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purpose of removing from man the powers of hell, and restoring to able things, because without use or fixedness : and that nothing of order all things in the spiritual world, and all things in the church : faith, of charity, or of good works is of man, but that all is of the that he removed from man the powers of hell, by combats against Lord, and all the merit is his alone. and victories over them; in wbich consisted the great work of redempo “10, That Baptism and the Holy Supper are sacraments of divine tion : that by the same acts, which were his temptations, the last of institution, and are to be permanently observed : baptism being an which was the passion of the cross, he united, in his humanity, divine external medium of introduction into the church, and a sign repretruth to divine good, or divine wisdom to divine love, and so returned sentative of man's purification and regeneration; and the Holy Supper into his divinity in which he was from eternity, together with, and in, being an external medium, to those who receive it worthily, of introhis glorified bumanity; whence he for ever keeps the infernal powers duction, as to spirit, into heaven, and of conjunction with the Lord; in subjection to himself: and that all who believe in him, with the of which also it is a sign and seal. understanding, from the heart, and live accordingly, will be saved. 11, That immediately after death, which is only a putting off of

“3, That the Sacred Scripture, or Word of God, is divine truth the material body, never to be resumed, man rises again in a spiritual itself, containing a spiritual sense heretofore unknown, whence it is or substantial body, in which he continues to live to eternity: in divinely inspired and holy in every syllable; as well as a literal sense, heaven, if his ruling affections, and thence his life, have been good; which is the basis of its spiritual sense, and in which divine truth is and in hell, if bis ruling affections, and thence his life, have been in its fullness, its sanctity, and its power: thus that it is accommodated evil. to the apprehension both of angels and men : that the spiritual and “12, That now is the time of the second advent of the Lord, which natural senses are united, by correspondences, like soul and body, is a coming, not in person, but in the power and glory of his Holy every natural expression and image answering to, and including, a Word : that it is attended, like his first coming, with the restoration spiritual and divine idea ; and thus that the Word is the medium of to order of all things in the spiritual world, where the wonderful communication with heaven and of conjunction with the Lord. divine operation, commonly expected under the name of the Last

“4, That the government of the Lord's divine love and wisdom is Judgment, has in consequence been performed; and with the prethe divine providence; which is universal, exercised according to paring of the way for a New Church on the earth,—the first Christian certain fixed laws of order, and extending to the minutest particulars Church having spiritually come to its end or consummation, through of the life of all men, both of the good and of the evil: that in all its evils of life and errors of doctrine, as foretold by the Lord in the operations it has respect to what is infinite and eternal, and makes no Gospels: and that this New or Second Christian Church, which will account of things transitory but as they are subservient to eternal be the Crown of all Churches, and will stand for ever, is what was repreends: thus, that it mainly consists, with man, in the connection of sentatively seen by John, when he beheld the holy city, New Jerusathings temporal with things eternal; for that the continual aim of the lem, descending from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned Lord, by his divine providence, is to join man to himself and himself for her husband.” to man, that he may be able to give him the felicities of eternal life : (For further particulars see Reports of the Society for Printing and and that the laws of permission are also laws of the divine providence; Publishing the Writings of the Hon. E. Swedenborg, London ; Reports since evil cannot be prevented without destroying the nature of man as of the London Missionary and Tract Society of the New Jerusalem an accountable agent; and because, also, it cannot be removed unless Church ; Minutes of the General Conference of the New Church, sigit be known, and cannot be known unless it appear: thus, that no evil nified by the New Jerusalem in the Revelation ; also Tafel, Magazin is permitted but to prevent a greater; and all is overruled, by the für die wahre Christliche Religion, pp. 1 to 70, Tübingen, 1841, which Lord's divine providence, for the greatest possible good.

contains an elaborate account of all the Swedenborgian periodicals.) “5, That nian is not life, but is only a recipient of life from the SWIETEN, GERARD VAN, was born at Leyden in 1700. He Lord, who, as he is love itself and wisdom itself, is also life itself; received his general education there and at Louvain, and studied which life is communicated by influx to all in the spiritual world, medicine at Leyden under Boerhaave, of whom he soon became the whether belonging to heaven or to hell, and to all in the natural favourite pupil, and by whose influence he was appointed to a proworld; but is received differently by every one, according to his fessorship of medicine very soon after taking his diploma of doctor in quality and consequent state of reception.

1725. His lectures were well attended, but objections were made “6, That man, during his abode in the world, is, as to his spirit, in against him on the ground of bis being a Roman Catholic, and he was the midst between heaven and hell, acted upon by influences from obliged to resigo his chair. In 1745 Maria Theresa of Austria both, and thus is kept in a state of spiritual equilibrium between appointed bim her first physician, and in this capacity he used his good and evil; in consequence of which he enjoys free will, or free influence to establish a system of clinical instruction at Vienna, to dom of choice, in spiritual things as well as in natural, and possesses rebuild the university, and accomplish many other important measures the capacity of either turning himself to the Lord and his kingdom, for the advancement of science. During eight years also he lectured or turning himself away from the Lord and connecting himself with on the 'Institutes' of Boerhaave, He died in 1772, and Maria Theresa, the kingdom of darkness : and that, unless man had such freedom of who, besides many other honours, had made hiin a baron of the choice, the Word would be of no use; the church would be a mere empire, had a statue to his memory placed in the hall of the name; man would possess nothing by virtue of which he could be university, conjoined to the Lord; and the cause of evil would be chargeable on Van Swieten was one of the few great physicians of his day, who, God himself.

