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ne was a strict economist of time and money, and kept minute written, he cared no more about them; and most readers now care as accounts of the expenditure of both; he used much exercise, both little. He could hardly be said to be at all ambitious of the reputawalking and riding; be drank wine daily, but never to excess; in tion of an author. His object in writing was to produce an effect rating he appears to have been somewhat of an epicure. In his upon the public, or to please his friends. The object once attained, he disposition he was social; and when his company pleased him his thought no more about the means by which it had been accomplished. conversation was delightful, abounding in anecdote, and rather His letters, of wbich a great number have been published, are excel. distinguished for liveliness and humour than for seriousness. In lent specimens of that species of composition ; written, without any repartee he was considered unrivalled. He had peculiarities of view to publication, either to keep up the intercourse of friendship manner, which however were not constant and habitual, but generally or for purposes of business, they abound in practical good senze, arose from the indulgence of some occasional whim. From the timo clear, unaffected, unembellished, with occasional touches of wit and of his admission into Trinity College he had mixed much in society, humour, such as appear to have arisen, without being sought for, in generally of the best kind : he was an observer of society of a lower the writer's mind at the moment of writing. A few of his Sermons kind, but he never willingly mixed with it. He spoke in public with have been published; they are of the most plain and practical chaforce and fluency. The distinguishing feature of bis character was racter. As a party writer, he used no arms but such as are considered pride—a complete consciousness and appreciation of the value of the fair in that species of warfare. He was not one of those who make power wbich he had acquired by a severe course of study and observa- false statements; he was no assailant of virtuous character. The tion, combined as it was with a determination of purpose which no vices and the faults of those public men to whom he was opposed danger could intimidate, and which turned aside from no labour were censured with unsparing severity, or covered with ridicule; but necessary to the accomplishment of his aims. He was thoroughly the men were such as Wharton and Wood and Bettesworth. Men of honest, but his honesty was often combined with a straightforward less objectionable character were touched more lightly. bluntness which was offensive to fastidiousness and vanity. In spite Swift's permanent reputation as a prose writer is likely to depend, of the sternvess of his character, which was often indeed more into a considerable extent, upon his humorous pieces, but cbiedy upon appearance than reality, he was a man of deep feeling, devotedly bis 'Gulliver's Travels. For this satirical romance he derived hinta attached to his friends, and active in promoting their interests ; nor from Lucian, Bergerac, and Rabelais ; but he derived nothing more were his friends less attached to him.

than hints. His clair to originality is unaffected by any resemblance There was much appearance of paradox in Swift's character, which which his romance bears to these sources. The style of the work is often arose from his assuming, in speakiog and writing, a character an admirable imitation of the plain, dry, and minute style of the old which did not belong to him. He hated hypocrisy, be hated the voyagers, such as Dampier; and the character of Gulliver himself, as a assumption of virtue, and he ran into the opposite extreme. Thus representative of this class, is never for a moment lost sight of. The the levity of manner with wbich he censured the corruptions of work consists of four voyages. The Voyage to Lilliput for the Christianity induced many to suppose that he was not a Christian : most part a satire on the manners and usages of the court of George I. and the tone of misanthropy which pervades many of bis writings was The Voyage to Brobdivgnag is a more extended satire on the politics of ill suited to the real character of one who annually expended a third Europe generally. These two voyages are indisputably the most part of his income in well-directed charity ; who, of the first 5001. delightful parts of the book; and are read by most readers with great he had to spare, formed a loan fund for the use, without interest, of pleasure as mere tales, with such admirable skill is an air of truth and poor tradesmen and others; who was a warm and steady friend, a reality thrown over the narrative. The Flying Island is a satire liberal patron, and a kind master. He who always spoke of Ireland directed against speculative philosophy, especially mathematics. For as a country hateful to bim, was yet the firm, fearless, and constant this part of his task Swift was but poorly qualified, and except that assertor of her rights and protector of her liberties. Johnson speaks part which is aimed at projectors and quacks, the satire for the most of his love of a shilling. Habits of strict economy have given many a part falls harmless. The fourth voyage, in which Gulliver gets among man the appearance of loving a shilling who thinks nothing of giving the Houyhnboms and Yahoos, is an exaggerated satire on the vices of away pounds. We have spoken of the use which he made of his mankind. The fiction is in itself unnaturally impossible, and the money : in the obtaining of it he was no less free from sordidness. details are sometimes disgustingly filtby. Of the numerous works which he published, most of wbich were Swift's poems are not, properly speaking, poetry, nor is Swist a extremely popular, it is doubtful if be ever received for any one a poet; his imagination is not of the kind which produces poetry; it is single shilling of direct remuneration. Pope obtained something for not filled with the beauty and magnificence of nature, but with the petty Swift's share of the Miscellanies, but there is reason to suspect that details of artificial life; he is a satirist of the first class; as a poetical he directed his friend, who did love a shilling, to keep the sum for describer of manners, he has never been excelled: as a poetical his trouble.

humourist he almost stands alone ; indeed the most delightful of his Swift's conduct towards Stella and Vanessa is that part of his poems are those in which he expresses the notions and uses the character of which least can be said by way of justification. We have language of some assumed character, as in “Mrs. Harris's Petition. In given the details of that conduct briefly, and leave the reader to draw this species of humour he had no model, and, with the exception of his own conclusions.

