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error in the received opinions respecting hernia, and proved that when he took his degree as doctor of medicine, having presented a thesis the intestine is protruded, the peritoneum is not torn, but stretched, entitled 'Methodus Muscorum Illustrata.' In this work he gave a 80 as to form a saccular prolongation from the living of the abdomen; new arrangement of the mosses, and laid the foundation for a larger a fact which was first published, with several other results of Swam- work, entitled “Dispositio Systematica Muscorum Frondosorum merdam’s inquiries, in Schrader's observations. In the same year he Sueciæ,' which was published at Erlangen in 1799. This work was published his treatise on the natural history of bees; "a work,” says illustrated with plates and descriptions of many new mosses. In 1783 Boerhaave, “which all the ages from the commencement of natural be made a voyage to the western coast of America, and visited Jamaica history have produced nothing to equal—nothing to compare with." and other islands in the West Indies; and, loaded with botanical But the labour it had cost him, and the incessant fatigue to which he treasures, he visited England on his return home, in 1788. He bad been exposed in making microscopic observations for hours together remained in this country a year, during which time he was occupied under the heat of a burning sun, destroyed his health, which had in examining the herbaria of Sir Joseph Banks, Sloane, and other always been delicate, and he determined to sell his museum, and botanists. He returned to his own country in 1789, and was elected renounce all his former pursuits for a religious life, for which his a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm in 1790, desire had been excited by Antoinette Bourignon, with whom he had and was appointed professor of natural history in the Medico-chirur. long maintained a correspondence. But it was not easy to find a pur- gical Institution at Stockholm. He was also honoured by being made chager for so extensive a collection : his friend Steno, on the part of a knight of the order of Vasa and of the Polar Star. In 1788 he the Duke of Tuscany, offered him 12,000 florins for it if he would published at Stockholm his Nova Genera et Species Plantarum;' become a Roman Catholic; but this he angrily refused, and Thévénot this work contained a description of the plants which he had collected tried in vain to dispose of it in France. While various negociations in the West Indies; most of them had never before been described. were pending, he completed the arrangement of his museum, and made This work was succeeded by his Observationes Botanicæ,' containing catalogues of it ; and in 1675 published his last work, on which he had remarks on the structure and affinities of the plants of the West been engaged for more than ten years— The Anatomy of the Day-fly.' Indies, in 1791. From 1794 to 1800 he published in folio the 'Icones In 1676 he went to Copenhagen with another disciple of Antoinette Plantarum Incognitarum,' which contained drawings of the rarer Bourignon, to obtain from the king of Denmark leave for her to reside plants which he had discovered in the West Indies. He completed in his kingdom, the Lutheran divines of Holland having endeavoured his labours on the botany of this part of the world by the publicato remove her from Holstein. His application however was unsuc- tion of bis Flora Indiæ Occidentalis' in 1806, which appeared in 3 cessful; and on bis return to Amsterdam he found his father enraged | volumes, illustrated with plates. The above works on West Indian at him for his continued neglect of all profitable employment, and botany were entirely devoted to the phanerogamic or flowering plante; determined to allow him but an insufficient income for his maintenance. but he did not neglect cryptogamic plants, and in 1806 he published He was in utter despair what course to pursue consistently with his the 'Synopsis Filicum,' which contained a number of new genera and anxiety for a life of quietude and religion. In a few months his species of ferns. After these publications he turned his attention father died. Instead however of inheriting money enough for the more particularly to the botany of his own country, and published purpose of his retirement, he found himself involved in a dispute with anonymously at Stockholm, in 1814, a work entitled 'Summa Vegeta. his sister respecting the division of the property, which, with his con- bilium Scandinaviæ systematicè co-ordinatorum.' He also contributed tinued anxieties about the sale of his museum, brought on a severe the text from the 5th to the 8th volume of the 'Svensk Botanik,' a illness, with melancholy, and he died February 15, 1680.

national work on the botany of Sweden, produced by several authors. Swammerdam left all bis manuscripts on insects to Thévénot, after In addition to the above works, he contributed a number of papers whose death, having passed through several different hands, they were on botanical subjects to the Transactions of various societies; amongst bought by Boerhaave, and published in one volume. His heirs endea- others, to the 'Philosophical Transactions, and to the Transactions voured to obtain 5000 florins for his museum, but in vain ; and it was of the Linnean Society, of which he was a foreign fellow. He also at length broken up and sold in small portions to different purchasers. contributed several papers on zoology to various journals and Trans. All the works of Swammerdam were translated from the Dutch into actions. He died at Stockholm, September 18, 1817. Latin by Gaubius, and most of them at different periods into English, As a botanist Swartz ranked amongst the first of his day, and was French, and German. Boerhaave, with his edition, published a Life a worthy disciple of the school of Linnæus. His principal labours of the Author, which is added to the English translation of The were directed to descriptive botany, in which he was remarkable for Book of Nature, or the History of Insects,' by Thomas Floyd, folio, acuteness without prolixity, purity of expression, and freedom from London.

novel technicalities. He has contributed greatly to our knowledge of SWANEVELT, HERMANN VAN, called the Hermit of Italy, one the vegetable kingdom, having added upwards of 50 genera and 850 of the most eminent landscape painters of the Dutch school, was born species to the list of flowering plants, besides a great number to the in 1618 or 1620, at Woerden. It is generally supposed that he was class of Cryptogamia. A genus of Leguminous plants has been named at first a pupil of Gerard Douw; he however went, very young, to after him Swartzia. A volume of his posthumous papers, with Italy, where, having chosen landscape painting as the branch of the notices of his life and labours, by Sprengel and Agardh, was published art most conformable to his taste, he became a pupil of Claude at Stockholm in 1829, by J. E. Wickström, under the title 'Adnota. Lorraine, and soon proved himself worthy of so great a master. He tiones Botanicæ quas reliquit O. Swartz.' was unremitting in his study of nature, and his retired way of life, SWEDBERG, JESPER, a Swedish prelate and theological writer, which was wholly devoted to his art, caused him to be called 'the was born on the 28th of August 1653, at Sveden, near Fahlun, the hermit,' by which name he was soon generally known. All his works, estate of his parents, Daniel Isaacson and Anne Bullernesia, who were his paintings, his drawings, and his etchings bear the stamp of a members of a respectable family among the miners of Stora Kopparfaithful imitation of nature. The scenes which he represents are berg. Swedberg took his degree at Upsala in 1682, was appointed diversified and picturesque; the perspective, light and shade, the toue chaplain to the Royal Guards in 1684, chaplain to the court in 1685, of the sky, are admirable, and expressed with a firmness and decision and was promoted to the living of Vingäker in 1690. He was called that indicate the hond of a master. It is said that, in company with to Upsala as professor of theology in 1692, and made primate and Claude, he was fond of observing the effect of the first faint tinge of provost of the cathedral of that place in 1694. Charles XI. appointed the morning light on the surfaces of objects, and the changes that him over the Swedish communities in Pennsylvania (America); and gradually take place as the sun rises higher in the heavens, and as he in 1702 Charles XII. created him bishop of Skara in Westrogothia. progressively declines from his meridian splendour.