though he founded a school (and that one of the most important of the “7, That man at this day is born into evil of all kinds, or with time), did not attempt to establish himself as the head of a sect. He tendencies towards it: that, therefore, in order to his entering the was content to adopt the system of Boerhaave; in his commentaries kingdom of heaven, he must be regenerated or created anew; which on whose aphorisms he has embodied the results of a most extensive great work is effected in a progressive manner, by the Lord alone, by experience in clinical medicine, and has shown himself to have been a charity and faith as mediums, during man's co-operation; that as all physician of great erudition and of some practical merit. The work is men are redeemed, all are capable of being regenerated, and conse- entitled 'Commentaria in Hermanni Boerhaavii Aphorismos de cog. quently saved, every one according to his state; and that the regene. noscendis et curandis morbis ; ' it was first published at Leyden in 5 rate man is in communion with the angels of heaven, and the volumes, 4to, between 1741 and 1772; and has since been repeatedly unregenerate with the spirits of hell : but that no one is condemned edited in Latin, English, French, and German. It consists of long for hereditary evil, any further than as he makes it his own by actual commentaries, not only on each aphorism, but on every portion of life ; whence all who die in infancy are saved, special means being each of them. To confirm their truth he introduces passages from provided by the Lord in the other life for that purpose.

the writers of all preceding times and countries, and relates numerous 8, That repentance is the first beginning of the church in man; cases from his own and their practice. Van Swieten wrote treatises and that it consists in a man's examining himself, both in regard to also on the diseases of armies, on epidemics, and on the structure and his deeds and his intentions, in knowing and acknowledging his sins, offices of arteries ; but they are of little importance in comparison confessing them before the Lord, supplicating him for aid, and begin. with his commentaries, and are now seldom referred to. He mainning a new life : that, to this end, all evils, whether of affection, of tained also a long opposition against the practice of inoculating thought, or of life, are to be abhorred and shunned as sins against small.pox. God, and because they proceed from infernal spirits, who in the SWİFT, JONATHAN, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral, aggregate are called the Devil and Satan; and that good affections, Dublin, was descended from an ancient family which was originally good thoughts, and good actions are to be cherished and performed, settled in Yorkshire. His grandfather, the Rev. Thomas Swift, was because they are of God and from God : that these things are to be vicar of Goodrich, in Herefordsbire; and had ten sons, Godwin, done by man as of himself; nevertheless, under the acknowledgement Thomas, William, Dryden, Willoughby, Jonathan, Adam, and three and belief that it is from the Lord, operating in him and by him: others, of whom Godwin, William, Jonathan, and Adam settled in that so far as man shuns evils as sins, so far they are removed, Ireland; he had also four daughters. Dryden was named after his remitted, or forgiven : so far also he does good, not from himself, but mother, who was a near relation of Dryden the poet. Jonathan was from the Lord; and in the same degree he loves truth, has faith, the father of the dean of St. Patrick's: he married Abigail Erick, of and is a spiritual man : and that the Decalogue teaches what evils an ancient family in Leicestershire, but poor. He was bred to the are sing.

law, and in 1665 was appointed steward of the King's Inns, Dublin. “9, That cbarity, faith, and good works are unitedly necessary to He died in 1667, leaving his widow in great poverty, with an infant man's salvation, since charity, without faith, is not spiritual, but daughter, and pregnant with the future deau of St. Patrick's. natural; and faith, without charity, is not living, but dead; and both Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin, November 30, 1667. When charity and faith ,without good works, are merely mental and perish- about a year old he was carried to Whitehaven, in Cumberland, by his





nurse, who went there to receive a legacy; he remained with her in a promise that Swift should have a prebend of Canterbury or Westthat town nearly three years, and she had taught him to spell before minster: Sir William also left him a legacy, with the task of editing he was taken back to his mother in Dublin. Mrs. Swift's means his posthumous works, and any benefit which might arise from tho of support for herself and her two children were derived chiefly publication of them. from her brother-in-law Godwin, who was a lawyer, and was During the the early part of his residence at Moor Park, Swift wrote supposed to be rich. Jonathan, when six years old, was sent to the some Pindario Odes, which he is said to have shown to Dryden, who, school of Kilkenny, whence he was removed to Trinity College, after having read them, said, “Cousin Swist, you will never be a Dublin, where he was received as a pensioner, April 24, 1682. The poet ;” a remark which is supposed to have occasioned that feeling of cost of his education and maintenance was defrayed by his uncle dislike which Swift always manifested towards Dryden. These Odes Godwin, who however supplied him with the means of subsistence in so are written in the style of the Pindaric Odes of Cowley, and are niguardly and ungracious a manner, that Swift ever afterwards spoke indeed bad imitations of a bad model. Swift also wrote, as he himself of him with great asperity. Before Swift's education was completed, bas stated, a great number of other things, nearly all of which he Godwin died, and it was then discovered that he had for some time destroyed. During the latter part of bis residence at Moor Park be been in embarrassed circumstances, the result of unsuccessful specu- wrote the ‘Battle of the Books in St. James's Library,' in support of lations. The charge of Swift's education now devolved chiefly upon his Sir William Temple, and in opposition to Dr. William Wotton and uncle William, of whom he always spoke with atfectionate gratitude as Dr. Bentley. A dispute had arisen in France as to the superiority of “the best of bis relations ;” not that be was much more liberally ancient or of modern writers : the dispute passed over to England, and supplied with money than he had be-n by Godwin, for William also the cause of the moderns was supported by Wotton, in his ' Reflections was in difficulties, but for the kindness with which it was bestowed. on Antient and Modern Learning.' Temple took the part of the The degree of B.A. was conferred on Swift, February 15, 1685: this ancients, but unfortunately praised the 'Epistles of Phalaris,' which was done, as he himself says, speciali gratili, which, he informs us, Bentley, in an Appendix to the second edition of Wotton's ‘Reflections,' was, in Trinity College, a discreditable intimation of scholastic insuffi- proved to be spurious. Swift's work is a well-constructed allegory, ciency. Indeed there is abundant evidence that he had not only abounding in wit and humour. It was not published however till neglected the study of the school logic which was then required in after Sir William's death. Swift is supposed to have likewise finished order to qualify him for taking a degree, but that, after he had taken about this time his Tale of a Tub,' a satirical allegory, io ridicule of his degree, as well as before, his conduct generally was careless, irre- the corruptions of the Church of Rome and the errors of the Disgular, and reckless, and that he had incurred frequent penalties and senters, and in favour of the Church of England, though not without censures. It is probable however that he had a scholarship in Trinity an occasional touch at her faults also. This is one of his most College, for he remained there till 1688, when, on the breaking out of laboured and most perfect works. Though he completed it at Moor the war in Ireland, he passed over into England, and travelled on foot Park, there is evidence that he had sketched it out roughly at Trinity to Leicester, where his mother had been residing for some years in a College. state of precarious dependence on her relations, one of whom was the It was during Swift's second residence at Moor_Park that the wife of Sir William Temple, whose seat was Moor Park, near Farnham, acquaintance commenced between him and Miss Esther Johnson, in Surrey.