Thomas Hood, no imitator has ever approached him. Of the general In his political principles he was rather a Whig than a Tory, but style of his poems, Dr. Johnson remarks that “the diction is correct

, party, as a distinction which prevents the intercourse of individuals, the numbers are smooth, and the rhymes exact. There seldom occurs he regarded with dislike and scorn. He approved of triennial parlia- a hard-laboured expression or a redundant epithet. All his verses ments, nay annual parliaments; he was the defender of popular exemplify his own definition of a good style - they consist of proper rights, and frequently exposed himself to danger in defending them; words in proper places.” he was a steady advocate of constitutional freedom. His hatred of SWIFT, DEANE, was the grandson of Godwin Swift, the eldest of tyranny was almost a passion. The oppression which he saw prac- the uncles of the Dean of St. Patrick's. The Cbristian name of Deane tised in Ireland was one chief cause of his dislike to living in that was derived from his grandmother, daughter and heiress of Admiral country. He was vexed to see the tame submission with which the Deane, who served the Commonwealth during the civil wars. He Irish yielded to the tyranny of their rulers. He always spoke of his studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and afterwards resided at Goodrich residence in Ireland as an exile, and, with intense bitterness of feeling, in Herefordshire. He married a daughter of Mrs. Whiteway by her of himself as one condemned to die there “ like a poisoned rat in a first husband, the Rev. T. Harrison. Deane Swift wrote an 'Essay hole.” The separation from his friends in England certainly con upon the Life, Character, and Writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift; intertributed to produce this feeling.

spersed with some occasional Animadversions upon the Remarks of a In his religious principles he was a violent high-church bigot. He late critical Author, and upon the Observations of an anonymous would admit of no toleration either of Roman Catholics or of Dissenters Writer on these Remarks ; to which is added that Sketch of Dr. Swift's as a body, and Jews he classed with infidels. But he did not extend Life, written by the Dr. himself, which was lately presented by the these intolerant principles to individuals

. Probably he did not know Author of this Essay to the University of Dublin," 8vo, London, 1755. that Bolingbroke was an infidel, but he did know that Pope was a He also published The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift

, Dean of St. Roman Catholic.

Patrick's, collected and revised by Deane Swift, Esq., of Goodrich in Swift's acquaintance with the Greek and Latin writers was extensive, Herefordshire,' 12mo, London, 1765, about 20 vols. Deane Swift conbut not profound. French he wrote and spoke with facility, and he tributed a portion of correspondence to Nichols's edition of Swift's understood Italian. He was well read in Chaucer and Milton, but Works, 19 vols. 8vo. He died at Worcester, July 12, 1783. never mentions Shakspere, and does not appear to have had a copy of SWIFT, THEOPHILUS, was the son of Deane Swift, and was born his works. His acquaintance with English prose writers was chiefly at Goodrich in Herefordshire. He wrote « The Gamblers,' a poem, among the historians, especially Clarendon.

4to; 'The Temple of Folly,' in 4 cantos, London, 1787; •Poetical Swift

, almost beyond any other writer, is distinguished for originality. Addresses to his Majesty, 4to, 1788; Letter to the King on the He was an observer for himself, and was disdainful of obligation for Conduct of Colonel Lennox,' 4to, 1789. His remarks in this letter anything but such facts as were not within his reach. His modes of gave offence

to Colonel Lennox, who demanded satisfaction, and a combining and comparing those facts, whether ludicrous or serious, duel was the consequence, in which Swift received a pistol wound, were always his own.

In the year 1790 a man lurked at night in the streets of London, and As a prose writer, his style is distinguished by plainness, simplicity, wounded females with a sharp instrument. He escaped detection for and perspicuity; it is sometimes ungrammatical and often heavy, but some time, and the public called him "The Monster.'* A person of the is occasionally forcible and pointed. As to his

numerous political name of Williams, an artificial flower maker, was at length arrested, tracts, when they had accomplighed the end for which they were tried, found guilty, and sentenced to six months' imprisonment

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Theophilus Swift seems to have thought that this man was innocent, William of Malmesbury says of St. Swithio that "he was a rich and exerted himself both at the trial and afterwards, to prove his treasure of all virtues, and that those in which he took wost delight innocence. He wrote a Vindication of Renwick Williams, commonly were humility and charity to the poor.” He adds, that he built several called the Monster,' London, 1790. Theophilus Swift wrote an churches, and devoted himself exclusively to the spiritual administra.

Essay on the Rise and Progress of Rhyme,' which was printed in the tion of his diocese; in his frequent visitations of it he travelled with * Transactions'

of the Irish Academy, vol. ix., 1801; and in 1811 he his clergy on foot, and for the most part by night, in order to avoid published at Dublin 'Mr. Swift's Correspondence with the Rev. Mr. the suspicion of ostentation. He died in the reign of Ethelbert, on Dobbin and his Family.' Scott's edition of Swift's Works contains the 2nd of July 862. His last request was that he should be buried several communications from Theophilus Swift. He inherited from in the churchyard of Winchester, “ ubi cadaver et pedibus prætereunhis grandmother, Mrs. Whiteway, a considerable estate in the county tium et stillicidiis e cælo rorantibus esset obnoxium.” Within a of Limerick. He died in Ireland, in the summer of 1815.

