صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني





year 378.

edited by W. Dindorf, from two important manuscripts at Paris, in or ετέρα λεπτή και πυκνή λοιμική. Synesius is the first Greek author 1829. The Chronograplıy’of Syncellus was continued by Theophanes who notices these two diseases ; but all the details that he mentions from A.D. 285 to 813. Among the manuscripts of the Royal Library concerning them are taken from the treatise by Rhazes ou the same at Paris are fragments of other historical works ascribed to Syncellus. subject. (RHAZES.] The work was edited by J. St. Bernard, Amstel.

(Fabricius, Biblioth. Græc., vii., p. 457, ed. Harles; Schöll, Geschichte and Ludg. Bat., 8vo, 1749, with the title, 'Synesius de Febribus, quem der Griech. Lit., iii., p. 253.)

nunc primum ex Codice MS. Biblioth. Ludg. Batav, edidit, vertit, SYNE'SIUS (EUVéolos), a Christian philosopher of the school of the notisque illustravit J. St. B.; accedit Viatici, Constantino Africano New Platonists, was born at Cyrene in Africa, of a high family, in the Interprete, libri vii. pars.' The first six chapters are inserted in the

He studied mathematics and philosophy at Alexandria Venice collection of writers, 'De Febribus,' folio, 1576; the last two under Hypatia, and at the same time gave attention to poetry and are in the first volume of the 'Opera' of Constantinus Afer, folio, Basil, eloquence. When only in his nineteenth year he was sent by his 1536. fellow-citizens at the head of an embassy to Constantinople, to present SY'NTIPAS, a Persian philosopher, to whom is attributed a col. a golden crown to the Emperor Arcadius, to whom he addressed a lection of stories, of which we possess only a Greek version, bearing very suitable oration, which is still extant. At this period he was a the name of Michael Andrepulus. It is hardly necessary to remark heathen, but he was soon after converted to Christianity and baptised that the Eastern collections of moral stories are usually so told as to by Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria. He still however retained his grow one out of the other, in a manner, of which we have an instance fondness for the new Platonic philosophy; and partly for this reason, in the Arabian Nights ;' but a much better example in a work not partly from unwillingness to be separated from his wife, he long so popularly known, the Eoglish translation of the fables commonly resisted the desire of Theophilus to consecrate him to a bishopric. At known as those of Pilpay. [PILPAY.] Indeed many of our best last he yielded, and became bishop of Ptolemais in the year 410. The European fictions, as well single stories as whole collections, may be time of his death is not known, but it was probably before 431, since traced from Europe to Arabia, and from Arabia to India, and the in this year his brother Euoptius appeared at the council of Ephesus, Indian form of the story or collection almost invariably bears the maiks as his successor in the bishopric of Ptolemais.

of an earlier origin than any other form, and appears to be, if not the Synesius was one of the most remarkable men of his age, though original form, at least the oldest surviving one. This fact, interesting certainly more eminent as a philosopher than as a Christian. His in itself, becomes doubly so when taken in connection with the pliile writings are iu a pleasing style, sometimes rising to eloquence. With logical discoveries of the latest period of etymological research; dis a peculiarly clear statement of the most abstract philosophical opinions, coveries which have placed the language of India in much the same he mingled interesting illustrations from the early historians, fabulists, relation to the oldest known form of the German, as we have supposed and poets.

the fictitious literature of India to hold to that of Europe. Many of The following are his chief works: 1, The Oration to Arcadius, the stories of Syntipas are found almost verbatim in an Arabic mentioned above, slepl Barinelas (On Royalty'). 2, Alov, nepl tñs manuscript of the 'Arabian Nights,' in the British Museum, but the kad' éavrdy dlaywyộs ( Dion, or on Self-Discipline'). 3, pandepas whole style of the stories points evidently to an Indian origin. dykáulov (“The Praise of Baldness'), a witty imitation of Dion Chry- Syntipas is the name of a philosopher to whom is committed the sostom’s ‘Praise of Hair.' 4, Alyúatios, 1) Tepi #povoias (* An Egyptian education of a certain Persian prince, the son of a king Cyrus. By his Fable, or, on Forethought'), an application of the fable of Osiris and judicious management he teaches the boy more in six months than he Typhon to the then state of the Roman empire. 5, Iepl ŁyunVWv had learnt from his other masters in as many years; but at the time (On Dreams'). 6, Προς Παιόνιον υπέρ του δώρου λόγος (“A Discourse to when the king wishes in person to prove the acquirements of his son, Pæonius concerning a Present'). The present was an astrolabe, and the preceptor discovers by bis skill in astrology that a great danger the discourse recommended the study of astronomy. 7, One hundred hangs over his pupil, which can only be averted by the silence of the and fifty-five letters. Some of these letters are free and interesting latter during seven days. . The king and his courtiers are naturally epistles to his friends; and others, on matters of business, contain "much perplexed” by this unlooked-for event, and many ingenious much information of great value to the church bistorian. 8, Tea guesses are wasted as to the cause; at last one of the king's women hymns, formed of a most singular mixture of Christian truths, poetic undertakes to bring her step-son to speech. After trying many images, and New Platonic dreams. 9, Four epigrams in the 'Greek blandishments, she confesses to him in plain words a passion which Anthology' are ascribed to Synesius.

she has conceived for him, proposing to him to poison his father, and A complete edition of the works of Synesius, in Greek and Latin, to take her to bis arms and his throne. Horror at this treason extorts was published by Petau, folio, Paris, 1612, reprinted in 1631, 1633, from the young man that speech which it had been prophesied was to and 1640. There are several later editions of portions of his works. be so dangerous, and the queen, following the example of every

(Fabricius, Bibl. Græc., viii., p. 221, old edition; ix., p. 198, Harles; heroine of a similar story, accuses the prince of attempted violence. Schöll, Geschichte der Griech. Lit., iii., p. 365.)

