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703

STEPHENS.

STEPHENS.

Justiniani, Justini, Leonis, Novella Constitutiones,' &c., Græce, the It appears to have been owing to the pecuniary difficulties in which only work that be edited in the year 1558. After a series of years Stephens was involved after the publication of his Thesaurus,' that, the Augsburg merchants appear to have become tired of supporting in order to divert bis mind, he made various excursions in France and the great printer. In a collection of letters of Stephens, published by Germany, but he always took the opportunity of exploring libraries Passow in 1830, there are some which show that Stephens wanted and comparing manuscripts, and thus collected vast quantities of them to advance him a small sum of money which they had promised, materials for works which he was publishing or projecting. In 1573 and that at length after much correspondence they did not keep their be published an edition of all the extant works of M. Terentius Varro promise. In consequence of this his connection with the Fuggers in 8vo, and a collection of the fragments of the philosopbical poets of ceased in 1576.

Greece. The year following he produced an excellent edition of In the year 1559 H. Stephens published his edition of Diodorus Apollonius Rhodius with the ancient scholia and a commentary by Siculus in fol., in which ten books of this historian were printed for bimself. In 1575 there appeared his collection of the Greek orators, the first time. The manuscript which he used for this edition is now some of which are accompanied by a Latin translation; and Arrian's in the public library of Geneva. Other publications of this year are, Expeditio Alexandri Magni,' &c., with a Latin translation. In 1577 Appian's 'Hispanica et Annibalica,' with a Latin translation by Beral- he published, among other books, an edition of Cicero's 'Epistolæ ad dus. in 8vo, and Gentium et Familiarum Romanarum Stemmata,' &c., Familiares,' in 2 vols. 8vo; the second volume contains the comin fol. In this year his father Robert died at Geneva, and Henry was mentaries of P. Manutius, Lambinus, Sigonius, Canter, and of Stephens appointed executor of bis will, in which he was also enjoined to take himself. In 1578 he brought out his magnificent edition of Plato's care of his brothers. Robert, one of his brothers, had been, as it works, in 3 vols. folio; and in the same year he wrote a little French appears, disinherited by the father because he would not abandon the work, ' Deux Dialogues du Nouveau Langage François, Italianizé et Roman Catholic faith and follow his father to Geneva. Accordingly autrement desguizé, principalement entre les Courtisans de ce Temps,' the printing establishment of Robert, the father, came into the hands &c. (printed without name and date). This was an attack upon the of Henry, who continued to publish theological works and several fashion, very common at the time, of introducing Italian words into editions of the Bible. H. Stephens appears now to have given up his French. Stephens, after the manuscript had received the imprimatur' establishment at Paris, and to have devoted himself to the manage- from the state-council of Geneva, had taken the liberty of making ment of that at Geneva.

some additions, for which he was severely reprimanded by the council. In the year 1555 H. Stephens married for the first time, but in 1564 Not thinking himself quite safe, or wishing to escape the annoyance or 1565 he himself states that his wife died. He afterwards married to which this affair subjected him, he went, towards the end of 1578, again, for the letters published by Passow show that about the year to Paris, where he remained during the whole of 1579. Henry III. 1581 he became a widower a second time. On his death in 1598, he received him very kindly, and interested himself so much on Stephens's left a wife surviving, from which it appears that he was married thrice. behalf, that he demanded of the council of Geneva permission for By his three wives he had altogether 14 children, ten of whom died Stephens to return, and to clear himself from the charges which were at an early age.