century afterwards, his name having been admitted into the calendar SWINBURNE, HENRY, an English traveller, was born in May as that of a canonised saint, it was resolved to transfer his remains to 1752. He was the third son of Sir John Swinburne, Bart., of the cathedral, and to place them in a magnificent shrine prepared for Capheaton, in the county of Northumberland, of an ancient Roman the purpose by King Egbert. The translation, which was to have Catholic family. He received his education at the monastic seminary taken place on the 15th of July, was delayed for forty days in conse. of Lacelle, in France, where he made rapid progress in the study of quence of the severe rainy weather which occurred, and hence arose ancient and modern literature and in drawing. By the death of his the well-known tradition that if it rain on St. Swithin's day there will eldest brother, he became possessed of an annuity and of a small be rain for forty days after. In France the day of the festival of estate at Hamsterley, in the county of Durham, and was thus placed St. Gervais (June 19th) is marked by a similar superstition. These in independent circumstances. He now set out on a tour, in which he superstitions are not however altogether unfounded on facts, experivisited Turin, Genoa, Florence, and other parts of Italy, improving ence having shown that whenever a wet season sets in about the end himself on his route in the knowledge of works of art and in drawing of June to the middle of July, it generally continues for a considerOn his way home through Paris, he became acquainted with and able period, and that, in a majority of our summers, a rainy season of married Miss Baker, daughter of the then solicitor-general of the West about forty days comes on nearly at the time indicated by the traIndies, and, returning to England, resided with her some time at his dition of Saint Swithin. estate at Hamsterley, where he amused himself with gardening and The festival of St. Swithin in the Roman Martyrology is the 2nd of laying out grounds. He soon recommenced travelling, and reached July, the day of his death ; but in Eogland it was celebrated on the Paris, in March 1774; in the autumn of the same year be proceeded 15th of July, the day appointed for the translation of his relics to the to Bordeaux, and, after spending a year in the south of France, Cathedral of Winchester. accompanied his friend Sir Thomas Gascoigne on a tour in Spain; SYDENHAM, CHARLES EDWARD POULETT THOMSON, they travelled along the coast from Barcelona to Cadiz, and thence LORD, was the son of John Poulett Thomson, Esq., of Waverley Abbey through the interior to Madrid, Burgos, and Bayonne, where they and Roehampton in Surrey, the head of the mercantile firm of J. arrived in June 1776. At the close of this year Swinburne, in com. Thomson, T. Bonar, and Co., which had been long one of the most pany with his wife, left Marseille for Naples. He remained in Italy eminent houses engaged in the Russian trade. Mr. John Thomson, till June 1779, during which period, after staying a year at Naples, at who assumed the name of Poulett by sigu-manual, in 1820, in memory the court of Ferdinand IV., he visited Sicily, Rome, Florence, and of his mother, married, in 1781, Charlotte, daughter of Dr. Jacob of Turin, whence he returned to France. About this time he published Salisbury, and by her he had a family of nine children, of whom the an account of his Spanish tour in a series of letters, and spent the subject of the present notice, born at Waverley on the 13th of Sep. latter part of the year 1779 in England. The next year he travelled tember 1799, was the youngest. There were two elder sons, Andrew through France and Italy to Vienna, where he was received with and George, of whom the latter, now George Poulett Scrope, Esq., is much kindness by the Empress Maria Theresa, and her son Joseph II. the present member for Stroud, and the author of 'Principles of He was again in England in 1781, and in 1783 set out for Paris to seek Political Economy,' 12mo, 1833, and of The Life of Lord Sydenham,' indemnity from the French government for the loss of his West India 8vo, 1843. property, which had been devastated during the war. Through the Lord Sydenham was never at any public school or university; and favour of Maria Antionette, he obtained in compensation a grant of he left his native country at the age of sixteen, to be placed in his land in the island of St. Vincent, the value of which was however father's house of business at St. Petersburg, then under the chief much reduced on the cession of the island to Great Britain. In 1786 direction of his eldest brother. He returned to England in ill-health Swinburne again went to Paris, and returned in 1788.

in 1817; then made a tour to the south of France, Switzerland, and After having long solicited a diplomatic appointment from the Italy; after which he took his place in bis father's counting-house in British government, he was appointed, in 1796, commissioner for the London, in the summer of 1819. In the spring of 1821 he was again adjustment of the cartel then proposed for the exchange of prisoners sent out to St. Petersburg, this time as a partner in the firm; and here of-war between France and England. In the performance of this he remained for two years. The greater part of the winter and spring service great difficulties occurred from the refusal of the French to of 1823-24 he spent in Vienna; whence returning by Paris to Eug. give up Sir Sidney Smith; and, after long and fruitless negociations, land, he assumed, in conjunction with his brother Andrew, the chief Swinburne was finally recalled at the close of the year 1797. His conduct of the business in London. latter years were saddened by the loss of his son, who was shipwrecked Sanguine, ambitious, and self-confident, he involved himself to on his way to Jamaica, and by the diminution of his fortune, which some extent in the American mining speculations of 1825. Meanwhile induced him, in 1801, to accept the offices of vendue master in the he had become intimate with young Mr. Bentham and Mr. James Mill, island of Trinidad, and commissioner for the restoration of the with Mr. Warburton, Mr. Hume, Dr. (now Sir John) Bowring, and Mr. Danish islands. After a few months' residence at Trioidad, Swinburne M'Culloch, and had set bis heart upon entering public life. He fell a victim to the climate, April 1, 1803.

obtained a seat in parliament for Dover, after an expensive contest, at His works are—Travels through Spain in the years 1775 and 1776,' the general election in the summer of 1826. His rise from this date 8vo, London, in a series of Letters; Travels in the Two Sicilies in the was very rapid. Voting steadily with the extreme section of the Years 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780;' and a Correspondence extending Opposition, he spoke but seldom, and almost exclusively upon com. from the year 1774 to that of his death, edited by Charles White, Esq., mercial questions. On the first occasion however on which he delivered under the title of the Courts of Europe at the close of the Last himself at any length, in a debate on the state of the shipping interest, Century,' 2 vols., 8vo, London, 1841. This publication contains many on the 7th of May 1827, he made a very favourable impression on the curious details concerning the courts of Louis XV. and Louis XVI., House, and had the gratification of being warmly complimented by and the most stirring periods of the French Revolution. Swinburne Mr. Huskisson. After this, whenever he rose he was listened to with is a lively and sensible writer; he describes everything in an easy, attention. He was again returned for Dover in 1830; and when the unaffected, and sometimes forcible style; he is an attentive observer Whigs came into power, in November of that year, he was appointed of national characteristics, and has selected with judgment such to the offices of Vice-President of the Board of Trade and Treasurer anecdotes and incidents as best illustrate the manners of different of the Navy. He was returned again for Dover after his acceptance countries.

of office, and also to the succeeding parliament, which met in June SWITHIN, SAINT, seventeenth Bishop of Winchester, was born 1831. At the general election in December 1832, he was returned in the early prrt of the 9th century, but the exact year is not ascer- both for Dover and for Manchester; he elected to sit for the latter tained. He was ordained priest in 830 by Helmstan, bishop of Win- place; and continued to represent Manchester as long as he remained chester, and was soon after appointed by King Egbert his chaplain, in the House of Commons. Meanwhile on the reconstruction of the and tutor to his son Ethelwulf. In the reign of the latter he became ministry in June 1834, occasioned by the secession of Lord Stanley chancellor, and was entrusted with the education of Alfred, whom he and Sir James Graham, Mr. Poulett Thomson was made President of accompanied to Rome. The services rendered by Swithin to Ethel the Board of Trade, in the room of Lord Auckland, who was removed wulf in the direction of the ecclesiastical affairs of his kingdom were to the Admiralty ; and on the recovery of power by his party in April rewarded by his elevation in 852 to the see of Winchester, vacant by 1835, after Sir Robert Peel's short administration, he resumed that the death of Helmstan. He is supposed to have been the originator office with a seat in the cabinet. So early as in the beginning of the year of the payment of Peter-pence' to Rome, though there is much reason 1836, if there be no misprint of the date in Mr. P. Scrope's narrative to believe that this tribute had an earlier origin, and also to have pro- it had been in contemplation to remove him to the House of Lords, cured the first act of the Wittenagemot for enforcing the universal in order to relieve him

from the fatigues of the long night sittings in the payment of tithes,

Commons, under which his health was already beginning to break down; BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.