The king wishes to put his son to death, but is dissuaded by one of the There was another philosopher of the same name, of whom nothing instructors of the prince, who tells one of the most elegant stories in more is known than that he was the author of a commentary on the series, on the evil of basty judgments. A certain king, says the Democritus, which is printed in Fabricius, . Bibliotheca Græca,' vol. cage, attempted to seduce the wife of one of his attendants, but was viii., p. 233, old edition. (Schöll, iii., p. 445.)

repulsed by her virtue, and desisted from his design, leaving however SYNE'SIUS (Zuvécios), a Greek medical writer, of whom nothing is his ring on a couch. The husband finding this token of his wife's known except that a treatise on fever goes under his name : his date infidelity as he imagines, separates himself from her, but assigns no also is uncertain. Sprengel places him in the reign of the Emperor reason for this till his wife's brothers complain of his conduct to the Manuel (A.D. 1143-80), apparently because he supposed the Zádu king, making their accusation under the parable of a man to whom 'l-Mosáfer,' or Viaticum Peregrinantis,' of Abú Jafer Ahmed Ben they had let a field, and who had suffered it tu lie waste. Following Ibrahim Ben Abú Chalid Ibnu 'l-Jezzar to have been written at the up the metaphor, the husband assigns as the reason of his conduct, end of the 11th century after Christ. As however Ibnu I'Jezzar died that he has seen the footprints of a lion in his ground. The king about A.D. 1004 (A.H. 395), (Wüstenfeld, Gesch. der Arab. Aerzte,' acknowledging this ingenious reproof, confesses that the lion has indeed Götting., 1840), Synesius, who translated his work into Greek, under been there, but that he has in nowise injured the field, and that he the title 'Epódia Toû'AnodnuoŮVTOS, may have lived much earlier than will not return to it again. Sprepgel places him; and this is the more probable if it be true that The same counsellor tells the story of the parrot set by its master to his translation was of service to Constantinus Afer, who died about A.D. watch his wife and report to him her conduct during his absence. 1087 (Choulant, ' Handb. der Bücherk. für die Æltere Medicin,' Leipzig, The bird informs his master that his wife receives the visits of a 1841), in composing his 'Viaticum Peregrinantium:' if indeed, as from lover; but on a subsequent evening the woman, by pouring water the close resemblance of their works seems not improbable, Synesius over his cage, and counterfeiting the noise of thunder, induces him to and Constantinus Afer are not the same person. The treatise ascribed report to his master that a violent storm has hindered him from to Synesius is part of his translation of Ibou 'l-Jezzar's work, the whole noting what has passed ; and the master, knowing this story to be of which, in seven books, is said to be still in existence in manuscript incorrect, imagines that the more important one previousiy told him in the Royal Library at Paris. Reiske compared it with the original was as little worthy of belief. This same tale is told with some Arabic, and found it a very exact translation, with some few excep amplification in the Tooti Nameh. The queen then tells an unim. tions, as, for instance, in page 136, where Synesius has made some portant story of a father attempting to save his son from drowning, additions to the Arabic text. In two passages we find the Arabic and being himself carried away by the current. The application she word added to his translation in Greek characters, namely, in page 76, makes of this story is, that the king had need beware, lest in his com. &VTEX®, 'an-nat'ho, sweat;' and in page 120, čimovde med, al-muthelleth, passionate willingness to spare_his treacherous son, he should be a tertian fever.' Sprengel remarks ( Hist. de la Méd.') that his theory himself betrayed to death. The second sage then tells a story, of fever is taken entirely from Galen, and that the symptoms of a fever wbich, like others of the series, is found in the Pancha Tantra (the produced by continual grief are well described (p. 30); he approves Indian original of the Fables of Pilpay), of a wo van who, while in also of his moral treatment of febrile affections (p. 58). The means of company with her lover's page, perceives his master approaching. cure mentioned by Synesius are in conformity with the habits and The page is hidden, and, wbilst she is entertaining her lover, the natural productions of Arabia. He constantly recommends water, husband comes in. Seeing him at a distance, she directs her lover to Bugar, and oil of roses ; bis purgative medicines are prunes, myrobalans, take a stick in bis hand, and go away as if in anger; and she explains and cassia; he also exhibits camphor internally (p. 240). The most to her husband, that this man, their neighbour, had come to look for curious part of the work is the description of the small-pox, which he bis page, who had taken refuge in her house, and had gone away angry, calls pauktasvovoa dovuikń, and which he distinguishes from the measles, being unable to find him. In counteraction of this, the lady relates