brought against him. Stephens returned to Geneva, and was place! In 1560 he published a collection of the lyric poets of Greece at the bar of the consistory, where he was treated with rigour and with a Latin translation in 16mo, which has been often reprinted. harshness, and for some days was put into prison. When Stephens at In the year following appeared his edition of Xenophon in fol., for last owned that he had acted wrong, he was set at liberty. which he had collated a great number of manuscripts, and to which During the stay wbich H. Stephens had made at Paris in 1579 he he added a commentary and a Latin translation. An improved edi. had a conversation with the king, in which he expatiated very ingetion was published in 1581. During the last two years H. Stephens viously on the superiority of the French language over other modern was in bad health and subject to melancholy, arising from over tongues; and the king, delighted with this eulogy on the French lanexertion and the heavy cares that devolved upon him after his guage, persuaded him to write a book on the subject. This book was father's death. In this state he scarcely worked at all; he almost published in the course of the same year, De la Precellence du Lan. conceived a disgust for literary occupations, and could not bear the gage François,' 8vo, Paris, 1579. The king, pleased with the persight of a book. But the renewed activity into which he was drawn formance, ordered 3000 francs to be paid to Stephens from the public unconsciously in 1562, restored him to health. The work which treasury, and also granted him an annual pension of 300 francs ; but roused him to fresh exertion was a Latin translation of Sexti Philo- from the manner in which Stephens, in his Musa Principum Monitris,' sophi Pyrrhoniarum Hypotyposeon Libri Tres.' The Greek original of speaks of this affair, it appears that he never received anything at all, this work was not printed until 1621. It must have been soon after for the treasurer at that time was a person of much more consequence bis recovery that Stephens began his greatest work, the Thesaurus in such matters than the king. Linguæ Græcæ,' upon which he spent ten years. In 1564 he wrote In 1581 Stephens published 'Juris Civilis Fontes et Rivi,' &c., in and publisbed a Dictionarium Medicum, vel Expositiones Vocum 8vo; and, as is commonly supposed, also “Sigonii Fasti Consulares.' Græcarum Medicinalium, ad Verbum, excerptæ ex Hippocrate, Are The latter he printed without the sanction of the Council of Geneva, tæo, &c., cum Latina Interpretatione, in 8vo. In this work he and was in consequence fined 25 thalers. This edition of the 'Fasti' received some assistance from J. M. Gesner; it was highly spoken of of Sigonius, if it was really published by Stephens, must have been by contemporary scholars, with the exception of Jos. Scaliger, who suppressed, for there is no trace of it now. H. Stephens spent the censured it severely, but he appears to have had a personal pique year 1585 again at Paris, where he published an excellent edition of against Stephens. In this year Stephens edited a still-useful collec: A. Gellius and of Macrobius, both in 8vo. The former is preceded by tion of "Fragmenta Poetarum Latinorum, quorum Opera non extant,' a very interesting letter to his son Paul, from which, besides many &c. in 8vo, and an edition of Thucydides with the Scholia, and a other things, we learn that about this time his country-house had been Latin translation by L. Valla. In 1566 he published, among other destroyed by an earthquake, a loss which he bore with stoical indiffer: books, his Florilegium' of Greek Epigrams; Poetæ Græci Principes ence. In 1588 he published an edition of the “Iliad' and 'Odyssey,' Heroici Carminis et alii nonnulli,' &c., in fol., which is most beautifully with a Latin translation. printed, and his edition of Herodotus with Valla's translation and his During the time that Stephens enjoyed the friendship of the King own' Apologia pro Herodoto,' which he bimself afterwards translated of France, he spent a great part of his time at Paris. His public into French. Passing over a great number of valuable publications cations during this period greatly decreased in number, and some of wbich appeared from 1566 till 1572, we proceed to the year 1572, in them were executed by Paris printers. His own establishment at which the Greek Thesaurus was published under the title «Thesaurus Geneva was neglected. He was constantly travelling about, and he Græcæ Linguæ ab Henrico Stephano constructus. In quo præter alia published his works wherever he happened to be, as at Paris, Frankplurima quæ primus præstitit (paternæ in Thesauro Latino Diligentiæ furt, Basel, &c. From this fact it has been erroneously supposed that æmulus) Vocabula in certas Classes distribuit, multiplici Derivationum he had separate printing-establishments in these places. He often Serie ad Primigenia tanquam ad Radices unde pullulant revocata,' resolved to give up this wandering life, and was seriously exhorted by with the appendix and index, 5 vols. fol. This work made an epoch his friends to attend to bis business; but the charms of a court life in the history of Greek philology, as well as in the life of the author, and the habit of travelling had now become strong, and he was who had embarked in it nearly all his property. The price of this dazzled by splendour and deceived by the hopes which he placed in prodigious work was necessarily high, and accordingly it could not the great. The years 1588 and 1589 he appears however to have have many purchasers. When Scapula some years afterwards pub- spent at Geneva, and several works again issued from his press; but lished his cheap abridgement (SCAPULA), the sale was nearly stopped, in 1590 no work came out at Geneva, and only one ("Principum and Stephens became involved in great difficulties. It has been sup. Monitrix Musa ') at Frankfurt, where he appears to have spent some posed by some that Stephens soon after published a second edition of time. In this year Henri III. of France was murdered. The affairs his Thesaurus, but this opinion has merely arisen from the fact that he of Stephens now grew worse and worse : his warehouses were full of cancelled a number of pages of the original edition, and inserted new books which he could not sell. In the year 1597 he left Geneva for ones in their place. In 1745 Daniel Scott published, in 2 vols. fol., France. He first stayed for some time at Montpellier, where Florence, * Appendix ad Thesaurum ab H. Stephano constructum.' A new one of his daughters, resided, who was married to Isaac Casaubon. edition of the Thesaurus was published in London (1815-28) in 7 vols. Casaubon was just preparing his edition of Athenæus, and Stephens fol., with numerous additions by Barker, which however have not offered his assistance, which was refused. He then proceeded through increased the value of the book. A new edition is now in course of various other places to Lyon, where he was taken ill; and feeling publication at Paris, which is edited by Hase, and L. and W. Dindorf, solitary and forlorn, and having no friends there, he was carried to a and of which 7 vols. fol. and some parts of an 8th vol. have been public hospital, where he died, in the beginning of March 1598, at the published. (1857.)