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867

SYDENHAM, FLOYER.

SYLBURG, PREDERIC.

but circumstances, it is added, for a time put a stop to this plan. At contained his remarks on the small-pox and on other eruptive ferers, last, towards the close of the session of 1839, on the elevation of Mr. and is remarkable not only for the singularly accurate description of Spring Rice the peerage, he was offered his choice between the symptoms, but also for the recommendation of a practice directly chaucellorship of the exchequer and the government of Canada; and opposed to the heating and stimulating plan of treatment which then accepted the latter. He was sworn into his new office before the Privy universally prevailed. Remarks on the epidemic diseases of London Council on the 29th of August; be left England on the 13th of Sep from 1675 to 1680; a treatise on dropsy and on the gout; and a tract tensber, and landed at Quebec on the 19th of October. Of his admi- on the rise of a new fever, were his principal other publications, nistration in Canada, which was bighly successful, Mr. Scrope has From the nature of their subjects, we cannot here enter upon an published a very full narrative, which was drawn up by Mr. Murdoch, examination of these works; but it is worth while, in the case of a the civil secretary. In August 1840, the governor general was raised man who acquired such high eminence as Sydenham, to inquire what to the peerag- by the title of Baron Sydenham, of Sydenham, in Kent, were the causes to which he owed his great celebrity. He was not a and Toronto, in Canada. But on the 4th of September 1841, while learned man, and his works, written by him originally in English, in a weak state of health, he had the misfortune to be thrown from were translated into Latin before publication by his friends Dr. his horse, which stumbled and fell upon him, and to sustain a fracture Mapletoft and Mr. Havers. He constructed no brilliant theory, and of the principal bone of his right leg, besides other serious injuries ; indeed was not always consistent in following that which he adopted. and his death followed on Sunday the 19th of the same month. The Were we to reckon Sydenbam among the followers of any particular most remarkable quality that Lord Sydenham possessed was great school, it would be among those of the chemical physicians, who decision of character, arising from clearheadedness and self-reliance. sought for the causes of disease in a supposed fermentation and His activity, zeal, and extensive information also made him an excel- chemical decomposition of the fluids of the body. Sydenham's lent man of business, and his attractive manners added to his value method of treating small-pox however, though so great an improveas a partisan.

ment on the practice which then prevailed, was in opposition to the SYDENHAM, FLOYER, was born in 1710, and was educated at theory which he had embraced. But his chief merit consists not so Wadhamn College, Oxford, where he took the degree of M.A. in 1734. much in bis method of treatment, which is not unfrequently defective, Having undertaken the laborious and unproductive task of translating as in his singular talent for observation. The pictures which he bas Plato into English, he issued proposals for publishing his work by drawn of diseases are so accurate, that in many instances it would not Bubscription in 1759, accompanied by a ‘Synopsis, or General View of be possible to improve upon them. He betook himself to carefully the Works of Plato' The subscribers were few, and some, it is said, noting the symptoms of disease, and the encouragement of his friend failed in their engagements; and after a life of labour and want he Locke assured bim that his was the right method of seeking for died in old age (April 1, 1787), imprisoned for a debt contracted at truth. This it is which constitutes his merit, that, in an age of the eating-bouse which he frequented. Melancholy as was his end, it brilliant theories, he applied himself to questioning Nature herself; was honoured in its results ; for in consequence, “one of the members justly thinking that though" the practice of physic may seem to flow of a club at the Prince of Wales Coffee-House proposed that it should from hypotheses, yet, if the hypotheses are solid and true, they in adopt as its object some means to prevent similar afflictions, and to some measure owe their origin to practice." By treading in this path, assist deserving authors and their families in distress ;” and this was Sydenham has gained a name which will last; while many, his supethe origin of that valuable institution, the Literary Fund, from an riors in learning, perhaps his equals in genius, are forgotten, or remem. account published by which the above quotation is taken. Sydenham bered only as instances of the misapplication of great gifts to little is therein characterised as "a man revered for his knowledge, and purpose. Sydenham's works have passed through various editions, beloved for the candour of his temper and gentleness of his manners." both in this country and on the Continent. The edition entitled

Between 1759 and 1780 Sydenham published translations of the Io, Opera Medica,' published at Geneva, in 2 vols. 4to, in 1716, is preferGreater and Lesser Hippias, Banquet, Rivals, Meno, First and Second able to the English editions. The translation of his works by Dr. Swan Alcibiades, and Philebus, with notes : these are collected in three is well executed; the best edition of it is that of Dr. Wallis, in 2 vols. quarto volumes. These versions were afterwards included by Thomas 8vo, published in 1789. Taylor in his complete translation of Plato, 1804, revised, and with a SYDNEY. (SIDNEY.] selection of the notes. Taylor complains, while paying tribute to SYLBURG (Latinised SYLBURGIUS), FREDERIC, was born in Sydenham's natural powers, that from early prejudices, and the 1536, in the village of Wetter, near Marburg, whence he generally pressure of distress, he was unequal to the reception and explanation calls himself Fredericus Sylburgius Veterensis. His father was a of “Plato's more sublime tenets. His translation however of other farmer in middling circumstances; but the son received a good edu. parts, which are not so abstruse, is excellent. In these he not only cation, and during the time he spent at the University of Jena, be presents his reader faithfully with the matter, but likewise with the chiefly devoted himself to the study of Greek under Rhodomannus. genuine manner of Plato.” (Introduction.)

