, in his father's mill on the banks of articles of dress, which he procured from Polish Jews, and with which the Rhine near Leyden, whence the agnomen van Ryn. When very he almost indiscriminately clothed individuals of all nations, ancient young he was sent to a Latin school at Leyden; but he showed such and modern. Rembrandt's taste led him to imitate certain effects of a distaste for learning that his father gave up the idea of making a nature, and in the truth and power with which he gave these effects, scholar of him, and consented to his becoming a painter, as he had both in his paintings and his etchings, he has seldom been equalled, manifested a decided talent for it. Young Rembrandt was accordingly and never surpassed. The prevailing light of his portraits is that of placed first with Jacob van Zwaanenburg, or, according to another a brilliant sunset, and a rich golden tone of colouring pervades all his account, George Schooten. He remained with his first master about works. His originality is perhaps even more conspicuous in his etchings three years. He then studied for a short time under Peter Lastmann than in his paintings; he exhibited powers of the etching-needle at Amsterdam; and lastly, for a short time, under Jacob Pinas; but before unknown; many of his plates are prodigies of chiaroscuro; he formed a style peculiarly his own. After leaving Pinas he returned and there is a softness and reality about them which we look for in to his father's mill, where he commenced painting, taking the imme- vain in the works of other masters. It is said that he made a great diate vicinity and the peasants of the neighbourhood as his standard secret of his mode of etching, and never allowed any one to see him of nature, and applying himself enthusiastically to his work. He had at work. Most of his more important plates have evident traces of not finished many pieces before he was considered as a prodigy by his the dry point. friends, and he was persuaded by them to take one of these early Rembrandt, at the beginning of his career, bestowed great labour on productions to a dealer in the Hague, who, to his no greater joy than his pictures, and, in the manner of the generality of the Dutch painters, astonishment, gave him 100 forins (about eight guineas) for his per wrought them up to a very high finish.
• The Woman taken in formance. Rembrandt was so elated with this unexpected good Adultery,' in the National Gallery, is probably his best picture in this fortune that he posted home to his father in a chariot to convey the style. At a later period of life his whole attention was given to the joyful intelligence. From this time he rapidly acquired both fame effect; and his pictures, although still greatly laboured, had the and fortune. In 1630 he settled in Amsterdam, where he resided the appearance of having been executed with a remarkable freedom and remainder of his life, and shortly afterwards married a handsome boldness of touch : this is particularly the case with his portraits, peasant-girl of Ramsdorf, whose portrait he has often painted. His some of which have an astonishing body of colour in the lights. When reputation now became so great that he had many scholars, each of this roughness was objected to by any one, he was in the habit of whom paid him annually 100 florins, and he so arranged their studies saying that he was a painter, not a dyer; and when visitors ventured as to make them as profitable as possible to himself; be retouched to examine his pictures too closely, he used to tell them that the the copies which they made from his own works, and sold them as smell of paint was unwholesome. originals.
Rembrandt died at Amsterdam in October 1669. He had one son, This rapid and unexpected good fortune appears to have engendered Titus, who inherited his property, which, according to Descamps, was in Rembrandt a love of money. He is said to have resorted to various considerable. Titus was the pupil of his father, but being Rembrandt's mean expedients for acquiring wealth, though it appears to be ascer- son was the only distinction he ever enjoyed. Original Rembrandts tained that the common story of his miserly habits is incorrect. He are very valuable; some are estimated at several thousand pounds. sold impressions of his etchings, which were the principal source of They are scattered all over Europe, and this country possesses many; his income, before they were finished, when finished, and afterwards those in the National Gallery are all particularly fine specimens; the with slight alterations; and such was the rage after his works, that gallery of Dresden also possesses several of his master-pieces. The collectors thought it incumbent upon them to possess impressions of pictures by Rembrandt in the National Gallery are— The Woman his various etchings in all their different stages; and he is said to taken in Adultery;' The Adoration of the Shepherds ;' 'A Landhave thrown off from some plates as many as seven proofs, all varying scape, with Tobit and the Angel;' Christ taken down from the but very slightly. Various absurd and mean practices are reported of Cross'-a sketch in oil; 'A Woman Bathing;' Portrait of himhim, probably without much truth; but he was a man who could self;' 'Portrait of a Jew Merchant;' 'A Capuchin Friar;''A Jewish endure no restraint upon his manners or his conversation; polite Rabbi ;' ' A Girl;' 'A Man ;' 'Christ blessing Little Children.' society was to him intolerable, and he always avoided it. The burgo- Descriptive catalogues of his works were published by D. Daulby, master Six was the only man of rank with whom Rembrandt asso- Liverpool, 1796; by A. Bartsch in 1797; by Nagler and others. There ciated, and with him he occasionally passed a few days in his house in is a very extensive and remarkably fine collection of Rembrandt's the vicinity of Amsterdam, in which the burgomaster had fitted up etchings in the British Museum. a painting-room for him.