age of nearly seventy years. Some writers say that he died out of

705

STEPHENS.

STEPHENS.

706

his mind, a statement which, if true, can only apply to the last few making Latin verses, but his poetry is stiff and unanimated. His days of his life. It is a mistake to suppose that Stephens died in best is perhaps the poem on the death of his father. poverty because he died in an hospital; for the proceeds of his books After the death of his father, wben the affairs of the family were alone, which were publicly sold and fetched low prices, were sufficient settled, and Casaubon had left Geneva, Paul was placed at the head of to pay his creditors and to leave something for his wife and children. his father's printing establishment (1599), which he conducted with Stephens died without a will; and Casaubon, who went to Geneva to great energy. He first reprinted a number of classical authors which receive his wife's dowry, which was still owing, together with her had been edited by his father, and were then out of print, such share of the inheritance, was generous enough to leave Henry's as Virgil, Horace, the letters of Pliny, and the Latin panegyrists and library, manuscripts, and printing-establishment, in the hands of his others. The two works which do bim most credit are "Euripidis son Paul.

Tragediæ quæ extant, cum Lat. Guil. Canteri Interpretatione, &c., There is no scholar to whom the Greek language and literature is containing the Greek scholia and commentaries of several scholars, under greater obligations than it is to Henry Stephens. He knew bis 2 vols. 4to, 1602; and Sophoclis Tragoediæ Septem, unà cum omnibus superiority, and sometimes showed that he felt it. The number of Græcis Scholiis et Latina Viti Windemii ad verbum Interpretatione," books which he printed, edited, or wrote, is immense; and it is truly &c., likewise containing the scholia, and also notes by H. Stephens. astonishing that, even during the rambling life of his latter years, In 1619 he printed a folio edition of Herodotus, founded upon that of he was continually producing new works. During the earlier part of his father, with a Latin translation and notes by Sylburg. No other his life he was a man of inflexible resolution, and pever rested till he publication issued from his press till 1626, when he published a fifth had effected his purpose ; and he was always planning something, edition of the lyric Greek poets : ‘Pindari et ceterorum Octo Lyrieven to the last days of his life. He has often been censured for his corum Carmina. This was his last publication. The inactivity in alteration of passages in ancient writers without being supported by his establishment during the last years appears to have been the conthe authority of manuscripts, and without even assigning a reason for sequence of his want of capital, to wbich we may perhaps also attribute his alterations. This has been said more especially in regard to his the fact that most of his works are printed on very bad paper. In edition of Plutarch, which came out in the same year that he pub- 1626 or 1627 he sold his whole establishment to the brothers Clouet. lished his Thesaurus; but Wyttenbach, on examining several manu. It is not known what became of him after this, but it is believed he scripts for his own edition, found that H. Stephens was in most cases died soon after. He had eight children, two of whom only, Anthony supported by manuscript authority.