the story of the young prince betrayed by his counsellor into the thetical case of his own condemnation and execution. There are then hands of the Ghoule, as told in the Arabian Nights.' The Ghoule is told three stories : two of the wit of children, and one of the simplia Lamia in this version, and the young man cries to Christ instead city of an old man. The first of these is of a child who by his of Mohammed. The third counsellor relates how two tribes were extravagant and petulant hunger laid a train for reproving his mother's involved in war for a vessel of honey. He also tells how a certain lover; the second the well-known story of the three men who put woman, going to buy rice, was offered sugar with it, gratis, on con. their money into the hands of a woman, charging her to return it to dition of certain complaisances to the vendor. While she is within the three only. One of these contrives to obtain possession of the the house, the shop-boy empties the sugar from the bag and fills it money by fraud; and when the other two claim from her their with dust. When this is discovered by her husband, she pretends | deposit, by the advice of a child she holds them to the words of their that, having dropped the money, she gathered up the dust, hoping to bargain, that she was not to deliver up the money except to three; discover in it what she had lost. The husband helps to sift the dust, she cannot therefore give it, till the third, the thief, shall appear. and so says the malicious narrator, “defiled his own beard.” Thé The third story is of a merchant selling aromatic woo ls, who unbapqueen hereupon relates how a prince on his way to his bride was pily enters a certain city where the inhabitants all pique themselves decoyed by his father's vizir to drink of a fountain which changed him upon their knavery. One of these, lighting a fire of aromatic woods, into a woman. A traveller whom he meets, hearing his miserable persuades the merchant that they are in that city so cheap as to be story, consents to exchange sexes with him, on condition of a restoration commonly used for fuel, and induces him to part with his whole stock within a certain time. At the time fixed however, the transformed at a low rate, for a small coffer full-he does not say of what. A woman informs the prince she is pregnant, and he, pleading the little after this notable bargain, our merchant chances upon a cominjustice of taking upon himself this additional burden, refuses to com- pany of these knaves, and is challenged by one of them to a trial of plete bis agreement. The fourth pbilosopher then tells a story of a wit, the loser to be subject to the command of the elder. The bathkeeper giving up his wife to a young prince, in the false hope of merchant is beaten, as may be supposed, and is enjoined by the victor obtaining profit without dishonour. The same sage tells another to drink up the waters of the sea-an old quibble. Putting off the story, of a man leaving his wife, each taking to the other an oath of execution of this arduous duty till the morrow, he is assailed by perfect filelity during their separation. Towards the end of this another knave, a one-eyed worthy, who insists that the merchant, term, a young man seeing the wife becomes enamoured of her, and grey-eyed like himself, has stolen his missing optic, and drags him seeks to be introduced to her through the intervention of an old before the judge. On his way he is met by his hostess, who engages woman in the neighbourhood. This latter persuades the wife to grant for his re-appearance and takes him home. After a feminine lecture her employer a meeting, by a story of her daughter having been turned to him for slighting her advice, for she had warned him of the chainto a black bitch for her cruelty to a lover. The old woman going out racter of her fellow-townsmen, she informs him that an old man holds to seek her employer is unable to find him, but brings with her the first a sort of school of knavery, whither the townspeople resort to receive man she meets, who proves to be the absent husband. The point of his judgment upon their day's proceedings; and she advised him to the story is in the readiness with which the wife vindicates herself, be present there in disguise. Acting upon this suggestion, he hears and puts her husband in the position of the injuring party, by repre- his three friends severally recount their adventures, and the archmime senting the whole occurrence as a trap laid to try his fidelity. The blames each of them in turn : the first, because he might be required queen tells a foolish story of a wild boar, who, looking up in vain for by the merchant to fill the stipulated measure with fleas, balf male and the figs which he expected an ape to throw down to him, burst the half female, part blue-eyed and part dark; the second, because the arteries of his neck and was killed. The story of the ifth sage is that merchant might if he pleased refuse to drink up the sea unless the of the hound slaying the serpent in defence of his master's child, of rivers kept from flowing into it; and the third, because he has left which we have a current European version in the legend of 'Beth himself open to an embarrassing demand from the merchant, in case Gellert. He tells also another story of an old woman who procures the latter should think of requiring that the eyes of each party should the expulsion of a wife from her husband's house by laying a man's be taken out and weighed, to determine the ownership of the disputed cloak, known to the husband, under his couch; and afterwards con- one. Acting upon these hints, the merchant obtains the fall value trives to restore the wife by professing to have left the cloak there by for his merchandise, and makes besides his own terms with his forgetfulness. The queen then tells the story of a thief coming into tormentors. an inn by night to steal the travellers' mules, and finding there a lion The punishment of the queen is then debated on, one proposing which had come for the same purpose, and which he mistook for a that her hands and feet should be cut off, another that her tongue be mule and mounted. The lion, taking this man for the “guardian dæmon cut out, another that her heart be torn from her body. The unhappy of the night,” is terrified, and suffers him to keep his place quietly till woman pleads for herself by the story of a fox which was shut up by the morning, when the man escapes into a tree. A monkey meeting accident in a walled city, and, finding no egress, lay counterfeiting the lion, asks the cause of his terror, and assuring him that the sup- death at the closed gate of the city. One passer by dilates on the posed dæmon is a man, persuades him to return to the tree to kill him. great virtues of a fox's tail for "sponging mules ;" auother lauds the The lion consents; but the thief contriving to kill the monkey in the virtues of its ears for stopping the crying of a fretful child; a third tree, the lion, still more terrified than before, takes a precipitate flight declared that the teeth of a fox are “ the sovran'st thing on earth" for

The two doves is a story told by the same sage, as a warning against a fit of the tooth-ache; and each appropriates to himself the partihasty judgments. They had gathered a provision of corn for the cular part he has eulogised. All this, says our heroine, the fox bore winter, which being wet shrank in drying. The male dove, seeing this

, manfully; but when a fourth sage declared that a fox's heart was a accused his mate of having clandestinely robbed the store, and on her remedy for all evils, and touk out his knive to possess himself of this denial of this charge killed her. When the

rains came, and the grain panacea, the patient took heart of grace; and, leaping up, escaped swelled to its original size, he discovered his error, and too late safely by the gate, which had by this time been opened. The queen's repented of it. This is one of the fables of the Kalilah wa Dimna, or moral from all this is, that she would bear patiently either of the proArabic version of the Pancha Tantra, but is not found in the Hitopo posed minor punishments; but that the tearing out of her heart was desa, the later Indian version. The story of the woman into whose à " death of all deaths most bitter.” Her step-son pleads for mercy, basket had been introduced a honey cake elephant is much of the on the ground of the weakness of the sex; and her punishment is same stamp as that of the woman buying rice (already quoted), but is commuted to shaving her head, branding her on the forehead, and hardly decent enough for quotation. The same judgment may be parading her on an ass's back out of the city. A story to show the passed on the man with three wishes,—a satire on the vanity of uselessness of resisting the decrees of Providence, like a thousand and human desires which has been repeated in a hundred different one stories of the same kind, some of which our readers will remember forms. The next story is also one of those malicious yet favourite as given in the Arabian Nights,' is the last in the book, and this is jests of which every nation has a copy. A certain scholar has occupied closed by a description of the prince's education, and of his examinahimself, like the husband of the Wife of Bath, in collecting the wilestion by his father. of women; of the folly of which attempt the wife of his host con- The Greek text of Syntipas was edited from two Paris manuscripts vinces him by a story and a practical exemplification.

by Boissonade : Luvritas. De Syntipa et Cyri filio Andreopuli At this point the prince, whose days of trial are accomplished, narratio,' Paris, 8vo, 1828. A translation of Syntipas into modern breaks silence, and explains the perfidy of his stepmother. This, Greek appeared at 'Venice in 1805. Another work attributed to though the end of his danger, is not the end of the story. A question Syntipas

was also translated into Greek from the Syriac by Andreoarises, who of all the parties concerned would have been in fault if pulus. It is a collection of sixty-two fables, entitled 'Tlapadeyyati