After the completion of his academical course, he had the management Sydenham's other works are—' A Dissertation on the Doctrine of of several public schools, first that of Lich, in the county of Solms, and Heraclitus, so far as it is mentioned or alluded to by Plato, 1775; then that of Neuhaus, near Worms. But he had no particular liking 'Onomasticon Theologicum, or an Essay on the Divine Names, for the business of teaching, and his occupation took up all the time according to the Platonic Philosophy.

which he wished to devote to literary labours. Accordingly he gave SYDENHAM, THOMAS, one of the most distinguished of English up his post, and entered into a connection with the printer Andrew physicians, was the son of a country gentleman at Winford Eagle in Wechel, of Frankfurt-on-the-Main, for whose establishment Sylburg Dorsetsbire. He was born there in 1624, and was admitted a commoner undertook to edit Greek works. He continued at Frankfurt until of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1642. The occupation of that city as a 1591, when he went

to Heidelberg, and formed a similar connection garrison by Charles I. interrupted his studies for a time; but he with the printer Hieronymus Commelin. In both places Sylburg, who returned to Magdalen Hall when Oxford was given up to the had the superintendence of the printing of all Greek works, as well as parliamentary forces, and in 1648 be took the degree of Bachelor the preparation of them, performed these duties with the utmost of Physic.

accuracy, and showed an extraordinary critical talent in the notes It bas been stated that Sydenham served for some time in the royal which accompanied almost all his editions. He thus gained great army during the commotions of the civil war; but this assertion rests celebrity, and the Landgrave of Hessen munificently rewarded him on no good authority, and all Sydenham's connections belonged to the with an annual pension from the funds of the University of Marburg. republican party. His elder brother William was a colonel in the Further particulars of his life are not known. He died at Heidelberg

, parliamentary army, and rose during the commonwealth to the on the 16th of February 1596, as is stated on his tomb-stone, which highest posts. It was also through the interest of his party that still exists at Heidelberg. Sydenham obtained, about 1648, a fellowship of All Souls' College, in Sylburg was one of the most eminent and most industrious Greek the place of a person who had been ejected for his royalist opinions. scholars of the 16th century, and the greatest meu of the age, such He pursued bis studies at Oxford for some years, and is said by the as Casaubon and De Thou, entertained a profound admiration for famous French surgeon Desault to have visited Montpellier, where him. He was a worthy contemporary of Henry Stephens, whose there was a medical school, which then enjoyed a very high reputation. Thesaurus of the Greek language contains many articles by Sylburk Subsequently he quitted Oxford, and having taken the degree of Doctor The editions of Greek writers by Sylburg are still very valuable

, and in of Medicine at Cambridge, he became a licentiate of the College of critical accuracy they are not inferior to those of Stephens, although Physicians, and settled in London.

they are not so beautifully printed. Some of his editions have never 1660 and 1670 had a more extensive practice than any other physician. elementary Greek grammars which were then generally used. In

He soon rose to the top of his profession, and between the years yet been excelled. His first publications were new editions of some This success must have been entirely due to himself, for, from some 1583 he published, at Frankfurt, in one volume, folio, his edition of cause of which we are ignorant, the College of Physicians as a body Pausanias, with notes by himself and Xylander, and an improved were hostile to him; while his known relations to the republican reprint of the Latin translation by Romulus Amaseus. It also contains party would

cut off court patronage or favour. After suffering for a dissertation by Sylburg, De Grammaticis Pausaniæ Anomalis.” The his house in Pall Mall, and was buried in the aisle of St. James's at Frankfurt a complete edition of Aristotle, in 11 parts

, or 5 rols church, Westminster.

4to. This edition only contains the Greek 'text with the various In 1666 Sydenham published his first work, which consisted of readings, and is still one of the very best and most correct editions of observations upon fevers. appeared under a new name in the year 1676. This second edition | (ad Demonicum, ad Nicoclem,

Nicocles, contra Sopbistas), 8vo, Franka

869

SYLVERIUS.

SYMMACHUS, QUINTUS AURELIUS.

870

furt. The year following there appeared by him the first complete SYLVESTER, JOSHUA, was born in 1563. He appears to have edition of the works of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, 2 vols. folio, engaged in mercantile pursuits, and was a member of the company of Frankf. It contains the improved Latin translation of the Roman merchant-adventurers at Stade, for whose secretaryship he was a canAntiquities by Gelenius, with very useful notes and indices. This didate in 1597, recommended by the Earl of Essex. He seems to edition was reprinted, but very incorrectly, in 2 vols. folio, Leipzig, have always remained a poor man, and to have been of a roving 1691. From 1588 to 1590, he published, at Frankfurt, in 3 vols. disposition. In the latter part of his life he emigrated to Holland, and folio, the valuable collection of ancient writers on the history of died at Middelburg in 1618. Both in his opinions and in his choice of Rome, under the title . Romanæ Historiæ Scriptores, Latini et Græci, friends he was strongly puritanical; and those numerous versified addita variantis scripturæ notatione et notis. Vol. i. contains the works, chiefly translations from the French, to which he owed his Fasti Capitolini, Messala Corvinus, L. Florus, Velleius Paterculus, S. literary reputation, show a warmly devotional and serious tone of Aurelius Victor, S. Rufus, Eutropius, Cassiodorus, Jornandes, and feeling. He was not bowever remiss in courting the patronage of the Julius Exsuperantius. Vol. ii. contains Suetonius, the Scriptores great. To King James VI. he addressed many adulatory dedications ; Historiæ Augustæ, Ammianus Marcellinus, Pomponius Laetus, J. and it was probably in compliment to him that he selected the topic Bapt. Egnatius, Ausonii Epigrammata in Cæsares, Romanorum Impe- of one of his original poems, which is thus entitled : Tobacco ratorum Catalogus, and Romanæ Urbis Descriptio. Vol. iii. contains battered, and the Pipes shattered (about their Ears that idly idolize so the Scriptores Græci Minores Historiæ Romanæ, that is, the Fasti base and barbarous a Weed, or at leastwise over-love so loathsome a Consulares (Greek and Latin), Pæavius, Xiphilinus, Herodian, Zosimus Vanitie), by a Volley of holy Shot thundered from Mount Helicon.' Julian's Cæsars, Olympiodorus, and extracts from Suidas. In 1590 He is chiefly known now on account of the obligations said to have he published, at Frankfurt, in 4to, the work of the grammarian been incurred by Milton to his principal translation, that of the Apollonius, 'De Syntaxi, seu Constructione Orationis. The last work Divine Weeks and Works' of Du Bartas. [BARTAS, Du]. There are that he published in the establishment of Wechel was a collection of two collected editions of Sylvester's works, both in folio, and com. some Greek gnomic poets, Epicæ Elegiacæque Minorum Poetarum mencing with the translation of Du Bartas. Their dates are 1633 and Gnomæ, Græce et Latine, 8vo, Frankf., 1591. A second and much 1641. The second of them contains a supplement of posthumous improved collection appeared at Heidelberg in the year of Sylburg's poems; among which is that tasteless alteration of the 'Soul's Errand,' death. All the subsequent editions of Sylburg were published in the which caused this fine poem to be erroneously attributed to Sylvester. printing establishment of Commelin at Heidelberg. In 1592 he edited SYL'VIUS, ÆNEAS. (Pius II.] in 1 vol. folio, the commentary of the Apocalypse, by Andreas SYMEON, SETH. (SIMEON, SETH.] Cretensis, in Latin and Greek; and in the same year he published the SYMMACHUS THE SAMARITAN, so called because he was a editio princeps of the Greek text of the work of Theodoretus, entitled native of Samaria, and at first also of the Samaritan religion. He