In 1705 he became Doctor of Theology at Upsala ; and in the same Swanevelt's pictures have the sweetness and tenderness of Claude, year Charles XII. placed him over the Swedish communities in but they want his warmth, and are less striking in their effect; but London. He procured for the city of Skara a privileged press, to his figures both of men and animals are superior to those of Claude. which he gave employment by his numerous writings. In 1712 the His paintings are excessively rare, as well as his drawings. His episcopal palace was destroyed by fire, and the bishop lost his library etching, 116 in number, have never been surpassed in the choice of and many manuscripts. In 1719 the whole town of Skara was burnt, the subjects, the judicious distribution of light and shade, the pleasing but the gymnasium and cathedral were rebuilt in five years through groups of figures with which they are adorned, and the spirit and per- his exertions. On the 3rd of May 1719 his family was ennobled by fection of the execution. To appreciate their merit, we must have the name of Swedenborg. In 1730 another fire deprived him of good impressions, which usually have the master's name on them; nearly the whole of his property. He was vigorous and active to the for the plates have passed through many unskilful hands, and many end of his life, which terminated on the 26th of July 1735. He died can scarcely be recognised. His pictures were so much sought for, at the age of eighty-two, and was buried in the convent-church of even in his life, that they were sold at excessively high prices. The Varnhem. Bishop Swedberg was three times married : first, to Sarah time of his death, which took place at Rome, is rather uncertain; Behm (SWEDENBORG, EMANUEL); secondly, to Sarah Berghia; and some say it was in 1690, others in 1680; while Passeri says 1659, and thirdly, to Christina Urrbusia. He had seven children, four daughters the register of the French Academy, of which he was a member, 1656. and three sons, of whom the eldest was Emanuel Swedenborg, the

SWARTZ, OLOF, a celebrated Swedish botanist, was born in the subject of the following notice. (Gezelius, 'Försök til et Biographiskt gear 1760, at Norrköping in East Gothland, where his father was a Lexicon,' 8vo, Stockholm, 1778-80.) considerable manufacturer. He commenced his studies at al, in The bishop's writings are voluminous, and they are not confined to 1778, in the year that Linnæus died. Having acquired a taste for theology, but take in a wide range of subjects. He was one of the botany, he made several excursions in the years 1779, 1780, 1781, and earliest writers on Swedish orthography: his book on the subject 1782, through various districts of Sweden, for the purpose of studying drew down on him the censure of one Urban Hjaerne, who, in a their botany, and visited Lapponia, Finland, and Gothland. In 178i violent pamphlet that he put forth in the form of a dialogue, accused




646 the worthy bishop of hout payuosúvn (in fact, of being a busy body in heavy artillery, which it would have been impossible to have conveyed literature). A very complete list of Swedberg's extensive works may by land, under the very walls of Frederickshall.” (Sandel's • Eulog:') be seen in the 'Catalog. Libr. Impr. Biblioth. Reg. Acad. Upsal.,' 3 tom. Swedberg's next literary works were, 1. The Art of the Rules' (an 4to, Upsal., 1814.

Introduction to Algebra, of which a full analysis may be seen in the Many particulars of his history are given in Lagerbring's 'Samman-'Acta Literaria Sueciæ,' vol. i., pp. 126 to 134); only a part of this drag af Swea-Rikes Historia, 8vo, Stockholm, 1778-80; and a good work was published: the manuscript portion, according to Lagerbring, biography of bim is prefixed to Dr. Tafel's Swedenborg's Leben,' contains the first account given in Sweden of the Differential and Tübingen, 1841, pp. 1.43. He left behind him in manuscript an Integral Calculus ; 2. 'Attempts to find the Longitude of places by autobiography in 1002 folio sheets, a copy of which he is said to have means of the Moon.' (A. L. S., vol. i., pp. 27 and 315.) These given to each of his children. The title of this document (which is treatises were both in Swedish, and were both published at Upsal written in Swedish, and still extant in Sweden) may be translated as in 1718. follows :-"Manuscript: The Life of Jesper Swedberg, Bishop of In 1719 he was ennobled by Queen Ulrica Eleonora under the Skara, written in detail by himself, in accordance with the truth; in name of Swedenborg. From this time he took his seat with the order to remind him of the goodness of God and of his wonderful nobles of the Equestrian order in the triennial assemblies of the states. Providence; and to give to his children and posterity necessary His new rank conferred no title beyond the change of name, and he instruction for passing through life happily; whereto may God grant was not, as is commonly supposed, either a count or a baron: he is them his grace :” Brunsbo, Nov. 15, 1728. (Warmholtz, "Bibliotheca always spoken of, in his own country, as “the assessor Swedenborg. Sueo-Gothica,' 8vo, Upsal, 1782, et seqq.)