. the prince had been put to death. The blame is successively cast Rol dóyou,' and was edited by Matthiæ, Leipzig, 8vo, 1781. upon every one of the actors in the story, when the prince, premising SYRIA'NUS, a Greek philosopher, born at Alexandria or at Gaza, that bis knowledge, compared with that of the sage, is “but us a fly was the leader of the school of New Platonists at Athens, next after to an elephant," begs permission to relate an apologue. A certain its founder Plutarch, the son of Nestorius. He died in the year man made a feast, where among other viands there was milk for the A.D. 450. His works, the greater number of which are lost, are guests' drinking. Now as the maid-servant hud brought this from enumerated by Suidas. They are-1, "A Commentary on Homer, the market on her

head, a bird with a serpent in its claws had flown in seven books"; 2, On the Republic of Plato ; " 3, “On the Theology vessel.” The guests all drank and died, and the question is raised, Orpheus, Pythagoras, and Plato;" 6, "Ten Books on the Oracles. who was blameable? The prince gives it as his opinion that blame The two following works are extant :-7, 'A Commentary on some rests upon no one agent concerned, but that the death of the guests parts of Aristotle's Metaphysics ;" and, s, “A Commentary on the was the result of destiny, and applies the same judgment to the hypo. Rhetoric of Hermogenes.'





The Greek text of the Commentary on Aristotle was edited by gary. But the reform party began very quickly to aim at ends far Leonh. Spengel, in his Luvayán Texvâv, 8vo, 1828. Bagolini found a beyond Szechenyi's contemplation. The division became marked in Latin trauslation of a portion of the work in a manuscript, and pub. 1810 when Kossuth assumed the leadership of the more zealous lished it at Venice, 4to, 1558. The Commentaries on Hermogenes are reformers. Against the proceedings of this new party, in 1841 he contained in the second volume of the Aldine edition of the Greek published "Das Volk des Ostens,' writing also articles in the Hun. orators, in 2 vols., folio, 1508-1509, and in the 'Rhetores' of Walz, garian journals (collected and published in 1847 as a Political Fragvol. iv., 1833.

mentary Programme), and speaking against them in the county assembly He was also the author of two epigrams, one of which is printed of Pesth, with much bitterness, but with little effect. When Kossuth without a name in the Palatine Anthology, ii. p. 122; or in the edition in 1847 was named deputy for Pesth to the Diet, Szechenyi, though of Jacobs, iv., p. 233; the other is preserved by the Armenian philoso possessing a seat in the upper chamber, procured himself to be elected pher, David, and printed by Schöll. Geschichte der Griech.·Lit.,' a deputy for Wieselburg in order to confront him, but the eloquence vol. iii.

of his opponent, supported as it was by the passions of the people, SYROPU'LUS, or SGUROPULUS, SILVESTER, a dignitary of rendered his struggle as useless as it was short. In 1848 the revoluthe Greek Church, wrote a history of the Council of Florence, which tion broke out; the effect upon him was so violent as to affect his was convened in 1438 by Pope Eugene IV., at Ferrara, and in 1439 mind, and in October of that year it was necessary to place him in a removed to Florence. The principal business of the council was to lunatic asylum at Döbling. (See SUPPLEMENT.) settle the differences between the Greek and Latin Churcbes. Syro- SZE-MA-TSËEN, the name of a distinguished Chinese Listorian, as pulus, who was present at the council, writes in a spirit of opposition it is spelt according to Dr. Morrison's system of orthography for to the attempted union of the churches, and his work must therefore Chinese words, the spelling of Abel Rémusat being Ssena Tuisian, be considered an ex-parte statement.

and of Klaproth SzümÀ-ZIĀN, representing the pronunciation according This work was published, with a Latin translation and notes by to the French and German systems of orthography. The words Sze. Robert Creighton, an Englishman, at the Hague, folio, 1660. Its Ma, which signify Commander of Horse,' are a surname, one of the publication called forth a work on the opposite side by Leo Allatius very limited number of surnames-four hundred and sixty-eight in (ALLATIUS), entitled 'Exercitationes in Creightoni Apparatum, Ver. all—which are made to supply the needs of a population now said to sionem, et Notas, ad Historiam Concilii Florentini scriptam à Sguro amount, according to the new census, to about four hundred and fifty pulo, 4to, Rome, 1674.

millions. Sze-Ma-Tsëen was born about the year B.C. 145, in the reign SYRUS, PUBLIUS. [PUBLIUS Syrus.)