more generally known by the poetical name which he gave to her of Swift, after residing some months with his mother, waited upon Sir Stella (the Star). Her father was a London merchant, according to William Temple, by whom he was received with kindness, and was Scott, or steward to Sir William Temple, according to Sheridan. admitted into his family. From this time Swift's careless and idle Swift himself however says that she was born at Richmond in 1681, habits were entirely abandoned; he studied eight hours a day, and “her father being the younger brother of a good family in Nottingbecame useful to his patron as his private secretary. A surfeit of hamshire, her mother of a lower degree," and hence it has been stone-fruit, to which Swift always ascribed the giddiness with which suggested that she was an illegitimate daughter of Sir William Temple, he was afterwards so severely afflicted, brought on an ill-state of and a sort of half-sister to Swift. But that Swift was so closely health, for the removal of which, after he had been about two years related to Temple has been satisfactorily disproved, and there seems to with Sir William, he went to Ireland, but soon returned. He was be no real ground for the other part of the scandal. Her mother lived now treated with greater kindness than before : he occasionally with Lady Gifford, Sir William Temple's sister, who, with Mrs. Johnattended King William, who was a frequent guest at Moor Park, in son and her daughter, resided at this time at Moor Park. Swift his walks in the garden, while Temple was laid up with the gout, and assisted in her education, which appears to have been little attended wou so much on his majesty's favour, that he not only taught bim to previously, and she seems to have acquired a fondness for her how to cut asparagus in the Dutch manner, but offered to make him tutor. captain of a troop of horse, which however Swift declined. Sir Swift however, previously to bis acquaintance with Miss Johoson, William employed him to endeavour to persuade the king to consent had professed an attachment to Miss Jane Waryng, on whom he to the bill for triennial parliaments, and Swift's vanity was much hurt bestowed the title of Varina ; she was sister of a fellow-student at when he found that his reasoning was not sufficiently strong to over Trinity College, and Swift offered to marry her; but she was coy and come the king's obstinacy.

cold, and gave a temporary refusal on the plea of ill-health. By Swift went to Oxford in 1692, and entered himself of Hart Hall, for degrees, as Swift's passion abated, hers grow warmer, and she wrote to the purpose of taking his degree of M.A., to wbich he was admitted on express her willingness to accept his former offer. Swift did not the 4th of July in that year, together with Thomas Swift (the son of refuse to fulfil his promise, but in his reply laid down such conditions his uncle Thomas), who had studied with Jonathan at Trinity College, as to the duties of her who should become his wife, that no further Dublin, and was afterwards rector of Puttenham in Surrey. Some correspondence took place between them. time after his return to Moor Park, finding that no provision was After Sir William Temple's death Swift repaired to London to made for him beyond subsisteuce in Sir William's family, Swift became superintend the publication of his patron's posthumous works, a task tired of his state of dependence, and in some degree dissatisfied with which he performed carefully, and prefixed a Life of Sir William and bis patron. He made his complaint to Sir William, who then offered a dedication to the king ; but finding that the king took no notice of him a situation worth 100l. a year in the Rolls in Ireland, of which the works, the dedication, or himself, he accepted an offer made to Sir William was Master. Swift declined the offer, and said he pre- him by Lord Berkeley in 1699, who had just been appointed one of ferred going to Ireland and endeavouring to obtain preferment in the the lords justices of Ireland, to attend him there as his chaplain and church. They were both displeased, and so parted. Swift went to private secretary. He acted as secretary till they arrived in Dublin, Ireland, but was deeply mortified when he found that he could not when a person of the name of Bush obtained the office for himself by obtain orders without a certificate from Sir William, which he was representing to Lord Berkeley the unsuitableness of such an office to therefore compelled to solicit from his offended patron. The certificate the character and duties of a clergyman. Lord Berkeley however, to was given; Swift was admitted to deacon's orders, October 18, 1694, compensate Swift for the loss of his office, promised that he should and to priest's orders, January 13, 1695. Soon afterwards Lord Capol. have the first good preferment in his gift that became vacant. To this then Lord-Deputy of Ireland, bestowed upon him the prebend of arrangement Swift assented. The rich deanery of Derry was soon Kilroot, in the diocese of Connor, worth about 1001. a year, whither afterwards at Lord Berkeley's disposal, and Swift intimated to him he immediately went to perform the duties of a country clergyman. that he expected him to keep his word. Lord Berkeley told him that

Sir William Temple appears to have soon felt the want of Swift's Bush had obtained the promise of it for another, but, observing Swift's services, and it was not long before he sent him a kind letter, with an indignation, advised him to apply to Bush to see if the matter could invitation to return to Moor Park. Swift, on the other hand, however not be arranged: he did so, when the secretary frankly told him that fond of independence, must have felt strongly the contrast between 10001. had been offered for it, but that if he would put down the same the dull life of a clergyman in a remote town in Ireland and the sum he should have the preference. Swift, in a rage, exclaimed, "God refined society of Moor Park. He did not hesitate long to accept Sir confound you both for a couple of scoundrels," and immediately left William's invitation; and having become acquainted with a learned the castle, intending to return no more. Lord Berkeley however was and worthy curate in his neighbourhood, who had a family of eight unwilling, if it could be avoided, to risk exposure; he therefore offered children, and only 401. a year, he rode to Dublin, resigned his prebend, to him the rectory of Agher and the vicarages of Laracor and Rathand obtained a grant of it for his poor friend.