RÉMUSAT, JEAN-PIERRE-ABEL, a celebrated orientalist and According to Sandrart, Rembrandt realised an annual income of professor of Chinese and Tartarian languages in the Collége de France, nearly 2500 florins (about 2001.) from the sale of the copies made was born at Paris on September 5, 1788. A fall in his infancy from bis works by his pupils; and the traffic in his etchings alone, placed his life in danger, and necessitated an absolute repose for several independent of the labours of his own pencil and his pupils' fees—a years, but occasioned the loss of the use of one of his eyes. He at large amount of itself, but which added to the rest must have made a first studied for the profession of medicine, but he soon commenced princely income for those times; yet in 1656 he was declared bank. the study of oriental languages, and rapidly acquired great proficiency rupt, and his property remained under legal control as an insolvent in both these departments of knowledge. The death of his father in debtor till his death. It may serve to illustrate the high value 1805 left him with his mother dependent on him for support, when attached to his works to mention that the celebrated print of Christ he successfully commenced the practice of medicine in Paris ; but a Healing the Sick,' commonly called the Hundred Guilders,' received Chinese work on botany so greatly excited his curiosity, that without its d nomination from the fact that he refused to sell it for less than a master, and only assisted by the grammar of Fourmont, he taught that amount-about eight guineas. This plate was bought by Alder himself the language in order to read the explanations of the plates. man Boydell, who destroyed it after he bad taken a few impressions In 1811 be published an “Essai sur le Langue et la Litterature from it, which enhanced the value of the prints accordingly. A good Chinoises,' which attracted much attention. In 1813 he received the impression is worth upwards of 60 guineas, but a 'matchless' proof, degree of Doctor of Medicine, and in 1814 distinguished himself by sold at Christies, Feb. 23, 1867, sold for the unparalleled sum of 1,1801. the zeal and skill with which he attended the patients suffering from Etchings of the portraits fetch from 50 to 100 guineas. The most epidemic typhus in the hospitals of Paris. In 1814 the Collége de remarkable portraits are those of the burgomaster Six; Van Coppenol, France instituted for him the professorship of Chinese. The loss of
an eye, and being the only son of a widow, exempted him from the was then a prisoner in the hands of Filippo Maria Visconti, duke of ordinary conscription, but in 1814, when the allied armies entered Milan, but soon after having recovered his freedom he repaired to France, there was a danger of his being called upon, but Napoleon I., South Italy to dispute the crown of Naples with his rival. In 1438 through the intercession of M. Silvestre de Sacy and the Duc de Réné proceeded to Naples, and a desultory warfare was carried un Feltre, granted him a special exemption on account of his learned for three years in the Abruzzo and other provinces of the kingdom. labours. In 1818 he succeeded M. Visconti as editor of the 'Journal The death of the Condottiere Caldora, Réné's best officer, decided the des Savants;' and in 1824 he was appointed keeper of the oriental struggle in favour of Alfonso, who laid siege to Naples, and took it in manuscripts in the royal library. His known adherence to the party 1442. Réné escaped on board a Genoese vessel to Provence. He was of Charles X. occasioned a probability of his being displaced when that the last of the dynasty of Anjou who sat on the throne of Naples. monarch was dispossessed, but in acknowledgment of his peculiar In 1445 Réné gave his daughter Margaret in marriage to Henry VI. fitness he was allowed to retain his offices. He died on June 3, 1832. of England, on which occasion he obtained the restoration of his His principal works are a translation from the Chinese of a ‘Livre des territories of Anjou and Maine, which were in the possession of the Récompenses et des Peines,' 1817; 'Recherches sur les Langues Tar- English. Réné now resided sometimes at Angers and occasionally at tares,' 1820, in which he has given the best view bitherto presented of Aix in Provence, occupying himself with the administration of his the Manchow, Mongol, Oujein, and Thibetian languages; · Éléments de territories, and also with the arts of painting, poetry, and agriculture. la Grammaire Chinois,' 1722; Mélanges Asiatique,' 1825, continued in He wrote several works both in prose and verse, among others one on 1829 as Nouvelles Mélanges Asiatiques; these contain many of the tournaments, the