of the Emperor Woo-Te, of the dynasty of Han, in honour of which SZECHENYI, STEPHAN, COUNT VON, was born at Vienna on the Chinese are still fond of calling themselves the sons of Han.' September 21, 1792, of an old Hungarian family, by whom the dignity • The great event, called the Burning of the Books,'a memorable of count had been held for more than a century, and who possessed epoch in Chinese history, had taken place in the year 213, B.C., when great wealth and influence. In the early part of his life he served in the tyrant Che-Hwang-Te, of the dynasty of Tsin, bad ordered the the Austrian army with distinction through the war of liberation, general destruction of all literary and historical memorials, and and when that was ended he travelled through a great part of Europe caused five hundred literary men to be buried alive. For a time even to acquire a knowledge of its social and political conditions. His the works of Confucius seemed to have disappeared, and it was not father, who died in 1820, had been a liberal benefactor to the Hun: till sixty years afterwards, that, under Wan-Te of the dynasty of Han, garian National Museum, bestowing on it his valuable library and an attempt was made to re-discover them. It then became known that unique collection of Hungarian coins. The young count followed his an old man of the age of ninety, in a distant province, retained in his father's example by giving much time and attention to the real memory much of the text of the Shoo-King,' or 'Book Classic, one of improvement of his country. A few years after his father's death he the two historical compilations of Confucius, but he was too feeble to quitted the military service, in order to devote himself more specially write. A scribe was sent off to take the words down from his mouth, to the intellectual and industrial advancement of his fellow.country, but the old man pronounced so indistinctly that the scribe could not men. In this course his labours have been incessant, and in the understand him. His daughter alone could comprehend what he said, highest degree beneficial. To forward the maintenance of an Hun. and by her intervention at last about half of the Shoo-King' was put garian nationality he gave 60,000 florins (50001.) to the Hungarian down in writivg, and the rest was looked upon as irretrievably lost. Academy, an institution which has become very important. In 1826 Great was the rejoicing therefore when about thirteen years later, in he formed a society for the improvement of the breeding of horses, the reign of Woo-Te, on pulling down an old wall, a number of and to promote this end, in 1830, he wrote . Ueber Pferde, Pferde volumes were found in it, which had doubtless been hidden there zucht, und Pferderennen' (On Horses, Horse-breeding, and Horse during the time of Che-Hwang-Te's proscription, and among them a racing). In the same year he wrote a work. Upon Credit,' which, complete copy of the Shoo-King. It was an old copy however, and together with his 'Licht, oder auffallende Bruchstücke und Berichti- written in such antiquated characters, that it would have been unin. gung einiger Irrthümer und Vorurtheile' (Light; or striking fragments telligible except for the clue supplied by the chapters already on and rectifications of various errors and prejudices), gave a remarkable record from the memory of the old man of ninety, which were now impulse to the national movement in favour of reformation. In 1832 found to be marvellously correct. By the aid of these the Shoo-King he took an influential part in the establishment of a central Hungarian was restored as it now stands, when, if a new destruction of the books theatre at Pesth, and a superior school for teaching music. At the were to take place, it might be recovered from the memories of same period he took a deep interest in the construction of a fixed myriads. Encouraged by the recovery of so many lost treasures, the bridge (there had previously been only a floating one, of course Emperor named a commission to endeavour to form a collected series frequently unavailable) between Pesth and Ofen. For this purpose he of annals of China, and as president of it appointed Sze-Ma-Tan, the repaired to England in order to become acquainted with the necessary father of Sze-Ma-Tsëen and himself descended from a family of information and details, the results of wbich he published in 1833, historians. Sze-Ma-Tsëen, who was then of the age of five, thus grew *Vorschlage zur Verbesserung' (Proposals for Improvement), and by up in an atmosphere of learning and literaturo ; at the age of ten he his advice and influence the magnificent suspension bridge was con- was himself able to read the Shoo-King,' and he became a close structed by W. Tierney Clarke. As early as 1826 two Englishmen, student of its contents. His attention was particularly attracted by the named Andrews and Pritchard, obtained the privilege of running account given in it of the vast works of draining and canal-making steam-boats on the Danube, but though they received some en executed by the Emperor Yu; and when he was of the age of twenty, lightened support, the project would have failed had not Count he took a journey to those parts of China where their remains existed, Szechenyi taken it up. The great obstacle was the impediments for the purpose of comparing their actual state with the account given offered by rocks in the river, particularly at the Iron Gates. As royal in the narrative. Not long after, he was summoned from a military commissioner he made repeated journeys to England for information expedition to the death-bed of his father, who, in a speech which is and assistance as to bis hydraulic measures for removing these impedi- given in Sze-Ma-Tsëen's autobiography, exhorted him to continue the ments, and in November 1834 the first steam vessel was enabled to labours of historical research in which he was himself interrupted pass safely through the dangerous passage, thus uditing Germany by death, reminded bim that their ancestors from the time of the with the Black Sea, a transit now in constant use, though capable of third dynasty had constantly distinguished themselves in the study of almost indefinite extension. Count Szechenyi also assisted in forming history, and said that the proudest triumph of a son was to reflect the Austrian Steam-boat Company, to which the Austrian govern back on his parents the glory of a celebrated name. Sze-Ma-Tsëen ment has given the exclusive privilege of navigating the Danube and occupied bimself, during the three years of mourning for his father, in all other Austrian rivers for twenty-five years, a privilege that is now putting in order the notes he had made of his travels to visit the likely to act injuriously if not to give rise to disputes with other canals of Yu; and making other preparations for his literary labours, powers having access to the Danube from their own territories. In and was appointed in due time the president of the commissiou. furtherance of this project he wrote in 1836 a work 'Ueber die In China an historiographer was in those times expected to disDonauschiffahrt' (On the Navigation of the Danube). Every other charge some of the duties which in modern Europe devolve on a project for the advancement of the industry or for the benefit of his popular journalist,—to give utterance to his opinions on public men and country, found in him an ardent supporter. For a considerable time public measures. In doing so Sze-Ma-Tsëen was singularly unfortunate. he was looked upon as the leader of the reform party in Hungary, In the year B.C. 99 he made himself conspicuous by defending against but he limited his reforms to objects connected with the physical the emperor the General Le-Ling, who having been defeated by the state only of his countrymen, and desired to introduce them through Heung-Neu or Huns, had passed over to their side, intending, Sze-Mathe influence and under the protection of the aristocracy. In this course Tseen maintained, to become in turn treacherous to them. Woo-Te he effected much, and was appointed minister of public works in Hun. I had the injustice to condemp Sze-Ma-Tsëen to death, and thought he



SZE-MA-KWANG. was giving an instance of clemency in reducing the punishment to a In private life Sze-Ma-Kwang occupied bimself in conjunction with cruel mutilation and perpetual exile. The subsequent career of Le a friend, in drawing up a sort of abridgment of the history of his great Ling rather justified the emperor's opinion than the historian's, but ancestor Sze-Ma-Tscen, which he presented to the emperor, who was so Woo-Te saw his error with regard to Sze-Ma-Tsëen and recalled him to delighted with the work, that he at once recalled the author to court, favour, repenting of his severity. The precise date of bis death is and gave him orders to write a complete history on the same plan. not known, but he died at court in the enjoyment of high literary The result was what may be called the standard history of China, the honours.