beggan, then vacant, in the diocese of Meath. Though not worth a Swift, on his return to Moor Park in 1695, was treated by Sir third of the deanery, as they only amounted together to 2301, a year, William Temple rather as a friend than as a mere secretary, and they Swift deemed it prudent to accept the livings : he still retained his continued to live together till Sir William’s death, January 27, 1698. office of chaplain, and continued to reside with the family till Lord Some time before his death, Temple had obtained from King William Berkeley retired from the government of Ireland. The prebend of





Tunlavin was bestowed upon him in 1700, which increased his income were again revived for a remission of the first-fruits; and Swift was to between 3501, and 4001. a year. While he resided in Lord Berke. again deputed, in conjunction with the bishops of Ossory and Killaloe, loy's family he produced some of the first specimens of that original to solicit the boon. On the 1st of Septeinber 1710, he left Ireland on vein of humour on which, more perhaps than on any other of his rare this mission, but found, on his arrival in London, that the bishops, talents, his reputation is founded : among these are The Humble who had gone to England before him, had left that country without Petition of Frances Harris,' and the Meditation on a Broomstick.' having done anything.

About this time Swift's sister married a person of the name of Swift now found himself courted by the leaders of both parties, Fenton. Swift had expressed bimself strongly against this marriage, with the exception of Godolphin, who treated him with such marked and when it took place he was highly offended. Scott, on the authority coldness that he vowed revenge, a vow which he performed on the of Theophilus Swift, says that Fenton was a worthless character, on 1st of October, by the publication of 'Sid Hamet's Rod.' Swift soon the point of bankruptcy at the time, and that Swift afforded his sister made up his mind to join the Tories, and on the 4th of October was the means of decent support in the destitution which her imprudence introduced to Harley, then chancellor of the exchequer, by whom he brought upon her.

was received with the most flattering kindness, and was introduced In the year 1700, on the return of Lord Berkeley to England, Swift by him to St. John, who was then one of the secretaries of state. In took possession of his living at Laracor. He performed his duties as a few days he received a promise that the first-fruits should be a country clergyman with exemplary diligence, and expended a con. remitted, and immediately began to put his literary battery in action siderable sum in repairing the church. Some years afterwards be in the defence of his new friends. During the time that Swift remained purchased for 250l. the tithes of the parish of Effernock near Trim, in London on this occasion he wrote a Journal, or diary, which was which he left by his will to the vicars of Laracor for the time being, addressed in a series of letters to Miss Johnson and Mrs. Dingley, but as long as the present episcopal religion continues to be the established obviously intended for the former. This Journal, written as it was faith in Ireland; but if any other form of Christian religion becomes chiefly in the morning and evening of each successive day of the most the established faith, he then directs that the profits as they come in busy part of Swift's life, affords a picture as minute as it is evidently shall be paid to the poor of the parish of Laracor.

trustworthy of the events in which he was concerned and the thoughts Swift had not been long at Laracor when it was arranged between which arose out of them. Miss Johnson and himself that she should come to reside in his neigh- • The Examiner,' a weekly periodical, had been begun by St. Jobn, bourhood. She had a small independence, about 15001.

, of which Prior, and others, in support of the new ministry. Thirteen numbers 10001. had been left to her as a legacy by Sir William Temple, since bad been published with little effect, when it was taken up by Swift, whose death she had resided with Mrs. Dingley, a relation of the November 10, 1710, and was continued by him till June 14, 1711, á Temple family, a widow of middle age, whose income was only about period of seven months, when he resigned it into other hands. Every 25l. a year. Mrs. Johnson continued to reside with Lady Gifford. one of these papers was written by himself, besides several satirical When Miss Johnson removed to Ireland she was accompanied by Mrs. pamphlets. He assailed his opponents not only as a body, but indi. Dingley; and the ostensible ground for leaving England on the part vidually: the shafts of his satire were particularly directed against of both was that the rate of interest was much higher in Ireland : it Wharton, Godolphin, Walpole, Sunderland, Cowper, and Marlborough. was then 10 per cent. They took lodgings in the town of Trim, where With surprising readiness and versatility, he assumed every shape they generally resided, except in Swift's absence, when they occupied suitable for the annoyance of his enemies or the support of his friends. the vicarage-house. Miss Johnson was then about eighteen years of Harley, who, though he maintained the most friendly and confidential age; her features were beautiful, her eyes and hair black, and her form intercourse with Swift, seems not at that time to have properly symmetrical, though a little inclined to fullness. She was a woman of appreciated his character or understood his views, sent him a note for strong sense, though not highly educated, of agreeable conversation, 501., which Swift indignantly returned, and obstinately refused his and elegant manners.

invitation till he had made an apology. After the attempt upon the Swift appears to have passed over to England at least once a year, life of Harley by the Marquis de Guiscard, he was created lord and remained two or three months, chiefly in London, where he treasurer and Earl of Oxford, in May 1711, and offered to make Swift officiated as chaplain in Lord Berkeley's family, but generally paid a his chaplain, who refused this offer also. "I will be no man's chaplain visit to his mother at Leicester. In 1701, during the first of these alive," says he in his Journal. He evidently thought that his services annual residences in England, he published his first political tract, and his merits deserved no worse a place than a bishopric. He conA Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions between the Nobles and tinued, as long as he remained in England, to be treated, both in Commons at Athens and Rome.' It was intended to check the popular private and public, with the most flattering civility, especially by violence which had occasioned the impeachment of Lords Somers, Lord Oxford, and also by St. John, who in July 1712, was created Halifax, Oxford, and Portland for their share in the Partition Treaty. Lord Boling broke. He formed the society of Brothers, which con. It was published anonymously, but attracted much attention. On sisted of sixteen persons of the highest rank and most distinguished his second visit to England, in 1702, he avowed himself to be the talents among the Tories, of which society indeed he was the most anthor of this tract, and was immediately admitted into the society active member. of the leading Whigs, Somers, Halifax, and Sunderland, and also into It having become obvious that the existence of the Tory governthat of the leading wits, Addison, Steele, Arbuthnot, and others, who ment depended upon making peace with Frauce, Prior was sent to used then to assemble at Button's coffee-house.