Remedia contra Morbos Græcos,' with the Latin translation of Zeno- afterwards became a Jew, and then a Christian of the sect of the bius Acciajuoli, and notes by himself. In 1592 he also edited the Ebionites. The time in which he lived is not quite certain, though it complete works of Clemens of Alexandria, with notes, folio; and in is probable that it was in the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus, 1595, in folio, all the works of Justin the Martyr. This edition is about A.D. 200. founded upon that by Robert Stephens in 1551, but Sylburg improved Although subsequently to the Septuagint two other Greek transthe text, and added very useful notes : it is still the standard edition. lations of the Old Testament had been made by Aquila and TheodoIn 1594 he edited the Etymologicum Magnum, in folio, with notes tion, Symmachus undertook the same task again." His translation and a very useful index. The year after he edited 'Saracenica, sive differed in many points from those of his predecessors, but it was held Collectio Scriptorum de Rebus ac Religione Turcarum, Græce et in high esteem, and is often referred to by subsequent writers: it is Latine,' in 8vo. Among other less important writers, it contains a especially praised for the perspicuity and elegance of the style. refutation of Mohammedanism by Euthymius Zigabenus, and a Life Symmachus himself published a second and improved edition of it. of Mohammed by an anonymous Greek writer. Sylburg, on his We only possess a few fragments of this translation, which are death, left in manuscript a considerable number of materials which printed, together with those of Aquila and Theodotion, in the colleche had collected for an edition of Herodotus, and which were after. tions of Morinus Drusius and Montfaucon. Symmachus also wrote a wards made use of by Jungermann in his edition of Herodotus, folio, Commentary on the Gospel of St. Matthew, in which he is said to have Frankfurt, 1608.

endeavoured to establish the dogmas of the Ebionites, and also to have (J. G. Jung, Vita Frederici Sylburgii, 850, Berleburg, 1745.) attacked Matthew's genealogy of Christ.

SYLVE'RIUS, son of Bishop Hormisdas, and a native of Campania, (Fabricius, Biblioth. Graeca, iii., p. 695, &c.; Schöll, Geschichte der succeeded Agapetus as bishop of Rome in 535. Theodatus, thé Griech. Litt., ii., p. 301, &c.) Gothic king of Italy, is said to have influenced his election. Soon Among the scholiasts on the comic poet Aristophanes there is one after, Belisarius came with an army sent by the Emperor Justinian, whose name was Symmachus; some specimens of his scholia are defeated the Goths, and took possession of Rome. Vigilius, a deacon extant. (Fabricius, Biblioth. Graeca, ii., p. 374, p. cc.) of Rome, intrigued with the court of Constantinople to have Sylverius SYMMACHUS, QUINTUS AURELIUS, the son of L. Aurelius deposed, on the pretence that he favoured the Goths, and Sýlverius Avianus Symmachus, who was a man of great worth, and in A.D. 365 was accordingly seized by order of Justinian, and sent into exile to was prefect of the city of Rome. (Ammian. Marc., xvii. 2; Symmach., Patara in 537, where he died, June 20, 538, and Vigilius was put in his 'Epist.' i. 38.) The time when his son Q. Aurelius Symmachus was place. (Platina and Panvinio, Le Vite dei Pontefici.)

born is uncertain; some would place it as early as the year 314, SYLVESTER I. succeeded Melchiades as bishop of Rome in 314. which is scarcely credible. As he belonged to one of the most The Christian Church was now in the ascendant throughout the illustrious Roman families, his education was conducted with the Western world, under the protection of the Emperor Constantine. greatest care. He was instructed in rhetoric by a Gaul, whose name By Constantine's orders a council was assembled at Arelatum (Arles) is not known. (Symmach., 'Epist.' ix. 86.) In 370 he was proin 314, at which some deputies of the bishop of Rome were present, consul of Africa, and fourteen years later, 384, he was prefect of the and in which the Donatists were condemned. But the principal city, and in 391 consul with Tatianus. The time of his death is event of Sylvester's pontificate was the great council of Nicæa in 325, uncertain, though it is evident from his writings that he was alive which defined the articles of the Christian faith, and also determined in 404. the order of the hierarchy in the various provinces of the empire. The Symmachus was a man of ability and character, and during the Bishop of Rome was thereby made primate over the sees of the pro- difficult and dangerous situations into which he was thrown by the vinces styled Suburbicariæ, which, under the new distribution of the events of the time, he showed a degree of honesty and prudence which empire made by Constantine, were placed under the jurisdiction of are rarely met with in the history of those times. He was one of the the Vicarius Urbis, or imperial vicar of Rome. Sylvester did not last great bulwarks of paganism, and exerted all bis powers to prevent repair to the council, but sent thither two presbyters as his deputies, its overthrow, especially during the period of his prætorship of the Vitus and Vincentius, who do not appear to have had any particular city. We still possess an address of his to the emperors ValentiniaJistinction or post of honour in the assembly. The story of the nus, Theodosius, and Arcadius (Symmach., ' Epist.' s. 61), in which he donation made by Constantine to Pope Sylvester of temporal juris. endeavours to persuade the emperors not to remove the altar of diction over the suburbicarian provinces is now universally rejected victory from the curia Romana. However, his exertions were fruitless, as apocryphal; it may have originated from the church chroniclers and his address was refuted by St. Ambrose. His assertion that the confounding the temporal with the spiritual jurisdictions.