In this year he published three works in Swedish: 1. ‘A Proposal SWEDENBORG, EMANUEL, the second child and eldest son of for a Decimal Arrangement of Coinage and Measures, to facilitate CalJesper Swedberg, bishop of Skara, the subject of the preceding article, culation and suppress Fractions' (Stockholm); 2. “A Treatise on the and of his first wife, Sarah Behm, daughter of Albert Behm, assessor Motion and Position of the Earth and Planets’ (Skara); 3. “Proofs of the board of mines, was born at Stockholm, on the 29th of January derived from appearances in Sweden, of the depth of the Sea, and the 1688. Of his childhood and youth there is no record, except that his great Force of the Tides in the earliest ages' (Stockholm). Occasional mind was early occupied by religious subjects. "From my fourth to papers by him appeared in the 'Acta Lit. Suec.' for 1720-21. Two of my tenth year,” says he, in a letter to Dr. Beyer, “ my thoughts were these have been translated into English. (See Acta Germanica,' constantly engrossed by reflecting on God, salvation, and the spiritual pp. 66 to 68, and pp. 122 to 124, vol. i., London, 1742.) affections of man. From my sixth to my twelfth year, it was my In the spring of 1721 he again went abroad through Denmark to greatest delight to converse with the clergy concerning faith, and I Holland, and published the six following small works at Amsterdam : often observed to them that charity or love is the life of faith, and 1. 'A Specimen of Principles of Natural Philosophy, consisting of that this vivifying charity is no other than the love of one's New Attempts to Explain the Phenomena of Chemistry and Physics neighbour."

by Geometry' (Prodromus Principiorum Rerum Naturalium, sive Bishop Swedberg bestowed great care on the education of his son, novorum tentaminum Chemiam et Physicam experimentalem Geo. which he received principally at the University of Upsala. He was metrice explicandi) ; 2, 'New Observations and Discoveries respecting uncommonly assiduous in the study of the learned laoguages, mathe- Iron and Fire, with a new mode of constructing Stoves' (Nova Obser: matics, and natural philosophy. At the age of twenty-two he took vata et Inventa circa ferrum et ignem; una cum nova camini inven. his degree of Doctor of Philosophy, and published his first essay- tione); 3, 'new method of finding the Longitude of Places, on the academical dissertation which he had written for the degree. This Land or at Sea, by Lunar Observations' (Methodus nova inveniendi essay is entited ‘L. Annæi Senecæ et Pub. Syri Mimi, forsan et aliorum Longitudines Locorum, Terra Marique, Ope Lunæ); 4, 'A mode 01 selectæ sententiæ, cum annotationibus Erasmi et Græca Versione Jos. constructing Docks? (Modus construendi Receptacula Navalia); 5, Scaligeri. Quas cum consensu Ampl. Fac. Philos. notis illustratas sub A new way of making Dykes'

(Nova Constructio Aggeris Aquatici); præsidio Viri amplissimi Mag. Fabiani Törner, Philos. Theoret. Prof. 6, 'A mechanical method for Testing the Powers of Vessels' (Modus Reg. et ord. publico examini modeste submittit Emanuel Swedberg in Mechanice explorandi Virtutes Navigiorum). From Amsterdam he audit. Gustav. maj. d. 1. Jun, 1709, Upsaliæ ;' reprinted with his went to Aix-la-Chapelle, Liège, and Cologne, and visited the mines Latin poems, by Dr. J. F. I. Tafel, Tübingen, 1841.

and smelting.works near those places. He arrived at Leipzig in 1722, In 1710 Swedberg came to London, just at the time the plague was and there published in three parts, Miscellaneous Observations on raging in Sweden, when all Swedish vessels were commanded by pro Natural Objects, particularly Minerals, Fire, and Mountain-strata' clamation to keep strict quarantine. He was persuaded to land | (Miscellanea Observata circa Res Naturales, præsertim mineralia, (probably in ignorance of the regulation); and he has recorded, in his ignem et montium strata). At Hamburg, during the same year, he Itinerarium of these travels, that he narrowly escaped being hanged published a fourth part, 'On Minerals, Iron, and the Stalactites in for the offence. He spent some time at Oxford, and lived afterwards Baumann's Cavern’ (Precipue circa mineralia, ferrum, et stalactitas in for three years abroad, chiefly in Utrecht, Paris, and Greifswalde, Cavernis Baumannianis). (Act. Eruditor. Lipsiens.,' 1723, p. 96-97.) returning to Sweden in 1714, through Stralsund, just as Charles XII. This work, like those which precede it, shows a rare power both of was commencing the siege of that city. His next productions were, a accumulating facts and applying principles. We learn from it that small volume of fables and allegories in Latin prose ("Camæna Borea, Swedenborg, among his other employments, was officially appointed cum heroum et heroidum factis ludens, sive Fabella Ovidianis similes, to visit, and to propose for selection the parts of the Swedish coast sub variis nominibus scriptæ, ab E. S., Sueco, Liber i. Gryphiswaldia,' which were best fitted for the preparation of salt; on which subject 1715) (“Act. Liter. Sueciæ,' vol, i. p. 589), and a collection of Latin the 'Miscellaneous Observations' contain an admirable business-like poems ("Ludus Heliconius, seu Carmina Miscellanea quæ variis in locis memoir. The fourth part gives the substance of several conversations cecinit Eman. Swedberg, Skara'). In 1716 Swedberg commmenced bis between Charles XII. and Swedenborg, in which the king proposed a • Dædalus Hyperboreus,' a periodical record of inventions and experi- new sexagenarian calculus.' Swedenborg made the last-mentioned ments by Polhem and others, and of mathematical and physical tour principally to gain a practical knowledge of mining. At Blanken. discoveries of his own. This work was published at Upsal in Swedish, burg he experienced great kindness from Louis Rudolph, duke of in six parts (the fifth part with a Latin version); it is said to contain Brunswick, who defrayed the whole expense of his journey, and at his the lucubrations of a scientific society which was instituted by departure presented him with a golden medallion and a weighty silver Berzelius among the professors of the university. ('Nov. Act. Reg. goblet. After being abroad a year and three months, he returned Soc. Scient.,' vol. v., Upsal, 1792.) In the course of 1716 Swedberg home, and in the course of 1722 he published anonymously, at Stockwas invited by Polhem, the great Swedish engineer, to repair with holm, a work entitled Om Swenska Myntets Förnedring och Förhoj. him to Lund to meet Charles XII., on which occasion he was admitted ning' (“On the Depreciation and Rise of the Swedish Currency'), to much intercourse with the king, who, without solicitation on Swed-("Cat. Bibl. Upsal,' Upsal, 1814); and at the end of the same year he berg's part, and while he was yet at the university, appointed him entered, for the first time, on the actual duties of the assessorship, assessor in the Royal Metallic College of Sweden. The diploma con- the functions of which he had been unwilling to exercise before he had ferring the appointment, dated at Lund, the 18th of October, also perfected his knowledge of metallurgy. For the next ten years he stated" that the king had a particular regard to the knowledge divided his time between the business of the Royal Board of Mines possessed by Swedberg in the science of mechanics, and that the royal and his studies. In 1724 he was invited by the consistory of the unipleasure was that he should accompany and assist Polhem in conversity of Upsala to accept the professorship of pure mathematics, structing his mechanical works." These works were to consist of the vacant by the death of Nils Celsius, because “bis acceptance of the formation of the basin of Carlscrona, and of locks between Lake Wener chair would be for the advantage of the students, and the ornament and Gottenburg, among the rapids and cataracts at Trolhätta. (Hist. of the university;" but he declined the honour. In 1729 he was de Ch. XII. de Nordberg,' tom. iv., app. n. ccxxi.) The king also had admitted a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Upsala. the design of uniting his engineers by closer ties, for he recommended In 1733 he again travelled into Germany. It seems from his postPolhem to give his daughter in marriage to Swedberg : the match was humous 'Itinerarium' (edited by Tafel, Tübingen, 1840), that he however prevented by the lady, who had a more favoured suitor. visited Berlin, Dresden, Prague, and Carlsbad, and, arriving at Leipzig