Paris to enter into a negociation for that purpose, and Swift, in further. In 1704 Swift published anonymously the Tale of a Tub,' together ance of the same object, wrote The Conduct of the Allies,' which with “The Battle of the Books.' The Tale of a Tub' was at the was published anonymously, November 27, 1711, while the question time generally supposed to be Swift's, and its wit was much admired, of peace or war was under discussion in parliament. The sale of this but it made him some powerful enemies by its imputed irreligious tract was unprecedented at that time, four large editions having been tendency.

exbausted in a week. It furnished the Tory members in the House In 1708 Swift was employed by the Irish prelates to solicit a remis- of Commons with facts and arguments, while the Whigs in the Lords sion of the first fruits for Ireland, which had already been granted threatened to bring the author to the bar of the house. The effect in England. His application was made to Lord Godolphin, but was upon the public mind was such as to produce a determined spirit of unsuccessful. About this timo there were two or three plans for opposition to the war, proving, as it did, that the allies, the late Wbig Swift's preferment, but all of them were failures. He was to have ministry, and especially the Duke of Marlborough, were the only accompanied Lord Berkeley as secretary of embassy to Vienna, but parties who had derived advantage from the expenditure of so much Lord Berkeley found himself too infirm to venture upon the employ- English blood and treasure. ment: he was to have gone out to Virginia as a sort of metropolitan The Peace of Utrecht was concluded May 5, 1713, and Swist underover the colonial clergy in America, but neither did this appointment took to write the history of it, but the progress and publication of the take place; and he was promised Dr. South's prebend of Westminster, work were hindered by the growing dissension between Oxford and but South, though very old, continued to live for several years longer. Bolingbroke. This work he afterwards expanded into the History of

During the years 1708 and 1709 Swift published several tracts. the Four last Years of Queen Anne's Reigo,' but it was not published An Argument against abolishing Christianity,' is a piece of grave till 1758, some years after his death. The only work unconnected irony; A Project for the Advancement of Religion, was dedicated with politics which Swift produced during this busy period of his life, to Lady Berkeley, who was a woman of strict piety, highly respected was his letter to the Earl of Oxford, containing A Proposal for corby Swift : it is the only work to which he ever put his name : it made recting, improving, and ascertaining the English Tongue,' an object a strong impression on the religious classes, and was very favourably which was to be acccomplished by a society similar to that of the received by the public. In his *Letter on the Sacramental Test', he French Academy. Swift was very anxious to have this scheme carried opposed any relaxation of the restrictive laws against the Dissenters. into effect, but Oxford was too busy at that time to second his views, In this opinion he differed strongly from the Whigs, and this difference which indeed met with little favour from the public. seems to have been a principal cause of his soon afterwards joining While Swift was thus assisting his friends, he obtained nothing for the Tories. About this time he also published the 'Sentiments of a himself but empty honour, a species of reward which hardly any Church-of-England Man,' as well as some of his lighter pieces, espe- man ever valued less. He was too proud to make any direct solicitacially the humorous attacks on Partridge the almanac-maker, which tion; he was aware that Lord Oxford well knew what he expected, came out under the name of Isaac Bickerstaff. In 1710 Swift's mother but he was not aware that he had a private and obstinate enemy in died. “If the way to heaven," said he, “be through piety, truth, Queen Anne, who had been taught by Archbishop Sharp that the justice, and charity, she is there."

supposed author of the Tale of a Tub' was little, if at all, better On the change of ministry in 1710 the hopes of the Irish prelates than an infidel, He now felt that his situation was uncomfortably





awkward, and began to anticipate that he might be allowed to return endeavoured to limit as much as possible the correspondence between to Ireland neither higher in the church vor richer than be left it. himself and Vanessa, probably expecting that her attachment would He became impatient and restive. The bishopric of Hereford became be diminished by absence; but hers was a deep and uncontrollable vacant, and Oxford and Lady Masham, the queen's favourite, exerted passion. She wrote to him frequently, and complained bitterly of his themselves to obtain her consent to bestow it upon him, but the not replying to her letters. At length Mrs. Vanbomrigh died; her two opposition of the Duchess of Somerset, the queen's other favourite, sons died soon afterwards ; and the circumstances of the two sisters whom Swift had libelled in his “ Windsor Prophecy,' frustrated their being somewhat embarrassed by imprudent expenses, they resolved to efforts. As soon as Swift knew that the bishopric had been given to retire to Ireland, where their father had left a small property near another, he sent notice to Lord Oxford of bis determination to retire. Celbridge. Swift, in his diary, though he mentions occasionally bis The ministry now saw, that unless something were done for him, they calling at Mrs. Vanhomrigh's, makes no allusion to her daughter. would lose his powerful aid, which had kept their enemies at bay, Notwithstanding this caution, obscure murmurs of the intercourse and had helped so effectively to keep themselves in possession of the between Swift and Vanessa had reached Stella soon after its com. government. Thus pressed, Oxford, with the concurrence of the mencement. In 1714 Vanessa arrived in Dublin, to the annoyance of Duke of Ormond, proposed that Dr. Sterne should be removed to the Swift and dread of Stella. Swift saw her very seldom : he introduced bishopric of Dromore, in order to make room for Swift in the deanery Dean Winter to her, a gentleman of fortune, as a suitor for her hand; of St. Patrick's. This they accomplished; and, with the view of and proposals of marriage were made to her by Dr. Price, afterwards retaining bim in England, an effort was made by Oxford and Lady bishop of Cashel; but both offers were rejected. Stella's jealousy at Masham to exchange the deanery for a Windsor prebend; but the length became so restless that Swift is said to have consented to their queen's determination against this arrangement was not to be shaken. marriage, and the ceremony was performed in 1716, in the garden of The warrant for the deanery of St. Patrick's was signed February 23, the deanery, by the Bishop of Clogher; and though Swift never 1713, and early in June the same year Swift set out for Ireland to acknowledged the marriage, and no change took place in their intertake possession.