manuscript of which, enriched with drawings, is papers wbich had previously appeared in the 'Journal Asiatique, preserved in the National Library at Paris. In 1449-50 Réné attended *Journal des Savants,' Mines de l'Orient,' La Biographie Universelle,' Charles VII. of France in his successful war against the English, after &c. The novel of 'Yu-Tiao-li, ou les keux Cousines,' and 'Contes which he returned to his dominions to pursue his favourite occupations. Chinois,' 1827; and a posthumous work, 'Fou-kou-ki, ou Relation His eldest son John attempted to take Naples from Ferdinand of des Royaumes Bouddhiques, traduit du Chinois et commenté, revu Aragon, who had succeeded Alfonso, but his enterprise failed. In par Klaproth et Landresse,' '1836, besides numerous detached papers 1473 Louis XI. of France seized Anjou under some pretence, and in various periodical works, some of which were afterwards published Réné retired to Aix in Provence, where he died in 1480, regretted by separately. He was also member of various learned societies, among bis subjects, among whom he has retained the enviable appellation of them the Asiatic Societies of London and Calcutta. His life has been 'le bon Roi Réné,' for he continued to style himself King of Sicily written by M. Silvestre de Sacy.
and Jerusalem. He introduced several useful trees and plants into RENAUDOT, EUSE'BIUS, was born at Paris in 1646. His father Provence, among others the muscadel grape, and encouraged manuwas first physician to the dauphin of France (afterwards Louis XIV.). factures of woollens and glass. A ‘Précis Historique' of his life was Renaudot was educated at the Jesuits' college, and entered the congre- published by Boisson de la Salle (Aix, 1820), and a marble statue was gation of the Oratoire, though he did not remain long in it. From raised to his memory in one of the squares of Aix in 1823. Réné's his early youth he was particularly inclined to the study of the Arabic, sons having died before him, he was the last representative of the Syriac, and Coptic languages, by means of which he was afterwards house of Anjou, and after his death Provence was united to France. enabled to enter so deeply into the origin and history of the Eastern Bargemont, vicomte de Villeneuve, published a 'Histoire de Réné church. He became well known at court, where his vast learning d'Anjou, Roi de Naples, Duc de Lorraine, et Comte de Provence,' made him much esteemed and admired, and Colbert being then desirous Paris, 1825. of establishing printing presses for the Oriental languages at Paris, RENNELL, JAMES, born near Chudleigh in Devonshire in 1742, consulted him upon the subject, engaged his services, and offered him entered the pavy at an early age as a midshipman. His father was a the reversion of a place in the Royal Library; but that minister having captain in the artillery. Young Rennell went with Admiral Parker died before his views could be realised, Renaudot was not appointed to India, and rendered some effectual service at the siege of Pondicherry. to the vacant office. He seems however to have been employed by At the age of twenty-four he quitted the navy, and entered the corps the king in various negociations with the governments of England and of engineers in the service of the East India Company. He distioSpain, his time being so much taken up by these occupations, that, guished himself in the campaigns of Lord Clive, received some severe while they lasted, he almost entirely discontinued his favourite studies. wounds, and was promoted to a majority. "It was during this period In 1689 he was made a member of the French Academy, and, three that he produced his first work, ‘A Chart of the Bank and Currents of years after, of that of the Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.' In 1700 he Cape Agulbas,' the most southern point of Africa. While he was accompanied to Rome Cardinal de Noailles, archbishop of Paris, and stationed in Southern Africa, he surveyed Adam's Bridge and the acted as his 'conclavista' in the conclave which elected Clement XI. Paumbeen Pasgage between the island of Ramisseram and the continent, to the papal dignity. While at Rome, Renaudot resumed his favourite and he expressed his conviction of the practicability of widening the studies, and the library of the Vatican furnished him with ample passage for ships. This suggestion has been lately acted upon, after materials for the history of the Eastern church-a subject which he a lapse of seventy years. While he held the appointment of surveyorhad long in mind, and to wbich he now devoted his whole attention. general of Bengal he published his 'Bengal Atlas,' with an account of In this design he was assisted by the new pope, who