Tsze Che Tung Këen,' or Universal Mirror for Rulers. The history It was during his exile that Sze-Ma-Tseen composed his great embraces a period of 1362 years, and in its composition it occupied historical work for which his previous life bad been passed in collecting nineteen, having been commenced in the year 1066, the date of the materials. It was first published after his death by his grandson, battle of Hastings, and finished in 1084. The reign of Ying-Tsung under the title of ‘Sze Ke,' which may be rendered with sufficient was short; he died in 1068, and was succeeded by Shin-Tsung, under accuracy by "Historical Records. The work embraces the anpals of whom Sze Ma-Kwang, occupied a distinguished political position. China from Hwang-Te about 2697 years B.c. to the reign of Woo-Te Wang-Gan-Che, the minister of this emperor, was an advocate of new in which the author flourished, and is arranged on a peculiar plan, ideas, while Sze-Ma-Kwang headed the conservative party. When first introduced by Sze-Ma-Tzeen, but since practised by all the official in the year 1069, which was marked with earthquakes, droughts historiographers of China whose works now form a series, known and epidemic diseases, the censors, and Sze-Ma-Kwang among them, under the name of The Twenty-Four Histories. It has been observed solicited the emperor to examine if there were not some abuses in the by Schott of Berlin that these works are less a series of histories in government and some errors in his own conduct which might have the European sense than of encyclopædias of successive generations given rise to these calamities, Wang-Gan-Che opposed the spirit of comprising all that is considered noteworthy in the periods to which their observations, and said that earthquakes were to be ascribed they relate. Their divisions in fact bear no slight analogy to those to natural causes and not to the actions of men, he was sternly of Henry's ‘History of Great Britain,' or the ‘Pictorial History of Eng rebuked by Sze-Ma-Kwang, who observed that sovereigns were indeed land. The first division which bears a title corresponding to that of unfortunate to have about them men who, by removing from their History Proper is occupied with the actions of the emperors and consciences all idea of responsibility to Heaven, destroyed the only the principal events of the court in chronological order. The second, restraint that kept in check the possessors of absolute power. The called "Tables,' is an enumeration, also chronological, of official pro- emperor, though he still left Wang-Gan-Che at the head of bis motions and similar occurrences. The third division, entitled “The councils, showed high esteem for Sze-Ma-Kwang, whom he named Eight Books,' branches into eight subdivisions,-on Rites and Ceremo- President of the • Han Lin Yuen, or College of the Forest of nies, Music, Legislation, Chronology, Astronomy, Sacrifices, Public Pencils, which remains in our own days the great literary institution Works and Buildings especially Canals, and Weights and Measures. of the Chinese empire. Finding however that his councils were The pedigrees of reigning families, and those of their ministers and unattended to, Sze-Ma-Kwang requested permission to retire into generals are given in the fourth division, and in the fifth biographies private life, which was finally granted. The public eye was still upon of eminent men of all kinds, statesmen, heroes, philosophers, poets, him. On the death of Shin-Tsung in 1086, the express-regent of the inventors, men of learning, and men remarkable for any peculiar young emperor Che-Tsung summoned him to the court, and namel faculty or circumstance. It is here that Sze-Ma-Tsëen introduces him prime minister. He began with satisfaction to uproot all the some biographical particulars of his father and himself from which changes and reforms introduced by his opponent Wang-Gan-Che, but Kémusat has taken some of the information in the ‘Biographie the fatigues consequent on an expedition which he made in person to Universelle,' which has been transferred to this article. It is in this conclude a peace with the prince of Tangut, ruined his health, and he division also that Sze-Ma-Tsi-en inserts, not very logically, some notices died in 1086, at the age of sixty-eight, before he had enjoyed a twelveof countries foreign to China, which have been found by foreigners month of authority. He was honoured with a magnificent funeral, by no means the least interesting portion of his work. The.Sze-Ke' but the party of Wan-Gan-Che having soon after made its way back to is regarded with so much veneration that the number of Chinese words power, the young emperor was persuaded to reverse all the honours or characters in it has been counted and found to amount to 526,500 which had been rendered to his first minister; Sze-Ma-Kwang's tomb which, as the number of characters in an ordinary octavo page is about was ignominiously destroyed, and an inscription set up in its place, 234, would fill 2250 such pages. The translation of the matter in a enumerating what were termed bis crimes. His works were publicly page of Chinese will generally fill a page of English. The merits of burned, and at one time it ecemed as if the history of China, of which the ‘Sie-Ke' are high. The praises of native critics might be viewed the reputation has now lasted so many centuries, would disappear with some distrust, but Riimusat bears testimony to the multitude of with its author. Another posthumous revolution lowever awaited his facts which it contains, the neat and lively manner in which they are Iu 1129, the reigning emperor Kaou-Tsung decreed that bis related, the constant simplicity and unbroken dignity of the style." tablet should be placed in the Hall of Ancestors by the side of that of Sze-Ma-Tsjen has been called by some writers the Chinese Herodotus, the Emperor Che-Tsung, who had decreed its dishonour. In 1267 bis and he bears in China itself the name of the Restorer of Historical name was inscribed in the temple of Confucius, with the honorary Literature.'

title of Prince of Literature, and in 1530 it received an additional SZE-MA-KWANG, a celebrated Chinese historian of the 11th cen- literary canonisation, which it still continues to enjoy. tury of our era, bears the same family name Sze-Ma, as his great The great work of Sze-Ma-Kwang has been already mentioned, the predecessor Sze-Ma-Tséen (S.2-MA-Tseen) of twelve centuries before. | Tsze Che Tung Këen,' which has been for nearly the last 800 years Sze-Ma-Kwang was born about the year 1018, the second son of a the most popular history of China. It is constructed on an entirely minister of the Emperor Chin-Tsung, of the Sung dynasty. When a different plan from that of his celebrated ancestor Sze-Ma-Tseen; child, as he was playing with some other children" near one of the the main body of it presenting a continuous stream of narrative

, large porcelain vases in which the Chinese, then as pow, were in the extending to 294 books, to which is appended a supplement of 30 habit of keeping gold fish, one of his companions fell into the vase books of chronological index and 30 of dissertations and discussions. and was in danger of drowning. The other children fled in terror; About the middle of the 12th century of our era, Choo-He, one of but he, with singular presence of mind, took up a large flint stone, the most eminent of Chinese authors, conceived the idea of inserting broke the vase at bottom, ond by letting out the water placed his in the great history of Sze-Ma-Kwang a series of summaries