The 'Dædalus Hyperboreus' was completed in 1718, in which year at the end of the year, put to press a great work he had just com"Swedberg executed a work of the greatest importance during the pleted. During the printing of this work he spent twelve months in memorable siege of Frederickshall, by transporting over mountains visiting the Austrian and Hungarian mines. and valleys, on rolling machines of his own invention, two galleys, five Swedenborg's 'Opera Philosophica et Mineralia’ were published in large boats, and a sloop, from Stromstadt to Iderfjol, a distance of 1734, in 3 vols. folio, at Dresden and Leipzig; bis patron, the Duke fourteen miles. Under cover of these yessels the king brought his of Brunswick, at whose court he was a visitor, defrayed the cost of





the publication. This last work consists of three distinct treatises. the shape of these interstices; and that particles so modelled, by The first volume is ‘Principles of Natural Philosophy, consisting of undergoing fracture at their weakest points, give rise to new ebaper, new attempts to explain the phenomena of the elemental world in a which become the initial particles of new substances. He anticipated philosophical manner' (Principia Rerum Naturalium, sive Novorum Dr. Wollaston's suggestion of the spheroidal composition of crystals, Tentaminum Phænomena Mundi Elementaris Philosophice explicandi). as well as the atomic theory of Dalton, and even some of its details, as It is dedicated to the Duke of Brunswick, and has an engraved when, geometrically predicting the composite nature of water, he likeness of the author, but of very inferior execution. The Prin. assigned to it the equivalent of 9. (*Prodromus Principiorum.') cipia' is an attempt to construct a cosmology å priori. The second The rules which he proposed for investigating the constitution of and third volumes are together called the 'Regnum Minerale;' the the magnetic, luminous, and atmospheric elements come next under second is on iron, the third on copper and brass. They treat of the our notice. “1. That we take for granted that nature acts by the methods employed in all parts of Europe, and in America, in pre- simplest means, and that the particles of elements are of the simplest paring and working these metals. Part of the second volume has and least artificial forms. 2. That the beginning of nature is the been translated into French, and inserted in the Description des same as the beginning of Geometry: that natural particles arise from Arts et Metiers.' Each volume is subdivided into three parts, and wathematical points, precisely as lines, forms, and the whole of illustrated by numerous copper engravinga. In the same year, and at geometry; and this, because everything in nature is geometric; and the same places, Swedenborg published An Introduction to the vice versa. 3. That all the above elements are capable of simultaPhilosophy of the Infinite, and the Final Cause of Creation; treating neous motion, in one and the same place; and that each moves also of the Mechanism of the Operation between the Soul and the naturally without hindrance from the others. 4. That ascertained Body? (Prodromus Philosophiæ Ratiocinantis de Infinito, et Causa facts be the substratum of theory, and that no step be taken without Finali Creationis; deque Mechanismo Operationis Animæ et Corporis). their guidance." ("Miscell. Obs.,' part iii.) Tbis work connects his cosmology with his physiology.

From these rules we pass to their application, in the outset to which Swedenborg's reputation was now established throughout Europe, Swedenborg boldly averred that the records of science, accumulating and Christopher Wolff and other foreign literati eagerly sought his as they had been for thousands of years, were sufficient for an correspondence. On December 17th, 1734, the Academy of Sciences examination of things on principles, and a priori ; that a knowledge of of St. Petersburg appointed him a corresponding member. In 1736 natural philosophy does not presuppose the knowledge of innumerable he again travelled, and in 1738 visited Italy, and spent a year at phenomena, but only of principal facts which proceed directly, and Venice and Rome. The journal of his tour, from 1736 to 1739, is in not of those which result obliquely and remotely, from the world's manuscript in the Academy at Stockholm. At this time he no doubt mechanism and powers; and that the latter species of facts confuse applied bimself particularly to anatomy and physiology, of a masterly and disturb, rather than inform the mind. Also, that the restless acquaintance with which he gave evidence in his (Economia Regni desire, from age to age, for more facts, is characteristic of those who Animalis' (Economy of the Animal Kingdom), a large work in two are unable to reason from principles and causes, and that no abundance parts, 4to, which he published at Amsterdam in 1740-41. The first would ever be sufficient for such persons. ('Principia, de Mediis ad part treats of the blood, the arteries, the veins, and the heart, con- Ver. Philos.,' pp. 3, 4.) The following is a statement of the doctrine cluding with an introduction to rational psychology. The second part of the elemental world proposed in the 'Principia :'-"1. In the treats of the coincidence between the motions of the brain and the simple (substance) there is an internal state and corresponding effort lungs, of the cortical substance of the brain, and of the human soul. tending to a spiral motion. 2. In the first finite which arises from it In 1741 he became a Fellow, by invitation, of the Royal Academy of there is a spiral motion of the parts; so also in all the other finites. Sciences of Stockholm, the Memoirs' of which he enriched with a 3. From this single cause there arises in every finite a progressive paper on inlaying. (“Kongl. Swenska Wetens. Acad. Handlingar,' motion of the parts, a motion of the whole on its axis, and if there be xxiv. 107-113.) He still continued earnest in the pursuit of phy. no obstacle, a local motion also. 4. If a local motion ensues, an siology, and in 1744 published the 'Regnum Animale' (Animal King- active arises ; each active similar to the others. 5. From finites aud dom), parts i. and ii., 4to, at the Hague, and in 1745, part iii. in actives arise elementaries, each so similar to the others, as to differ London. The first part of this work is an analysis of the abdominal from them only in degree and dimension. Thus we presume the viscera; the second, of the thoracic viscera; the last treats of the skin, existence of only three kinds of entities—finites, actives, and their of the senses of taste and touch, and of organised forms in general. compounds, elementaries, of which the finites occupy the surface, the The plan of both the foregoing works is peculiar to Swedenborg. actives the interiors. With regard to the finites, one is generated Although he cultivated anatomy practically, he considered that the from the other, and they are all exactly similar, except in degree and standard authorities of his time were more to be relied on than his dimension : thus the fifth finite is similar to the fourth, the fourth to own dissections (* (Econ. Reg. An.'), on which account he premised the the third, the third to the second, the second to the first, and the first descriptive statements of Heister, Winslow, Malpighi, Morgagni, Boer to the simple; so that when we know the nature of one finite, we haave, Leeuwenboek, Swammerdam, &c., as his basis for induction. know that of all. Precisely the same may be said of the actives and of On the facts supplied by these authorities he built his own superstruc- the elementaries. In the same effort of the simple towards spiral motion ture, which, if not strictly a physiological one in the modern meaning lies the single cause and the first force of all subsequent existences." of the word, is at least an elevated and original system of aromal (Principia, p. 450-1.) Swedenborg first states these doctrines synthegeometry and mechanics. These great works were regarded by him tically, and then educes the same from, and confirms them by, the as only the commencement of a work in which he designed to embrace phenomena of nature. We may here, with propriety, introduce a the entire circle of physiology and psychology. (Reg. Anim.,' n. 14.) remark from Sandel :-"He thus formed to himself a system founded