course, the evidence, though imperfect, has been usually considered to In the early part of his Journal Swift expresses a continual desire to leave little doubt of the fact. But on the other band, in her will return to Laracor and the society of his beloved Stella, but this feeling made during her last illness (December 1727), and drawn up, as Mr. evidently becomes gradually weaker. The splendid society in which Wilde—who first printed it (in his • Closing Years of Dean Swift's he moved, and the sort of homage with which he was treated, such as Life,' 1849),—thinks, after a careful comparison of it with Swift's own perhaps no other person of his rank ever received, had long before his will, by Swift himself, she describes herself as “Esther Jobpson, of return to Ireland taken strong possession of his heart; so that when the city of Dublin, spinster.” At length, in 1717, Vanessa and her he entered into the possession of his deanery, it was with feelings in sister retired to Marley Abbey, near Celbridge, where Swift does not the highest degree dissatisfied and desponding.

appear to have visited them till 1720, when Vanessa's sister became Swift was scarcely settled in his deanery when he received the most dangerously ill : during that illness his visits were frequent, and were pressing invitations from the friends of the Tory administration continued occasionally to Vanessa after her sister's death. Vanessa by return to England, for the purpose of reconciling, if possible, Oxford degrees became more impatient, and at length wrote to Stella to and Bolingbroke, whose dissension endangered the very existence of inquire into the nature of her connection with Swift. Stella, highly the Tory government. He came over to England without delay, and indignant, sent the letter to Swift, and immediately retired to the soon afterwards published “The Public Spirit of the Whigs,' a bitter house of Mr. Ford, near Dublin. Swift, in a paroxysm of rage, rode attack on Steele as well as the party to which he belonged. In this instantly to Marley Abbey. Vanessa, on bis entering the room, was pamphlet the Scotch were spoken of as “a poor fierce northern struck dumb by that awful sternness which his countenance assumed people,” with several other offensive remarks, directed especially when he was in anger, and to which she more than once alludes in her against the Duke of Argyle. A prosecution was instituted against letters to him. He flung the letter on the table without saying a Barber the printer, which the ministers managed to set aside; but the word, instantly left the house, and rode back to Dublin. Poor Scotch peers went up in a body to complain to the queen of the Vanessa sank under the blow. In a few weeks afterwards she died, in indignity with which they had been treated.

1723, leaving her property to Dr. Berkeley, afterwards bishop of Clogne, Finding that Oxford and Bolingbroke could not be reconciled, Swift and to Mr. Marshall, one of the judges of the Irish court of Common retired to the house of the Rev. Mr. Geary, Upper Letcombe, Berk- Pleas. The poem of 'Cadepuis and Vanessa' was published soon after shire, at the beginning of June 1714. Here he wrote his 'Free Miss Vanhomrigh's death; but Berkeley is said to have destroyed the Thoughts on the State of Public Affairs.' Bolingbroke was now about original correspondence: a full copy however remained in the posto supplant Oxford, and left no means untried to conciliate Swift. session of Mr. Marshall, and it was published for the first time with The queen, at Bolingbroke's earnest request, signed an order on the the exception of one or two letters) in Scott's edition of Swift's Works. treasury for 10001., which Swift bad in vain endeavoured to obtain Swift, in an agony of shame and remorse, retreated to some place through Oxford, to relieve him from the debts-amounting to at least in the south of Ireland, where he remained two months, without the that sum-which he was obliged to incur on entering his deanery. place of his abode being known. On his return to Dublin, Stella was This sum however he never received, the death of the quoen having easily persuaded to forgive him. After their reconciliation, Stella occurred before the order was presented for payment. At the same continued to be the friend of Swift, the companion of his social hours, time Lady Masham wrote to him, conjuring him not to desert the his comforter and patient attendant in sickness; and she presided at queen, and Barber was commissioned by Bolingbroke to say that he his table on public days : but they were never alone together; their would reconcile him to the Duchess of Somerset. Almost the next union as husband and wife was merely nominal. post brought a letter from Lord Oxford, now dismissed and going In 1720 Swift published ' A Proposal for the Universal Use of Irish alone to his seat in Herefordshire, requesting Swift to accompany bim. Manufactures.' This honestly-meant tract was represented as a sedi His gratitude and his affection for Lord Oxford did not allow him to tious libel : the printer was brought to trial : the verdict of the jury hesitate a moment in accepting the invitation of the disgraced minister, was Not Guilty,' but Judge Whitshed kept them eleven hours, and and he wrote immediately to Ireland to get an extension of his leave sent them back nine tiines, till they reluctantly left the matter in his of absence, which was now nearly expired, to enable him to do so. hands by a special verdict. The public indignation however was Within three days the death of Queen Anne and the accession of roused, and the government by a ‘nolle prosequi,' were obliged to George I. put an end to the power of the Tories. Lord Oxford was relinquish the contest. arrested and imprisoned, and Swift wrote to him with a touching In 1723, there being a scarcity of copper coin in Ireland, George I. earnestness to request that he might be permitted to attend him in granted to William Wood a patent right to coin farthings and halfhis confinement. "Lord Oxford however refused to accede to his pence to the amount of 108,0001. The grant was made without conrequest. Bolingbroke and Ormond fled to France, and Swift returned sulting the lord-lieutenant or privy council of Ireland : it had been to Ireland.