, or short little comrade at once in safety. The incident is still in fresh remem- recapitulations, which met with such success that the two works bare brance in China, often alluded to by poets, and often delineated on since been always reprinted together, under the title of "Tung Kien porcelain. When he had reached the age of seven, his father placed in Kang Muh, which may be rendered, 'The Universal Mirror, Text

, and his hands the history of the kingdom of Loo by Confucius, entitled Commentary.' It is this combination which, with

numerous continua: 'Spring and Autumn, which had as much effect on Sze-Ma-Kwang as tions, bringing the history up to the 18th century, was translated into the Shoo-King on Sze-Ma-Tsien. From that time the boy was never seen French by Father Mailla, and published in 12 vols. 4to by Grosier

and without a book in his hands;

he soon knew by heart the whole of the Le Roux des Hautesrayes, Paris, 1777-83. It is the only great work * Five Classics,' of which Spring and Autumn' is one; and, at the age of Chinese bistory which has yet appeared in a European language. of pineteen, he took the highest rank at the great literary examinations. Sze-Ma-Kwang, when appointed to the presidency of the Han Lin This early promotion opened to him a political career, and for some Yuen, endeavoured to excuse bimself on the ground of his want of years bis time appears to have been occupied with public affairs. As poetic ability ; but the emperor refused to admit the

excuse; and in governor of a town on the western frontiers of the empire, he advised fact a piece of poetry of his composition, entitled "The Garden of some measures against the Tangutans, which proved unsuccessful, and Sze-Ma-Kwang," is one of the most popular in China, and contains when the general who adopted them was about to be punished for his much that is pleasing to a European taste. want of success, avowed the authorship of the plan, and solicited to appeared in 1777, in the series of . Mémoires concernant les Chinois,' be punished in his stead. The emperor, Jin-Tsung, pleased with his and

is reprinted' by M. Huc in his amusing work on 'The Chinese candour, named him to a more important goverument, and to the post Empire," which has attracted so much attention

both in France and of public censor and historiographer of the palace, and during his England. The garden described resembles those that on the Continent reign Sze-Ma-Kwang, though he often spoke with freedom, always bear the name of English gardens, in which the imitation of natura continued in favour. Ying-Tsung, the succeeding emperor, took constitutes one of the principal charms. " In the midst,” says the offence at a remonstrance addressed to him, and the censor was description, " is a great hall, in which I have collected five thousand deprived of his offices. Several of his remonstrances, at this and a volumes. subsequent period, which are still in existence, are looked upon af midst of my books in the great ball, I throw myself

in a boat, and

When I am weary of writing and composing, in the models of their kind.

row to seek the pleasures of my garden. Sometimes I land on the


A translation of it

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fishing island, where, protected from the burning sun by my large the sun surprise me while I contemplate in silence the tender straw hat, I amuse myself by enticing the fish that sport in the water: inquietude of a swallow for its young; and the moon is risen before I at other times, with my quiver on my shoulder and my bow in my quit my seat." The whole poem, with its pleasing enthusiasm for leaf hand, I climb to the top of the rocks; and there, spying out, like a and flowers, grottoes and cascades, is well worthy of perusal; and it is traitor, the rabbits as they come forth, I pierce them with my arrow interesting to reflect that its author was a contemporary of William at the entrance of their burrows." “Sometimes the last rays of the Conqueror.


TA'BARI' is the surname of Abu Jaafar Mohammed Ibn Yezid Ibn of Cornelius Tacitus, the procurator of the emperor in Belgic Gaul.

Jerir, a celebrated Arabian historian, who was called At-tabari Lipsius concludes that this Cornelius Tacitus was the historian; but because he was a native of Amol, the capital of Tabaristán, where he as Pliny died in 79, it seems hardly probable that the passage can was born in A.H. 224 (A.D. 839). Tabari was the author of many apply to him. It has been conjectured that the procurator was the works on various subjects, such as a commentary on the Korán, which father of the historian. Tacitus states that he owed his first prois greatly praised by Abu-l-fedá ('Ann. Mussl.,' iii.), and a treatise on motion to Vespasian, and that he was indebted for other favours to Mohammedan law. But the work by which he is best known in Europe his successors Titus and Domitian. ('Hist.,' i. 1.) In the year 77, is his general history from the Creation to A.H. 302 (A.D. 314-15). This C. Julius Agricola, then consul, betrothed to him his daughter; and work was abridged and continued by George, son of Al-'amid, the marriage took place after the consulship of Agricola. Tacitus generally called Elmacin, who brought it down to the year 512 of the does not state what places be filled under Vespasian and Titus, but in Hijra (A.D. 1118.19). That portion of the abridgment which begins the reign of Domitian he joforms us that he assisted as one of the at the death of the Mohammedan prophet was published in Arabic Quindecemviri at the celebration of the Ludi Seculares, which event and Latin by Thomas Erpenius, and printed for the first time at took place in the fourteenth consulship of Domitian (A.D. 88). At that Leyden, fol., 1625, together with the Historia Arabum,' by Rodericus time he was also prætor. (" Ann.,' xi. 11.) Toletanus. Tabari's Chronicles were translated into Persian by Abú He was not at Rome when his father-in-law Agricola died there Ali Abdu-l-ghani, vizir of the Samanide prince Mansúr Ibn Núh. (A.D. 93), in the reign of Domitian; but it is too much to affirm, as Soon after the death of Tabari the copies of his original work became some have done, that he was an exile during the time of Domitian. BO scarce that the Persian text was retranslated into Arabic; a trans. It has already been shown that he was at Rome in the year 88. A lation of the Persian version into French by Mr. Dubeux was com- passage in his Life of Agricola (c. 45) rather leads to the inference menced under the auspices and at the expense of the Oriental that he was at Rome during many of the atrocities wbich Domitian Translation Fund, but only one part (4to, 1836) has been published. perpetrated after the death of Agricola, though he had been absent There is also a Latin translation by G. L. Kosegarten, Taberistanensis, from Rome for four years prior to Agricola's death. On the death of sive Abu Dschaferi Mobammed ben Dscherir Ettaberi annales regum T. Verginius Rufus, in the reign of Nerva (A.D. 97), he was appointed et legatorum Dei. Arabice ed. in Latinum transtulit,' 3 vols. Ato, Consul Suffectus; and Pliny enumerates it as the crowning event to Gryph., 1853. Tabari died at Baghdad, in A.H. 310 (A.D. 922). the good fortune of Verginius, that his panegyric was pronounced by (Hamacker, 'Spec. MSS. Orient.,' Bib. Lugd.-Bat., p. 24; D'Herbelot, the consul Cornelius Tacitus, the most eloquent of speakers. Bib. Or., sub. voc. 'Thabari.')