Christian religion was the cause of the decline of the empire provoked Constantine made a short residence at Rome in Sylvester's time in many Christians of his own and of subsequent times to refute the 326, but soon left it, being, it seems, dissatisfied with his reception by charge. His partiality for paganism and its superstitions arose from the people. [ConstantiNUS, FLAVIUS VALERIUS, vol. ii. col. 366.) bis general attachment to the institutions of bis forefathers, and The papal historians speak of numerous churches raised and endowed bis sincerity in this respect was acknowledged even by his adversaries. by Constantine at or near Rome.

During the greater part of his life he was actively engaged in various Sylvester died in 335, and was succeeded by Marcus. His supposed branches of the administration, but he devoted to study all his leisure epistles and decretals are now considered apocryphal.

time, which he spent in retirement in some of his numerous country. SYLVESTER II. , [GERBERT.]

Beats. SYLVESTER, styled III., Antipope, was proclaimed pope by & There is extant a collection of letters by him, which was made and faction in Rome in opposition to 'Benedict IX., 1044; but after a published by bis son, Q. Flavius Memmius Symmachus, who was few weeks a fresh tumult at Rome drove away Sylvester, and reinstated prefect of the city in 415, after the death of his father. The collection Benedict.

consists of ten books; much care has evidently been spent upon the

871

SYMMACHUS.

SYNCELLUS, GEORGE.

873

style, and, like all the letter-writers of that time, he took the letters of SYMONDS, REAR-ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM, C.B., F.R.S., the younger Pliny as bis model. The style is concise and animated, Surveyor of the Navy, was born on the 24th of September 1782, but is far from the patural and beautiful simplicity which characterises entered the navy at an early age, and during the early part of his the letters written in the better period of Roman history. Yet the career was much ongaged in active service on the coasts of France letters of Symmachus, especially those of the tenth book, which give a and Spain, and in the West Indies. But his reputation chiefly rests full account of the manner in which he discharged his duties as prefect upon his skill as a naval architect. Notwithstanding the innovation of Rome, and also contain the above-mentioned address to the in established usage which had been made by the genius and vigour emperors, are of peculiar interest in regard to the history, constitution, of Seppings (SEPRINGS, SIR ROBERT) destroying the force of those and administration of the Roman empire. Many points connected prescriptive restraints which had so long trammelled the older shipwith these subjects and with the history of the Roman law would wrights, enterprise in naval architecture was still checked by the be entirely unintelligible to us without these letters. Symmachus custom of building ships of certain dimensions, which had been also distinguished himself as an orator, but his orations are lost, officially established, a restriction with respect to tonnage was always with the exception of some fragments. A. Mai discovered fragments imposed on constructors. It remained for Commander Symonds to of eight orations of Symmachus in a palimpsest of the Ambrosian procure the removal of this restriction. He was first allowed, but library at Milan, which he published under the title 'Q. Aurelii Sym- under, it is said, a very unusual and restrictive penalty, to construct machi Octo Orationum ineditarum partes. Invenit notisque declaravit a corvette, the Columbine. To her he was appointed, December 4, A. Mai,' Mediolani, 8vo, 1815. (Reprinted at Frankfurt, in 8vo, 1816.) | 1826, and so great was the success wbich attended him in the experi Afterwards some other fragments of the orations of Symmachus were mental cruises he made during the next twelve months, that he was discovered in a palimpsest of the Vatican library, which are printed in advanced, as a reward, to post-rank, by a commission bearing date an appendix to Juris Civilis Antejustinianei Reliquiæ ineditæ, &c., December 5, 1827. In these cruises the sailing qualities of Captain cura A. Mai, Romæ, Svo, 1823. These fragments were again increased Symonds's ship were compared with those of other ships constructed by Peyron with some new ones from a MS. now at Turin. They are respectively by Sir Robert Seppings, the School of Naval Architecture, printed in his ‘Annotationes ad Inventarium Bibliothecæ Bobbio and Captain Hayes. And although no fact directly conducive to nensis,' p. 182, &c. The style of these orations is on the whole the improvement in naval architecture was established by these and subsame as that of the letters, and they are equally valuable as histo- sequent trials, it was found that great superiority in cruising was rical documents for the history of the empire during the time of exhibited by the Columbine, and the zeal and devotion of Captain Symmachus.

Symonds were farther rewarded. At the beginning of 1831, by the The first edition of the letters of Symmschus appeared at Strasburg munificence of the late (fourth) Duke of Portland, he was enabled to in 4to, 1510. This edition however contains only 817 letters, whereas build, as an improvement upon the Columbine, the 10-gun brig Panall the subsequent editions contain 965. A complete edition was taloon, the triumph of which vessel led to the construction, under his published at Basel, 8vo, 1549. After this there followed three other superintendence, of the Vernon 50, Vestal 26, Soake 16, and other important editions; one by Juretus, Paris, 1580, and a second edition, ships. Improved velocity and greater stability, obtained by great 4to, 1604, with notes; the second by Jac. Lectius, Geneva, 1587, and breadth of beam, and diminution of breadth immediately below the reprinted, 8vo, 1599; it contains the notes of Juretus with some by water-line, were the characteristics of these new vessels. The restricLectius. The third and best edition is that by C. Scioppius, Mogun. tion arising from the prescribed limit of tonnage was first broken tiæ, 4to, 1608. Other editions are that of Philip Pareus, Neapoli through in the case of the Vernon, which Captain Symonds was Nemetum, 1617 and 1628; reprinted at Frankfurt, 8vo, 1642, and that allowed to construct free from that impediment. And, even whilst of Leyden, in 12mo, 1653.

she was upon the stocks, she was considered to present such excellent (Symmachi Vita, by J. Gothofredus, in the edition of Pareus; Heyne, qualities, that it was deemed Captain Symonds had already given Opusc. Acad. vi., p. 15, &c.; J. Gurlitt, S:tsiana in Symmachum, sufficient proof of his skill in naval architecture to be entitled to the Hamburg, 4to, 1818; Fabricius, Biblioth. Lat. iii., p. 204, &c.; A. highest post and responsibility in that profession. In 1832 on the 9th Mai, in the introduction to his edition of the Orations of Sym- of June, he was offered, and accepted, the office of Surveyor of the machus.)