obtained by the influence of the Duchess of Kendall, the king's Not long after Swift came to London, to solicit the remission of the mistress, who was to have a share of the profits. The Irish parliament first-fruits; he was introduced to the acquaintance of Mrs. Vanhomrigh, expressed their dislike to it by a remonstrance, of which no notice was the widow of Bartholomew Vauhomrigh, a Dutch merchant, who at taken, when a voice was heard which apparently arose from one of his death had left to his widow a life interest in 16,0001., which sum the trading classes : a letter was published signed M. B., drapier was afterwards to be divided equally among his children, two sons and (draper), Dublin,' and was followed by five or six more. The effect of two daughters. When Swift became intimate in this family, Miss these letters is known. All Ireland was roused. No one would touch Esther Vanhomrigh, the eldest daughter, was under twenty years of the contaminated coin. A reward of 3001. was offered for the discovery age, not remarkable for beauty, but well educated, lively, graceful, of the author of the Drapier's fourth letter. A bill against the printer spirited, and, unfortunately for Swift, with a taste for reading. He was about to be presented to the grand jury, when the Dean addresseri became the director of her studies, and their friendly intercourse was to them “Some seasonable Advice;" and the memorable quotation continued till Miss Vanhomrigh made a declaration of affection for from Scripture was circulated, " And the people said unto Saul, shall him, and proposed marriage. How that declaration was received is Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel ! God related in Swift's poem of Cadenus and Vanessa.' Cadenus is forbid : as the Lord liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to decanus (dean) by transposal of letters, and Vanessa is the poetical the ground; for he hath wrought with God this day. So the people name which he gave to Miss Vanbomrigh. The proposal was declined; rescued Jonathan that he died not.” The grand jury wrote 'ignorabut Swift, from vanity or fondness, or both, had not firmness enough mus' on the bill, and Judge Whitshed could only vent his rage by to relinquish their affectionate intercourse.

dismissing them. Ultimately the patent was withdrawn, and Wood After bis return to Ireland, Swift, conscious of his imprudence, I was compensated by a grant of 3000l. yearly for twelve years.





Swift's popularity was pow unbounded. The Drapier's head was obnoxious members in one of the last but most animated and pointed painted on signs, engraved on copper-plates, struck on medals, woven of his satires, The Legion Club.' The poem was hardly finished on pocket-handkerchiefs. As if to shelter himself from this storm of when he had one of the most intense and long-continued attacks of public applause, he retired with Stella and Mrs. Dingloy to Quilca, a vertigo which he had ever suffered, and from which indeed he never country-bouse belonging to Dr. Sheridan, in a retired situation about thoroughly recovered. In 1736 Swift opposed the primate Boulter's seven miles from Kells, where he remained several months. He had scheme for regulating the exchange with Ireland by diminishing the the company of Dr. Sheridan and other friends, and produced several value of the gold coin in order to increase the quantity of silver; be light pieces of humour, in which he was emulated by Sheridan, who spoke against it in public; he wrote ballads against it; and on the day followed him at no great distance. He also occupied himself in when the proclamation of the government for carrying the measure revising and completing the Travels into several remote Nations of into effect was read, the bells of the cathedral rang a muffled peal, and the World, by Lemuel Gulliver.'

a black flag was seen to wave on the steeple. In 1726 Swift visited England again, for the first time since Queen Swift's public life may now be said to have closed. From 1708 to Anne's death. Bolingbroke was now returned from exile. The Dean 1736 he had been actively, strenuously, and often dangerously busied resided at Twickenham with Pope, but made frequent visits to in guiding by his pen the course of public affairs; but during the Dawley, the residence of Bolivgbroke. His other associates were latter part of this period his infirmities and sufferings rapidly increased. chiefly Arbuthnot, Gay, and Lord Bathurst.

In 1732 Bolingbroke had attempted to bring him to England by At this time the Prince of Wales, afterwards George II., and the negociating an exchange of his deanery for the living of Burfield in Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, kept a sort of court at Berkshire, worth about 4001., but it was too late; the sacrifice of Leicester House. The favourite of the princess was Mrs. Howard, dignity and income was greater than, at that period of his life, he was afterwards Countess of Suffolk. Pope, Gay, and Arbuthnot were fre willing to submit to. He still continued to correspond with Bolingquent attendants at this court. Swift was introduced to the princess broke, Pope, Gay, the Duchess of Queensberry, and Lady Betty by Arbuthnot, at her own particular request. His visits afterwards Germain, by all of whom he was constantly pressed to come over to were frequent, especially when she resided at Richmond, but always England; but as his attacks of deafness and giddiness became more by special invitation from the princess.

frequent, more violent, and continued longer, he did not think it In July 1726 the Dean received letters informing him that Stella prudent to venture. Gay died in 1732, and Arbuthnot in 1734, and was in a state of dangerous illness. He hastened to Irelapd, and was Bolingbroke went to France. With Pope he kept up an affectionate gratified, on his arrival in Dublin, to find that her health was better. correspondence as long as he retained the power of expressing his He now made the world acquainted with the Travels of Gulliver.' thoughts upon paper. For several years before his mind gave way, he The work was published in London, anonymously as usual, through was hardly ever free from suffering, and never from the fear of it; and the agency of his friend Charles Ford. Such was the interest and it was his custom to pray every morning that he might not live another admiration which it excited, that the price of the first edition was day, and often when he parted at night with those friends who were raised before the second could be printed.