and Joseph, survived their father. ROBERT STEPHENS II., the youngest son of Robert Stephens 1., and FRANCIS STEPHENS II., son of Robert Stephens I., and an elder brother brother of Henry Stephens II., was born at Paris in 1530. The first of Henry Stephens II., followed his father to Geneva, and is said to have time that we find him taking part in the publication of a work was in been a good Greek and Latin scholar. After the death of his father 1556, when he and Morel, who was then royal printer, published the he established at Geneva a printing-office of his own, which he con. edition of Anacreon prepared by H. Stephens. The title of 'royal ducted from 1562 to 1582, with an interruption however of nearly ten printer' was conferred upon Robert in 1561, as appears from some years. Even during the remaining ten years he printed very few books printed by him in this year, at the same time that he came into books, and most of them for publishers : this appears to have been possession of the printing office of Charles Stephens. In this office he owing to his want of capital. "The first work, and almost the only continued till his death. In activity and accurate and beautiful one that he printed on his own account, was Calvin's Commentaries printing he was worthy of his father, but this is all that we know of on the Psalms, fol., 1563. His last publication was Amyot's French him. Ås royal printer he was much employed in printing edicts and translation of the Moralia' of Plutarch, 2 vols. fol., 1581-82. After ordonnances, as may be seen from the list of bis publications by this time he gave up printing and settled in Normandy, and we hear Renouard. He died in 1570. Among his publications we only no more about him. mention the following:- a reprint of the Historical Dictionary (Dic- ANTHONY STEPHENS, son of Paul Stephens, was born at Geneva in tionarium Propriorum Nominum Virorum, Mulierum, Populorum, 1592. He studied at Lyon, and afterwards finished his education at &c.') of Charles Stephens, 4to, 1560; 'Josephi Scaligeri Conjectanea in Paris, where he abjured Protestantism before Cardinal du Perron. M. Terent. Varronem,' 1565; and several editions of Donatus, 'De In 1612 he obtained letters-patent of naturalisation in France, and at the Partibus Orationis.'

same time the office of huissier de l'assemblée du clergé, with a salary After his death bis wife married again, and kept up the printing of 500 francs, which he held until the year 1635. Long before this establishment. There are publications down to the year 1588, 'Ex time however he had been in the possession of a printing establishofficina Roberti Stephani.'

ment. Some writers mention a work by Perron, which Anthony ROBERT STEPHENS III., son of Robert Stephens 11., was educated Stephens is said to have printed in 1605. But this cannot possibly be by the poet and abbé Desportes, who inspired him with a love for correct, as Anthony was then only thirteen years old. The earliest poetry, and with whom he appears to have stayed at least till 1584. work which he printed belongs to the year 1613, and henceforth he He did not commence printing till 1606, so that eighteen years elapsed conducted his establishment with an activity worthy of his great without a publication appearing from the press of Robert Stephens. ancestors until the year 1664. He was also honoured with the title of His first publication was • D. Gregorii Nysseni ad Eustathiam, Ambro- royal printer, through the influence of Cardinal Perron, and he siam, Basilissam, Epistola, Græce. I. Casaubonus nunc primum pub- received a pension of 600 francs, but the time when he first received it licavit, Latine vertit et notis illustravit,' 8vo, Lutetiæ, 1606. He is uncertain. The pension was stopped when Perron died, and probably worked in the printing establishment which had belonged to Anthony after this was several times in great pecuniary difficulties. his father, and printed till his death in 1630. He distinguished him. Among bis numerous publications, which comprise all the works of self also by his Latin, Greek, and French verses, and by a French Perron, there are several valuable editions of ancient authors, such as translation of the first two books of Aristotle's 'Rhetoric,' which was Casaubon's edition of Strabo, 1620; of Plutarch's Works, with printed in 8vo, 1630. In his publications he generally added to his Xylander's translation, 2 vols. fol., 1624; Leunclavius's edition of name the letters R. F. R. N., that is Roberti Filius, Roberti Nepos, to Xenophon,' 1625; Aristotle's Works, 2 vols. fol., 1629. For many distinguish himself from his father and grandfather. He printed a years after the death of his patron Anthony was in very straitened great number of books; the principal are, ‘Menandri et Philistionis circumstances, and was supported by his son Henry, who, from the Sententiæ Comparatæ, Græce, ex Bibliotheca Regia ; cum notis, cura year 1646, had a printing office of his own, where, among other works, N. Rigaltii,' 8vo, Lutetiæ, 1613; 'D. Junii Juvenalis Satyrarum Libri Montaigne's • Essays' were printed. When his son died in 1661, and v. Sulpiciæ Satyra, Cura Rigaltii, &c.,' Lutet., 1616 ; 'Dictys Creten- Anthony was deprived of his last and only support, he sank rapidly : sis, De Bello Trojano, et Dares Phrygius De Excidio Trojæ,' &c., he became infirm, and at last lost his sight. In this state he dragged 16mo, 1618.