At the beginning of 1745 Swedenborg published in two parts, 4to, upon a certain species of mechanism, and supported by reasoning; a • De Cultu et Amore Dei' (The Worship and Love of God): the first system, the arrangement of which is so solid, and the composition so part, on the origin of the earth, on paradise, and the birth, infancy, serious, that it claims and merits all the attention of the learned; as and love of the first man; the second part, on the marriage of the first for others, they may do better not to meddle with it." man, and on the soul, the intellectual mind, the state of integrity, and In approaching the human body he again insisted on the necessity the image of God. This book is a sublimation of Swedenborg's scien- for principles and generalisation, without which, he said, “facts themtific system, with a correlative statement of his psychical doctrines, in selves would grow obsolete and perish ;” adding that, “unless he which both are blended, and clothed with the narrative form : it is the were much mistaken, the destinies of the world were leading to this link between his physiology and a class of doctrines which was yet issue." A knowledge of the soul became the professed object of bis to come.

inquiry, and he “entered the circus with a resolve to examine A number of unpublished scientific manuscripts, written by him thoroughly the world, or microcosm, which the soul inhabits, in the previously to this period, and which are preserved in the Royal assurance that she should be sought for nowhere but in her own Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, manifest his industry and the kingdom.” In this search he repudiated synthesis, and “resolved to largeness of his designs. The most important of these papers appear approach the soul by the analytic way," adding, " that he believed to be- De Magnete,' p. 273, 4to; 'De Sale Communi,' p. 343; Prin himself to be the first investigator who had ever commenced with cipia Rerum Naturalium, ex priori et posteriori educta,' p. 569; ‘De this intention ;" a surmise in which he is probably correct. We shall Sensatione,' cap. xiii.; 'De Actione,' cap. xxxv.; 'De Cerebro, Medulla here content' ourselves with a brief illustration of one of those Oblongata, et Spinali, de Nervis, analytice, physice, philosophice;' doctrines which,“ with the most intense study," he elaborated for his De Aure Humana ; ' • Tractatus Partium Generationis utriusque guidance, we mean the "doctrine of series and degrees." Each organ, Sexus, et de Processu Generationis.' ("Intellectual Repository,' he observed, commences from certain unities or least parts which are January 1836; ‘Rep. of London Printing Society,' 1841.)

peculiar to it, and derives its form from their gradual composition, We shall now endeavour to take a brief review of Swedenborg's and its general function from the sum of their particular functions. scientific progress, with particular reference to method, principles, and The mass is therefore the representative of its minute components, doctrines. His proper career may be dated from the publication of and its structure and functions indicate theirs. The vesicles or the the ‘Prodromus Principiorum.' In this work he attempted to account smallest parts peculiar to the lungs are so many least lungs; the for chemical combination by a theory of the forms and forces of the biliary radicles of the liver, so many least livers ; the cellules of the particles of bodies, and to resolve chemistry into natural geometry, spleen, so many least spleens; the tubuli of the kidneys, so many that it might have the benefit of first principles, and the rank of a least kidneys; and the same function is predicable of these leasts, as fixed science. Of these forms he gave many delineations. (Plates to of their entire respective organs, but with any modification which * Prodr. Princip.?), He broached the ingenious doctrine that the parti experience may declare to be proper to the minuter structures. This cles of primary solids are moulded in the interstices of fluids, and take new method of analysis, in which the greatest things were presumed