dearest to him, after social hours spent at the deanery, he would say with Stella being now in a tolerably good state of health, Swift, in March a sigh, “I hope I shall never see you again.” In the intervals of his fits 1727, paid his last visit to London. His reception by his friends and of giddiness his powers of judgment remained unimpaired, but his at Leicester House was as cordial as ever. After spending the summer memory failed rapidly. On the 26th of July, 1740, in a short note to with Pope at Twickenham, he contemplated a voyage to France for the Mrs. Whiteway, he says—" I have been very miserable all night, and benefit of his health, when the

death of George I. seemed to open a new to-day extremely deaf and full of pain. I cannot express the mortifiprospect to the friends of the Princess of Wales. It was expected that cation I am under of body and mind. All I can say is, that I am not Walpole's dismissal would have taken place forthwith; and the Dean, in torture, but I daily and hourly expect it. Pray let me know how at the earnest request of his friends, especially of Mrs. Howard, who your health is, and your family. I hardly understand one word I said that his going abroad at that time would look like disaffection, write. I am sure my days will be very few; few and miserable they remained in England.

must be. I am, for those few days, yours entirely, J. Swift. If I do Swift was sutfering under a severe attack of deafness, which seems not blunder, it is Saturday.". generally to have been more or less combined with his other and In 1741 Swift's memory had almost failed, his understanding was worse complaint, vertigo, when he received information that Stella much impaired, and he became subject to olent fits of passion, which was again in danger. He left England suddenly, almost capriciously soon terminated in furious lunacy. He was intrusted to the care of as it appeared to his friends, who had but an indistinct notion of bis the Rev. Dr. Lyons, who was gratefully attached to him. He conconnection with Stella, and in October 1727, landed in Dublin to find tinued in this state till 1742, when, after a week of indescribable bodily his companion on the brink of the grave. She died January 28, 1728. suffering, he sank into a state of quiet idiotcy, in which he continued When Swift had somewhat recovered from this last and severest shock, till the 19th of October 1745, when he died as gently as if he had lie found Walpole still in power, and high in favour with the queen as only fallen asleep. He was in his seventy-eighth year. The immewell as the king. He now kept no terms with the court; he attacked diate cause of death, and probably of the giddiness which had so long Walpole especially, and the ministry generally, and did not spare even afflicted bim, was found to be water on the brain. the king and queen. At the same time he applied himself vigorously On the announcement of his death, the enthusiasm of Irish gratitude to the affairs of Ireland : he published several tracts for the ameliora- broke out as if there had been no interruption of his public services. tion of the unhappy state of that country; and, with the same object The house was surrounded by a mournful crowd, who begged the in view, commenced a periodical publication, in conjunction with most trifing article that had belonged to him to be treasured as a Dr. Sheridan, called “The Intelligencer,' which however was soon relic-"yea, begg'd a bair of him for memory.'' He was buried, dropped. In 1728-9 the Dean spent about a year with Sir Arthur according to his own direction, in the great aisle of the cathedral, Acheson, at his seat of Gosford, in the north of Ireland; here he where there is a Latin inscription to bis memory, written by himself : wrote several light pieces of poetry, which were intended for the -" Hic depositum est corpus Jonathan Swift, S. T. I., hujus Ecclesiæ amusement of the family and guests; among these was · The Grand Cathedralis Decani, ubi sæva indignatio ulterius cor lacerare nequit. Question debated, whether Hamilton's Bawn should be turned into a Abi, viator, et imitare, si poteris, strenuum pro virili libertatis vinMalthouse or a Barracks,' affording evidence that age had not in the dicem. Obiit," &c. least impaired those peculiar powers of humour which he had first Swift left the bulk of his property, the savings of about thirty years displayed in the family of Lord Berkeley. In 1730 the Dean was a of his life, to found and endow an hospital for lunatics and idiots. guest for six months in the house of Mr. Leslie at Market Hill, a In 1735 he presented a memorial to the corporation of Dublin, praying small town at a short distance from Sir Arthur Acheson's. Near this that a piece of ground on Oxmantown Green might be assigned for town be intended to build a house, on ground to be leased from Sir the purpose, which was immediately assented to, but the site which he Arthur, and which was to have been called Drapier's Hill; an inten- ultimately fixed on was in James-street, Dublin, near Steevens's tion however which he did not carry into effect.

Hospital. The funds which finally devolved upon the hospital In a satire upon the Dissepters, in 1733, the Dean had directed a amounted to about 10,0001. few lines against the booby Bettesworth," who was a serjeant-at-law For some years before his intellect failed, the general superintendence and a member of the Irish parliament, and who, on reading the lines of the Dean's domestic affairs had been intrusted by him to Mrs. was so highly incensed that he drew a kpife, and swore he would cut Whiteway, who was a daughter of his uncle Adam: she was a woman off the Dean's ears; he proceeded direct to the deanery with that of property, of superior understanding, and elegant manners. She was intention, but as Swift was on a visit at Mr. Worrall's, Bettesworth not his housekeeper, as has been erroneously stated. His housekeeper went there, and requested to speak with the Dean alone, whom he was Mrs. Brent, who by a second marriage became Mrs. Ridgeway. addressed with great pomposity, “Dr. Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Swift in bis youth was considered handsome: he was tall, muscular, Patrick's, I am Šerjeant Bettes worth.” “Of what regiment ?” asked and well made; his complexion was dark, and his look heavy, but Swift. An altercation ensued, which soon became so loud and Pope says that his “ eyes, which were azure as the heavens, bad an violent, that the servants rushed into the room and turned Bettes- expression of peculiar acuteness." His face was generally expressive worth into the street. To guard against any eimilar attack in future, of the stern decision of his character. He never laughed, and seldom the Deau's neighbours formed an association, for the purpose of smiled, and when he did smile it was watching the deanery, and guarding the person of the Dean from

“ As if he mock'd himself, and scorn'd his spirit violence. In the year 1735 he supported the clergy in their claim of the tithe of pasturage, or agistment tithe, in opposition to the Irish

That could be moved to smile at anything." House of Commons, and gave vent to his indignation against the In his person he was scrupulously clean; in his babits he was regular;

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