on a wretched existence until the year 1674, when he died in the HôtelThere are several other members of the Stephens family of the name Dieu at Paris, at the age of eighty-two. He had six children, all of of Robert, but none of them were distinguished. During the last whom died before him. century there was a French writer of the name of Robert Stephens Besides the members of the Stephens family whom we have men(Robert Etienne), who claimed a descent from the illustrious family of tioned above, there are two more, who however were never engaged in printers.

printing. The one is Henry Stephens, a son of Robert Stephens II., Paul STEPHENS, a son of Henry Stephens II., by his second wife, who was treasurer of the royal palaces; the other likewise called was born at Geneva in 1566. He received bis early education at home, Henry, and a son of the former, acquired some reputation as a poet, and was then sent out by his father to visit the principal towns of and also wrote some other works in French. Europe, and the distinguished scholars with whom his father was Respecting the lives of the Stephens, see Tb. Jansonii ab Almeloveen, acquainted. Lipsius, whom he visited at Leyden, was much pleased Dissertatio Epistolica de Vitis Stephanorum, Amsterdam, 1685; with him, and in one of his letters calls him .mitis adolescens.' On Maittaire, Stephanorum Historia,' 2 vols. in 4 parts, London, 1709, bis return to Geneva be assisted his father in printing and editing. which contains a list, though not complete, of their publications ; He afterwards made several other journeys, partly perhaps in connec- Greswell, A View of the early Parisian Greek Press, including the tion with the business of his father. In 1594 he spent some time in lives of the Stephani,' Oxford, 1833 ; Ant. Aug. Renouard, ' Annales London, where, among other distinguished med, he made the acquaint. de l’Imprimerie des Etienne, ou Histoire de la Famille des Etienne et ance of John Castolius. In 1595 he was at Heidelberg, and in 1596 de ses éditions,' 2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1837. This last work contains in at Frankfort, where he stayed in the house of the jurist Dionysius the first volume a very complete list of all the publications of the Gothofredus. He had married in 1589. His first literary production Stephens, and various unpublished and important facts, derived from was • Pauli Stephani Versiones Epigrammatum Græcorum Antho- the public records of Paris and Geneva. See also Firmin Didot, - Essai logiæ, Latinis versibus,' 8vo, Genevæ, 1593. He was always fond of sur la Typographie'; and Gaullieur, "Typographie Genevoise,' 1855.

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BIOG. DIV. VOL. V.

707

STEPHENS, JAMES FRANCIS.

STEPHENSON, GEORGE,

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STEPHENS, JAMES FRANCIS, a distinguished British ento. having been accidentally scalded and blinded by a discharge of steam mologist, was born at Shoreham, Sussex, on the 16th of September let in upon him while repairing an engine. Stephenson paid bis 1792. He was for many years a clerk' in the Admiralty Office in father's debts at the expense of more than half his savings, and settled Somerset House. Whilst holding this position he devoted his leisure his parents in a cottage, where they lived during many years entirely hours to the study of natural history, and was a remarkable example supported by him. He was immediately re-engaged in his old position of the knowledge that may be gained by the cultivation of the small at Killingworth, but being drawn for the militia, the obtaining a subportion of time allotted for rest in a government office. In the course stitute absorbed the remainder of the produce of his economy, and of a long life he made one of the most complete collections of British he seriously contemplated emigrating to America, whither his wife's insects extant. This collection was the admiration of foreigners and sister and her husband went; but he could not raise money enough the constant resort of the British entomologist. Mr.