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to indicate the least, with just such reservation as our experience of instigated a prosecution against him in the consistory of Gottenburg, the least necessitates, was designed to throw light on the intimate whence it was transferred to the Diet. Dr. Ekebon denounced structure and occult offices of single organs—the same way indentified his doctrines as “full of the most intolerable fundamental errors, the higher with the lower groups of organs—the cranial with the seducing, heretical, and captious;" and stated furthermore, that he“ did thoracic, and both with the abdominal viscera. Whatever is manifested not know Assessor Swedenborg's religious system, and would take no in the body is transferrible to the brain, as the source of all functions pains to come at the knowledge of it.” Swedenborg came out of and structures. If the abdominal organs supply the blood with a these trials with safety, unaccused by the Diet, and protected by the terrestrial nourishment, the thoracic supply it with an aërial, and the king. Towards Christmas 1771, while in London, he had a stroke of brain with an ethereal food. If the first-mentioned organs, by the the palsy, from which he never perfectly recovered. A report has urinary and intestinal passages, eliminate excrements and impurities, been circulated that he recanted his claims during bis last illoess, but so the lungs by the trachea, and the brain through the sinuses, reject this is a mistake. M. Ferelius, minister of the Swedish Lutheran a subtler defilement. If the heart and blood-vessels are channels of church in London, who visited him on his death-bed, and administered a corporeal circulation, the brain and nerves, or spirit-vessels, are the sacrament to him, wrote as follows (31st March 1780) to Professor channels of a transcendent or spirituous circulation. If the contracti- Trätgard of Greifswalde," I asked him if he thought he was going to lity of the arteries and of muscular structures depends on the pervous die, and he answered in the affirmative; upon which I requested him system, it is because that system is itself eminently contractile, and since many believed that he had invented his new theological system impels forwards its contents in the most perfect manner. If the lungs merely to acquire a great name (which he had certainly obtained), to have a respiratory rising and falling, and the heart a contraction and take this opportunity of proclaiming the real truth to the world, and expansion, so the brain has an animatory movement, which embraces to recant either wholly or in part what he had advanced; especially both the motions of the lower series. Thus every function is first to as his pretensions could now be of no further use to him. Upon this be traced to its essential form in the bosom of its own organ, and Swedenborg raised himself up in bed, and, placing his hand upon his thence, through an ascending scale, to the brain," which is eminently breast, said with earnestness, ‘Everything that I have written is as muscle, and eminently glaud; in a word, which is eminently the true as that you now behold me: I might have said much more bad microcosm, when the body is regarded as a macrocosm." ("Econ. it been permitted me. After death you will see all, and then we shall R. A.;' 'Regn. Anim.')

have much to say to each other on this subject." (Ferelius, ' Ueber On the whole we may admit these works to be a grand consolidation Swedenborg's Ende,' in Tafel's ' Leben.') Swedenborg died at London, of human knowledge ;-an attempt to combine and re-organise the in Great Bath Street, Coldbath Fields, on the 29th of March 1772, in opinions of all the schools of medicine since the days of Hippocrates. the eighty-fifth year of his age. His body was buried in the Swedish The doctrines of the fluidists, of the mechanical and chemical physi. church in Ratcliff Highway. cians, and of the vitalists and solidists, as well as the methods of the The following is a list of his theological works :-1, Arcana Cælesdogmatists and empirics, and even the miscellaneous novelties of the tia,

' 8 vols. 4to, London, 1749 to 1756; 2, 'An Account of the Last present day, have each a proportion and a place in the catholic system Judgment and the Destruction of Babylon;' 3, ‘On Heaven and of Swedenborg. His works however are a dead letter to the medical Hell; 4, on the White Horse mentioned in the Apocalypse ;' 5, profession, or known only to its erudite members through the mis. On the Earths in the Universe ;' 6, Op the New Jerusalem and its statements of Haller. (Haller’s ‘Bibliotheca Anatomica,' tom. ii. pp. Heavenly Doctrine,' 4to, London, 1758; 7,. The Four leading Doc328, 329, Tiguri, 1777.)

trines of the New Church-on the Lord, on the Holy Scriptures, on Swedenborg was in his fifty-eighth year when he published the last Life, and op Faith ;' 8, 'A continuation of the Account of the Last of the foregoing volumes, and from this period he assumed a new Judgment; 9, On the Divine Love and Wisdom,' 4to, Amsterdam, character, of which he gave the following account:-"I have been 1763; 10, 'On the Divine Providence,' 4to, Amsterdam, 1764; 11, called to a holy office by the Lord, who most graciously manifested 'Apocalypse Revealed,' 4to, Amsterdam, 1766; 12, Delights of Wisdom himself in person to me, bis servant, in the year 1745, and opened my concerning Conjugial Love, and Pleasures of Insanity concerning Scorsight into the spiritual world, endowing me with the gift of conversing tatory Love,' 4to, Amsterdam, 1768; 13, 'On the Intercourse between with spirits and angels." However repulsive such statements are to the Soul and Body,' 4to, London, 1769; 14,' A brief Exposition of the the generality of mankind, they are not à priori objectionable to those Doctrine of the New Church,' 4to, Amsterdam, 1769 ; 15, True who admit the inspiration of the seers and prophets of the Bible: Christian Religion,' 4to, London, 1771. As a specimen of Swedenborg's after such an admission of the supernatural, each particular case of interpretation of the Holy Scripture, the reader may consult the the kind becomes a simple question of evidence. The event above Apocalypse Revealed;' for a concise view of his alleged experiences, alluded to happened to Swedenborg in the middle of April 1745, at the Heaven and Hell' may be resorted to; for a view of that part an inn in London. The manner of its occurrence is recorded by M. of bis system which relates to the creation and government of the Robsahm, director of the bank of Stockholm, who was a trusted universe, we recommend the perusal of the Divine Love' and `Divine friend of Swedenborg, and had the parration from him personally. Providence;' for his doctrine concerning the relation of the sexes, (See Robsahm’s ‘Memoiren,' in Tafel's 'Swedenborg's Leben,' pp. 8 and its eternal origin and perpetuity, and for his code of spiritual to 10, Tübingen, 1842.) From this period, Swedenborg entirely for- legislation on marriage and divorce, see the Conjugial Love," one of sook the pursuit of science, nor does he once allude, in his works on the most remarkable of these works: finally, the student will find a theology, to his former scientific labours. He still however took part compendium of the whole of the theology of the New Church in the in the proceedings of the Diet, and in that of 1761 he is stated by True Christian Religion, the last and perhaps the finest of the Count Hopken to have presented the best memorial on the subject of writings of Swedenborg: The whole of these works, originally pubfinance.