persuaded him the Ganges and the Brahmapootra, in which he conjectured that the to remain in Rome several months after the departure of Cardinal de Sampoo of Tibet was the main feeder of the latter river. On his Noailles, and gave bim the priory of Frossey in Bretagne. On his return to England in 1782 Major Rennell published a Map of Hinreturn to France, Repaudot devoted himself entirely to letters, and dustan, accompanied by a 'Memoir,' 4to, 1788. He was also elected composed a great number of learned dissertations, which are printed member of the Royal Society, and became intimate with Dr. Vincent, in the Memoirs' of the Academy. He died in 1720, at the age of Sir William Jones, Dr. Horsley, bishop of St. Asaph, and other learned seventy-four, greatly regretted by the learned men of his time. His men of his time. In 1793 he published Marches of the British Army fine and extensive collection of Oriental manuscripts he bequeathed in the Peninsula of India during the Campaigns of 1791. He also to the abbey of St. Germain des Prés. They remained there until the published "Memoir of a Map of the Peninsula of India, exhibiting its Revolution, when they were incorporated with the Oriental collection Natural and Political Divisions, the latter conformably to the Treaty in the Royal Library. Renaudot wrote the following works:-1, A of Seringapatam of March 1792;' and also · Elucidations of African collection of controversial pieces on the celebrated work by Nicole, Geograpby, from the Communications of Major Houghton and Mr. entitled 'Défense de la Perpetuité de la Foi contre les Monuments Magra in 1791, with a Map'_In 1794 Major Rennell published a authentiques de la Religion des Grecs,' Paris, 8vo, 1708; 2, "Historia political pamphlet, entitled 'War with France the only Security of Patriarcbarum Alexandrinorum Jacobitarum, &c., Paris, 4to, 1713; Great Britain at the present Momentous Crisis, by an Old Englishman.' 3, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio,' Paris, 2 vols. 4to, 1716 ; 4, The French Convention had already placed themselves out of the pale • Ancient Account of India and China,' written by two Mohammedan of international law by their resolutions of the 19th of November travellers of the 9th century, translated from the Arabic, Paris, 8vo, 1792, in which they offered their aid to any people in any country of 1718. This has subsequently been found to be only a translation of Euro who wished to overthrow the
government. In 1798 part of a geographical and historical work, entitled 'Murúju-dh- he assisted Mungo Park in the arrangement of his African travels, and dhahab wa Mádanu-jauhar' ( Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems'), illustrated his work by a map and a memoir in the appendix. His by the celelebrated Masudi, an Arabian writer of the 10th century. next work, and that by which he is most generally known, was 'The 5, .Gennadii Patriarchæ Constantinopolitani Homiliæ de Eucharistia,' | Geographical System of Herodotus examined and explained,' 4to, 1800. together with other Latin treatises on the same subject, Paris, 4to, He also wrote :-1, 'Observations on the Topography of the Plain of 1703.
Troy;' 2, 'A Treatise on the Comparative Geography of Western RENÉ OF ANJOU, born in 1409, was the son of Louis II., duke Asia,' with an Atlas, a work of great labour and research ; 3, “Illusof Anjou and count of Provence. In 1434 he succeeded his brother, trations, chiefly Geographical, of the History of the Expedition of the Louis III. Before this time, Réné bad married Isabella of Lorraine. younger Cyrus from Sardis to Babylon, and the Retreat of the Ten After the death of Queen Joanna II. in 1435, Réné laid claim to the Thousand;' 4, 'An Investigation of the Currents of the Atlantic Ocean, kingdom of Sicily and Naples, but he had a powerful rival in Alfonso and of those which prevail between the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic.' of Aragon. (Alfonso V.; Joan II.] Réné was then a prisoner of For this important work he examined and collated the log-books of the Duke of Burgundy, who opposed his succeeding to the inheritance all the ships of war and Indiamen which had traversed those seas of Lorraine, which he also claimed after the death of the duke, bis during the last thirty or forty years, recomputing their observations father-in-law. He sent however his wife Isabella to Naples with her and reducing them to one general system. The results of all this younger son Louis. She was received with acclamations by the old prodigious labour were ready for the press at the time of his death, end numerous partisans of the house of Anjou. Alfonso of Aragon and were shortly afterwards published by his daughter, Lady Rodd,