Stephens's taste to accompany them. He therefore continued his various labours, for entomology led early to his employment in the British Museum, attending the engine, mending clocks, making and mending shoes, where he assisted Dr. Leach in commencing the present collection of and studying mechanics. His acquired knowledge and mechanical insects in that institution. The literature of entomology is largely skill enabled him to suggest improvements to his employers, and in indebted for bis contributions. In 1829 he commenced the publication 1810 a new engine in the neighbourhood having failed in its work, of his "Illustrations of British Entomology,' which was produced in Stepherson was called in to mend it, which he did most effectually. parts and completed in 10 vols. This is one of the largest and most He received for this job a present of 101., and was promoted to the comprehensive works on British entomology, and must secure for its post of engineman at good wages. Whilst thus engaged he formed author a lasting name amongst the cultivators of the natural history an intimacy with a farmer named Wigham, at Long Benton, whose of his own country. In addition to this splendid work, he published son John proved of great assistance to him by increasing his acquaintseveral papers on entomological subjects, which appeared in the ance with arithmetic, and with some of the principles of mechanism

Transactions of the Entomological Society. He also was engaged at and chemistry; and in 1812 his merit was so far recognised that he the time of his death in writing a catalogue of the British Lepidoptera was appointed engineer of the colliery, at a salary of 1001, a year. He in the collections of the British Museum. He also published sepa- was now elevated above the rank of a mere labourer, but he was not rately "The Systematic Catalogue of British Insects,' and 'A Manual less busy. He projected and carried out many improvements, and of the British Coleoptera. Although distinguished as an entomolo- among others constructed at the coal-loading place at Willington, the gist, he took an interest in all branches of natural history, and was first self-acting incline used in that district, by which the descensing the author of a continuation of Shaw's •Zoology' comprising an laden waggons on the tram-road were made to draw up the empty account of the Birds, published in 1827. He was a fellow of the waggong. Linnæan Society, and president of the Entomological Society. He The most important epoch of Stephenson's life was now approaching, died on the 22nd of December 1852, at his house in Kennington, Many attempts had been made to construct a locomotive steam-engine, after a few days' illness of inflammation of the lungs.