lished in Latin, have been translated into English, and some of He returned from London to Sweden in August 1745, and immedi: them have passed through several editions both in England and ately devoted himself to the study of Hebrew and the diligent perusal in America. The translations are contained in about thirty octavo of the scriptures. He continued to discharge the duties of assessor volumes. of the Board of Mines till 1747, when he asked and obtained his Swedenborg's theological manuscripts, which are preserved in the majesty's permission to retire from it; adding also two other requests, Royal Academy At Stockholm, are very voluminous. The following which were granted—that be might enjoy as a pension the salary of have been published :— Coronis ad veram Christianam Religiothe office; and that he might be allowed to decline the higher rank nem,' 4to, Lond., 1780; ' Apocalypsis Explicata, 4 tom. 4to, Lond., which was offered him on his retirement. The materials for the sub- 1785,-86,-88,-89; 'Index Rerum in Apocalypsi Revelatarum, 1813; sequent part of Swedenborg's biography are exceedingly scanty. He Index Verborum, &c., in Arcanis Caelestibus,' 1815; ‘Doctrina de was now either actively engaged in writing his theological works, or Charitate,' 8vo, Lond., 1840; De Domino,' 8vo, Lond., 1840; ‘Canones was travelling in foreign countries to publish them. When he was at Novæ Ecclesiæ,' 8vo, Lond., 1840; Adversaria, in Libros Veteria home he had a house in the environs of Stockholm, with a large Testamenti,' 7 vols.; and his 'Diarium Spirituale,' which is an unre

arden, in which he took eat delight. He frequently resided in served record of his experiences, ranging over a period of sixteen years, Amsterdam and in London. The highest personages in Sweden testi- of this extensive work seven parts have been published in ten volumes, fied to the consistency with which ho maintained the assertion of his of which two volumes are a common index to the Memorabilia of both spiritual intercourse. On one or two occasions, they say, he gave the Diarium' and 'Adversaria ;' this is perhaps the most valuable of proof of his professions. Baron Grimm, after describing him as "a Swedenborg's works, as going far to supply data for a theological man not only distinguished by his honesty, but by his knowledge and biography of the author. intelligence," says of one of these occurrences, “This fact is confirmed Swedenborg did not lay claim to inspiration, but to an opening of by authorities so respectable, that it is impossible to deny it; but the his spiritual sight, and a rational instruction in spiritual things, which question is, how to believe it.” (“Mém. Hist. Lit. et Anecdot., &c.,' was granted, as he said, "not for any merit of his,” but to evable him par le Baron de Grimm, tom. iii

. p. 56, ed. London, 1813.). Immanuel to convey to the world a real knowledge of the nature of heaven and Kant sifted another of these stories to the bottom, and declared that hell, and thus of man's future existence. According to Swedenborg, “ Professor Schlegel had informed bim that it could by no means be heaven and hell are not in space, but they are internal and spiritual doubted;" and added, “they set the assertion respecting Sweden- states, so that intromission into the spiritual world is only the opening borg's extraordinary gift beyond possibility of doubt.". ("Darstellung of an interior consciousness. The outward face of the spiritual world des Lebens und Charakters Immanuel Kants,' Königsberg, 1804.) resembles that of the natural world in every particular, and man's Swedenborg however laid do stress on such proofs, " because," said he, spiritual body appears precisely similar to his natural body; but the “they compel only an external belief, but do not convince the difference is that all the objects of the spiritual world represent and internal.” During his latter years, Bishop Filenius and Dr. Ekebon change with the spiritual states of its inhabitants; the magnificent



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objects in the heavens being actually determined according to the good He was never seen to laugh, but always had a cheerful smile on his affections of the angels; and the terrible appearances in the hells countenance. Many would suppose," says Ferelius, “that Assessor being an outbirth of the evil and falsity of the infernals

. Heaven Swedenborg was a very eccentric person ; but, on the contrary, he was and hell are from mankind, and all angels and devils have once been very agreeable and easy in society, conversed on all the topics of the men, either on this or other planets ; for all the planets are inhabited, day, accommodated himself to his company, and never alluded to his since the human race, and the formation of heaven therefrom, is the principles unless he was questioned, in which case be answered freely, final end of creation. The Satan and Devil of Holy Scripture is not just as he wrote of them. But if he observed that any one put a person, but a collective name of hell. The “last judgment men- impertinent questions, or designed to trifle with him, he answered in tioned in the Gospels” does not mean the destruction of the world, such a manner that the querist was silenced without being satisfied." wbich, like every divine work, bas respect to infinity and eternity, and (For further particulars the reader may consult Sandel's Eulogium will endure for ever, but " a judgment in the spiritual world, since all to the Memory of Swedenborg, pronounced Oct. 7, 1772, translation, who die are gathered together there, and since it is man's spirit which Loudon, 1834 ; Documents concerning the Life and Character of E. is judged." This judgment commences for every individual imme- Swedenborg, collected by Dr. I. F. I. Tafel, Tübingen, and edited in diately after death. Judgment is carried into effect on a church when English by Rev. I. H. Smithson, London, 1841 ; Swederborg, Diarium its charity is extinct, and faith alone remains, and such judgment is Spirituale; Life of Swedenborg, with an Account of his Writings, by attended by a plenary separation of the good from the evil, that is, by Hobart, Boston, U. S., 1831 ; Tafel's Swedenborg's Leben ; The Nexo a formation of new beavens and new hells,

and followed by the insti- Jerusalem Magazine, 1790-91 ; F. Walden's Assessor Svedenborg's Levnet, tution on earth of a new church. The judgment on the first Christian Adskillige Udtog af sammes skrivter nogle blandede Tanker, tilligemed. church took place in the year 1757 (80 Swedenborg asserts), and was Svedenborg's System i kort udfog, Kiobenbaven, 1806 and 1820; Lager. witnessed by bim in the spiritual world, after which commenced the bring, Sammandrag af Swea-Rikes Historia, 8vo, Stockholm, 1778-80; descent from the new heaven of the new church and its doctrine, Introduction, &c. to Swedenborg's Writings, by J. J. Garth Wilkinson.) signified by the Apocalyptic New Jerusalem. The particulars of the The SWEDENBORGIANS, as the people are called who believe in the faith of this church on the part of man are—1. “That there is one mission of Emanuel Swedenborg to promulgate the doctrines of the God; that there is a Divine Trinity in Him, and that he is the Lord New Church, signified by the New Jerusalem in the Apocalypse, may God and Saviour Jesus Christ. 2. That saving faith consists in in this country be divided into two portions :--one of which forms believing on Him. 3. That evil actions ought not to be done, because the denomination known as such to the world; while the other they are of the devil, and from the devil