Tacitus is recorded by his friend Pliny as one of the most eloquent TABERNÆMONTANUS, JACO'BUS THEODOʻRUS, a physician orators of his age. He had already attained some distinction as an and botanist, was born at Berg-Zabern in Alsace, whence he takes his advocate when Pliny was commencing his career. In the reign of pame. He first practised as an apothecary in his native place, and Nerva, Pliny and Tacitus were appointed by the senate (A.D. 99) to thence removed to Paris, where he graduated. On returning to his conduct the prosecution of Marius Priscus, who bad been proconsul of native country, he took up his residence and practised his profession Africa, and was charged with various flagrant crimes. On this occasion at Worms. He was made physician to the elector-palatine John Tacitus replied to Salvius Liberalis, who had spoken in defence of Casimir, and also to the bishop of Spire. He lived at a time when Priscus : bis reply, says Pliny, was most eloquent, and marked by confidence in vegetable remedies in disease was carried to the greatest that dignity which characterised his style of speaking. (Pliny, ' Ep.; extent. He diligently studied this department of his profession, and ii. 11.) the result of his labours was given to the world in the form of a large The contemporaries of Tacitus were Quinctilian, the two Plinys, folio volume, under the title Neue Vollkommen Kraüterbuch,' or Julius Florus, Maternus, M. Aper, and Vipsanius Messala. He was on New Complete Herbal. He lived to see only the first part of this terms of the greatest intimacy with the younger Plivy, in whose volume published, which was in 1588. Several editions of this work extant collection of letters there are eleven epistles from Pliny to were afterwards published in Germany, to which the two last parts Tacitus. In one of these letters (vi. 16) Pliny describes the circumwere added. The second edition was published at Frankfurt in 1613, stance of the death of his uncle, Pliny the elder, and the letter was by Caspar Baubin, and contained descriptions of 5800 species of plants, purposely written to supply Tacitus with facts for his historical of which 2480 were illustrated by wood engravings. The best and works. latest edition published is that of Hieronymus Bauhin, which appeared It is not known when Tacitus died, nor whether he left any at Basel in 1731. This work appears to have been for a long time a stan- children. The Emperor Tacitus claimed the honour of being dard botanical authority. The descriptions of the plants are minute, descended from him, but we have no means of judging of the accu. and an immense space is devoted to the consideration of their medical racy of the emperor's pedigree; and Sidonius Apollinaris ('Ep.,' properties. Tabernæmontanus maintained the principle, which has lib. iv., 'ad Polemium') mentions the historian Tacitus among the many advocates at the present day, that Providence causes those plants ancestors of Polemius, a præfect of Gaul in the 5th century of to grow in a district which are beneficial for the diseases that arise in our era. it. To such an extent did he carry his views on this point, that it is The extant works of Tacitus are, 'The Life of Agricola,' “The said that at the siege of Metz, in 1552, in which he was engaged as Treatise on the Germans,' Histories,' 'Adnals, and the Dialogue on physician to the army, he applied nothing but mugwort to the wounds Orators, or the causes of the decline of eloquence.' None of his of the soldiers, because it grows plentifully in the neighbourhood. orations are preserved. The cuts in the work are badly executed, and are mostly inferior The Life of Agricola' is one of the earliest works of Tacitus, and copies from preceding works. This however did not prevent their must have been written after the death of Domitian (A.D. 96). The being republished without the letter-press, by Nicolas Bass, the Proemium, or Introduction to it, was written in the reign of Trajan, printer at Frankfurt, in 1590, under the title ' Icones Plantarum, &c. and the whole work probably belongs to the first or second year of In the latter part of his life Tabernæmontanus removed to Heidelberg, that emperor's reign. As a specimen of biography it is much and where he died in 1590. He also published two other works, the first justly admired. Like all the extant works of Tacitus, it is unencum. on mineral waters, entitled “Neue Wasserchatz,' in 1584, and which bered with minute irrelevant matter : the life and portrait of Agricola went through three editions ; the second was published in 1586, and are sketched in a bold and vigorous style, corresponding to the digis entitled 'Regiment und Bericht wie man sich in Sterbenslaufen nity of the subject. The biographer was the friend and son-in-law of halten soll.'

Agricola, whom he loved and revered; but he impresses his reader TACITUS, CAIUS CORNEʼLIUS, was probably born in the reign with a profound conviction of the moral greatness of Agricola, his of Nero, but neither the place of his birth nor the exact date is courage and his prudence, without ever becoming his panegyrist. known, nor is anything known of his parentage. There is no reason The Life of Agricola' was not contained in the earliest editions of for supposing that he belonged to the illustrious patrician gens of the Tacitus. Cornelii, nor any evidence of his having been born at Interamna, as The Histories, which were written before the 'Annals,' and after it is sometimes stated. The few facts of his life are chiefly collected the death of Nerva, comprehended the period from the accession of from bis own works, and from the letters of his friend the younger Galba to the death of Domitian; to which it was the author's inten. Pliny. Tacitus was about the same age as Pliny, but the elder of the tion to add the reigns of Nerva and Trajan (Hist.,' i. 1). There are two. Pliny was born about A.D. 61° [PLINY THE YOUNGER), in the only extant the first four books and a part of the fifth, and these reign of Nero, which commenced A.D. 54.

comprehend little more than the events of one year, from which we À passage of the elder Pliny ("Hist. Nat.,' vii. 16) speaks of a son may conclude that the whole work must have consisted of many BIOG. DIT, VOL. V.

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