Navy, in succession to Sir Robert Seppings. This appointment was Besides the three persons of the name of Symmachus mentioned associated with the entire removal of restriction as to the amount of above, there are several others of the same name who lived about or tonnage in ships of the navy. Captain Symonds therefore had liberty after the time of the one whose name is at the head of this article. for the exercise of judgment and talent in designing ships, which had L. Aurelius Symmachus was consul in A.D. 330, together with Galli. not been granted to the commissioners or surveyors of the navy before ; canus: another of precisely the same name was consul with Aetius, in so that he might at once build ships on the best conditions of A.D. 446. Q. Aurelius Memmius Symmachus, perhaps a grandson of excellence that both science and practice had yet indicated. This the letter-writer and orator Symmachus, was consul in A.D. 485, and freedom from conditions in determining the dimevsions of ships, was was the father of Rusticiana, the second wife of Boethius. (Alcimus taken ample advantage of by him; having a great principle to bring Avitus, ' Epist.' 31; Ennodius, vii. 25.) His grandson Q. Aurelius out in practice, he applied it with a decision, which, in a short time, Anicius Symmachus was consul with Boethius, the son of the great altered the general character of no inconsiderable part of our navy

. Boethius, in A.D. 522.

He had the merit of haviog boldly taken the lead in a path which Besides these there are several Latin writers of the name of Symma future constructors, intending to carry on improvements in our ships

, chus, of whom however nothing is knowo: 1. Symmachus, the author may pursue with the highest advantage. Considerable difference of of an historical work consisting of several books. Jornandes, in his opinion exists as to the value of the totality of qualities possessed by work 'De Rebus Geticis' (c. 15, &c.), quotes a long extract from the Captain Symonds's ships; but it was remarked in 1849, two years fifth book, which relates to the history of the emperor Maximinus. after he had retired from office, that of the 180 vessels of different 2. Several poets of the name of Symmachus: one is simply called kinda, built during the period of sixteen years, for which he was Symmachus, another Q. Aurelius Symmachus, and a third L. Aurelius surveyor of the navy, and all upon the same principles of construcAvianus Symmachus. Several epigrams of these poets are still tion, as already noticed, and as originally adopted in the Pantaloon, extant.

none had foundered. (Burmann, Anthol. Lat., ii. 143; H. Meyer, Antholog. Veter. Latin. Captain Symonds received the honour of knighthood in 1836. He Epigrammatum et Poemat., i., p. 105, &c.)

had received the thanks of the Admiralty in 1830 for a memoir con SY'MMACHUS, a native of Sardinia, and a deacon, was elected taining 'Sailing Directions for the Adriatic Sea ;' and again, in 1837, bishop of Rome, by part of the clergy, A.D. 498, after the death of for “the valuable qualities of his several ships, and for improvements Anastasius II., whilst another part of the clergy, supported by several introduced by him

into the navy," he was elected a Fellow of the senators, elected a priest called Laurentius. The matter was referred Royal Society on June 4th, 1835, and nominated a C.B. of the Civil to Theodoric, king of Italy, who decided in favour of Symmachus. The division in 1848. In 1854 he became a Rear-Admiral on the

retired echism however continued for several years, and in the year 500 the list. He died, March 30, 1856, on bis voyage from Malta to Marseille. partisans of Laurentius rose in arms, and a great tumult took place at (O'Byrne, Naval Biographical Dictionary; Fincham, History of Rome, in which much blood was shed, and the virgins consecrated to Naval Architecture, &c.) God were violated. At last Theodoric came to Rome, and convoked a SYNCELLUS, GEORGE (reúpyros SúykeAdos), was a monk and council, 502, known in church history by the name of Concilium abbot at the end of the 8th and the beginning of the 9th century after Palmare,' in which Symmachus cleared himself of several charges of Christ. His surname was given him from his being the

Syncellus' licentiousness and rapacity, and was confirmed in his see.

of Tarasius, patriarch of Constantinople, who died in A.D. 806. George Symmachus is said to have condemned the Manichæans, and burnt Syncellus died about the year 800. their books at Rome. He wrote an apologetic treatise, in which he His Chronography' ('Exoyi xpovoypadlas) is a history of the repelled several insinuations against his doctrines, which were put world, arranged in chronological order, from the Creation to the reign forth by Anastasius 1., emperor of the East, and at the same time of Diocletian. The intention of the writer was to include

the whole censured that emperor for the part he had taken

in favour of Acacius, period down to A.D. 800. It is little more than a copy of the Chrom the late patriarch of Constantinople, who had opposed the decrees of nicon of Eusebius. It was published from a manuscript in the royal the council of Chalcedon. Trasmund, king of the Vandals, in Africa, library at Paris, which was obtained at Corinth in 1507 by Jac. Goar

, having exiled to Sardinia several African bishops, Symmachus sent in a fólio volume, containing the Greek text, a Latin version, and notes; them assistance from Rome. Symmachus also repaired and embellished together with the Breviarium of Nicephorus,

Paris, 1652, reprinted many churches at Rome, founded hospitals, and ransomed many at Venice in 1729. It is also contained in the 'Bonn collection of the slaves. He died in 514, and was succeeded by Hormisdas.

Byzantine writers, in which it forms, with · Nicephorus,' two volumes

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