. 4. That good actions portion remains without visible separation from the communion of the ought to be done, because they are of God and from God. 5. And Established Church. The first public asssociation of the Sweden. that they should be done by man, as of himself ; nevertheless under borgians took place in 1788, in Great Eastoheap, London; since that the belief that they are from the Lord, operating in him and by him. time, societies have been formed in nearly all our large towns, until The two first particulars have relation to faith; the two next, to they now amount to about fifty, of which the greater number are in charity ; and the last, to the conjunction of charity and faith, and Lancashire and Yorkshire. On the Census Sunday, March 30, 1851, thereby of the Lord and man." Concerning the Word of God, there were fifty places of worship belonging to the New Church in Swedenborg taught that in its origin it is the divine truth itself, England and Wales, containing accommodation for 11,865 persona, infinite in the Lord; that in proceeding through the three heavens and actually attended by 4652 persons in the morning and 2978 in it is accommodated to the recipiency of the angels by successive the evening; but, as noted in the Census Report, it is maintained by veilings; that in the highest heaven it puts on an appearance accom- members of the Church "that the mere number of their chapels gives modated to angelic affectious, and is there read in its celestial sense; a very inadequate idea of the prevalence of their opinions; as many, in the middle and lower heavens it is clothed by forms adequate to they say, ostensibly connected with other churches, entertain the prothe intelligence and knowledge of the angels there, and is read in its minent doctrines of the New Church.” The societies send delegates spiritual sense; and in the Church it is presented in a natural and to an annual conference. In the United States of America the historical form, which is adapted to the understandings of men on members of the New Jerusalem Church are numerous and well earth. This last form thus contains and corresponds to a spiritual and organised ; they have three distinct annual conventions, of which that celestial form or meaning, which Swedenborg declares he was taught for the Eastern States meets at Boston; that for the Southern at by the Lord in the spiritual world, and which he unfolded at length Philadelphia; and that for the Western, at Cincinnati. In France the in his great work, the Arcana Coelestia.' The Books of the Word," doctrines of Swedenborg have excited much attention, partly through says Swedenborg, "are all those that have the internal sense; but the writings of his eloquent disciple Richer, of Nantes; and through those which have not the internal sense are not the Word. The the French translations of Swedenborg's works, which were executed Books of the Word in the Old Testament are the five Books of Moses, by J. P. Moet, and published by John Augustus Tulk. In Germany, the Book of Joshua, the Book of Judges, the two Books of Samuel, Swedenborg has long had isolated readers, like the learned librarian the two Books of Kings, the Psalms, the Prophets Isaiah and Jere- to the King of Würtemberg, Dr. I. F. I. Tafel, known through Ger miah, the Lamentations, the Prophets Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, many for his editions of the original works of Swedenborg, for his Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, translations of the same, and for the elaborate works he bas published Zechariah, and Malachi. In the New Testament, Matthew, Mark, in their defence. In Sweden, bishops and doctors of the Lutheran Luke, John, and the Apocalypse.” Although the writings of Paul Church have favoured the claims of Swedenborg. Swedenborgianism and the other apostles are not in this list, and are described by has also taken deep root in several of the British colonies. The non. Swedenborg, in a letter to Dr. Beyer, to be "dogmatic (or doctrinal) separatist Swedenborgians comprise many members, and even clergy. writings merely, and not written in the style of the Word;" yet in men, of the Church of England. The Rev. Thomas Hartley, rector the same letter he says, “ NevertŁeless, the writings of the Apostles of Winwick, in Northamptonshire, the Rev. John Clowes, rector of are to be regarded as excellent books, and to be held in the highest St. John's, Manchester, and the Rev. William Hill, were the first esteem, for they insist on the two essential articles of charity and faith translators of the large works of Swedenborg. The Swedenborgians in the same manner as the Lord himself has done in the Gospels and have several public institutions, the most flourishing of which is that in the Apocalypse.”

entitled the Society for printing and publishing the Writings of Swedenborg was a methodical man, and laid down certain rules for Emanuel Swedenborg, instituted in London in 1810,' wbich annually the guidance of his life. These are found written in various parts of prints and circulates a great number of his works. They have also a his manuscripts as follows :-"1. Often to read and meditate on the London Missionary and Tract Society, and Tract Societies at Bath, Word of God. 2. To submit everything to the will of Divine Provi: Birmingham, Glasgow, and Manchester. There are two Liturgies in dence. 3. To observe in everything a propriety of behaviour, and general use among the Swedenborgians: 1, The Book of Worship,' always to keep the conscience clear. 4. To discharge with fidelity the Boston, United States, embodying a very simple form of worsbip, functions of bis employment and the duties of his office, and to render consisting chiefly of passages from the Scripture, and chants from the biunself in all things useful to society.” On these precepts he formed Psalms; 2, The Liturgy of the New Church, prepared by order of bis character. Count Hopken, prime minister of Sweden, says of him, the General Conference, London, which is used throughout this “I have not only known Swedenborg these two-and-forty years, but country, and contains a more formal service than that adopted in some time since frequented his company daily : I do not recollect to America. From the latter we may conveniently borrow the twelve have ever known any man of more uniformly virtuous character." 'Articles of Faith,' "condensed,” as they are, " from the Writinys of Sandel says, " He was the sincere friend of mankind, and, in his Swedenborg, adopted by the General Conference, and recognised as a examination of the character of others, he was particularly desirous standard of Doctrine by the whole body of Sweden borgians.” to discover in them this virtue, which he regarded as an infallible “ The Articles of Faith of the New Church signified by the New proof of many more. As a public functionary he was upright and Jerusalem in the Revelation are these :just: he discharged his duty with great exactness, and neglected “1, That Jehovah God, the creator and preserver of heaven and nothing but his own advancement. He lived in the reigns of many earth, is love itself and wisdom itself, or good itself and truth itself: princes, and enjoyed the particular favour and kindness of them all. that he is one both in essence and in person, in whom, nevertheless, He enjoyed most excellent health, having scarcely ever experienced is the Divine Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, which are the the slightest indisposition. Content within himself, and with his essential divinity, the divine humanity, and the divine proceeding, situation, his life was in all respects one of the happiest that ever fell answering to the soul, the body, and the operative energy in man; to the lot of man." Swedenborg was never married. He was about and that the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is that God. five feet pine inches high, rather thin, and of a brown complexion : “2, That Jehovah God himself descended from heaven, as divine his eyes were of a brownish-gray, nearly hazel, and somewhat small

. truth, which is the Word, and took upon him human nature, for the

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