and some had attained a certain degree of success, but none had sucSTEPHENSON, GEORGE, the inventor of the locomotive steam- ceeded in uniting economy with efficiency. Mr. Stephenson carefully engine, was the son of Robert Stephenson and Mabel Carr, and was examined all within his reach, and at length declared his conviction born June 9th, 1731, at Wylam, a village in Northumberland, where that he could make a better than any yet produced. He comhis father was employed as fireman at a colliery; he afterwards municated his proposal to his employers : one of them was Lord removed to Dewley Burn in the same county, where George's first Ravensworth, who, after giving him a patient hearing, commissioned employment was to herd cows, occupying his leisure in modelling bim to make a trial of his skill. His object at first was only to clay engines, and even constructing a miniature windmill. He soon make an engine for the colliery tramways, but even thus early he told began to be employed about the colliery, during which time he dis- bis friends that there was no limit to the speed of such an engine, if played a great affection for birds and animals, particularly rabbits, the works could be made to stand it.” The difficulties he encountered of which he acquired the reputation of baving a fine breed. At were great; the engiue was built in the workshops at West Moor, fourteen years of age he was appointed assistant-fireman to his father, Killingworth; the chief workman was the colliery blacksmith, tools who soon after removed to another colliery at Jolly's Close, where had to be made, and everything rested upon the designer of the George, then only fifteen, was engaged as fireman to an engine in the machine. In ten months it was completed, and on July 25, 1814, it neighbourhood. Ambitious of becoming an efficient workman, he was placed on the railway, and was decidedly successful, drawiog eight strože to attain a thorough knowledge of the engine, and he succeeded loaded carriages, weighing thirty tons, at the rate of four miles an 80 well that at seventeen he was promoted to be a 'plugman,' whose hour. It was however a cumbrous affair, and he speedily saw in how duty it was to see that the engine was in proper working condition, many parts it could be improved. Accordingly, in February 1815, he and that the pumps drew off the water effectually, repairing such took out a patent for a locomotive, and in the same year constructed accidental defects as might occur. To do this he felt required an inti- an engine, which (with certain mechanical improvements, that though mate knowledge of its construction, and at his leisure hours he would conceived by him to be necessary, could not be supplied by the manutake the machinery to pieces, that he might the better understand it. factories at that time,) may be considered as the model of all that His father, who had six children, of whom George was the second, had have been since produced. been unable to give them any education, though by example a sound From Mr. Stephenson's connection with collieries he could scarcely foundation of good principles and morals bad been laid, and at avoid having his attention painfully excited, by the frequent exploeighteen, whilst employed for twelve hours a day in his labours, and sions arising from fire-damp, and in 1814 one of the collieries under earning only twelve sbillings a week, George Stephenson commenced a his care having taken fire, he, at great risk of his life, and with the course of self-culture. He attended a small night-school at Walbottle, assistance of the workmen, who trusted to his knowledge and skill, where in a year he learnt to read, and to write his own name, for succeeded in extinguishing it by bricking up the passage where the foul which instruction he paid threepence a week. He next, in 1799, air was accumulated. The constant danger from the use of exposed placed himself under a Scotchman named Robertson, at Newburn, candles in coal-mines was so well known, that many inventors had who, for fourpence a week, taught him arithmetic, which he acquired attempted to produce lamps to meet the difficulty; and as early as with remarkable facility. At twenty he had been advanced to the 1813 a safety lamp was invented by Dr. Clanny, but it was found to be superior office of brakesman, with increased wages, to which he added, unmanageable. Sir Humphry Davy was invited to attempt something; in his leisure hours, by learning to make and mend shoes. At that for which purpose, among others, he visited Newcastle in August time he was a big, raw-boned fellow, fond of displaying his strength 1815, and on November 9 he read a paper on the construction of his and activity at the village feasts, but remarkable for his temperance, lamp before the Royal Society of London. Mr. Stephenson was at sobriety, industry, and good-temper, yet on one occasion he fought a the same time occupied on the same subject. In August he made a bully who would have oppressed him, and his victory on that occasion drawing for a lamp, which on October 21 had been made and tested; a Becured him ever after from a repetition of the offence.

second and a third were made, for the purpose of increasing the When by the most rigid economy Stephenson had saved sufficient amount of light; and on November 30, before he could by any possimoney to furnish a small home, he determined to settle, and on the bility have heard of Davy's invention, his third lamp was finished 28th of November 1800 he married Fanny Henderson, with whom he and tried in Killingworth pit, where it was found thoroughly effective, removed to Willington, where he had been appointed brakesman to and has ever since been in use. A controversy has arisen, into which the engine employed for lifting the ballast brought by the return we shall not enter, as to priority of invention. There is however collier ships to Newcastle. In his new abode, at the Ballast Hills, every reason to believe that Stephenson invented his lamp and tried it he continued to occupy himself with mechanical experiments, expend a few days previous to Davy having announced his discovery; and the ing much time and great ingenuity in a fruitless effort to obtain natural conclusion is, that, urged by the want of a safety-lamp, and perpetual motion ; until an accident having obliged him to repair his reasoning from the same facts, the inventors arrived at the results own clock, he became the general clock.cleaner and mender for the independently of each other; for the two lamps, although different in neighbourhood, thus improving his own mechanical skill whilst adding construction, are founded upon identical principles, but arrived at by to his income. On the 16th of December 1803 bis only child Robert different trains of thought. was born, and soon after he removed to Killingwortb, where his wife We cannot attempt to trace all the improvements in details which died. In 1804 he was engaged to superintend the working of one of Mr. Stephenson introduced in the locomotive, but he very early Boulton and Watt's engines at Montrose ; but after continuing there a perceived that, for its proper working, the railway required equal year-during which time he saved about 28l., a considerable sum in attention, and that a firm bed and a regular level were essential his circumstances, and during a period of war-prices of provisions requisites. Very little attention had hitherto been paid to this, and he returned to Killingworth to find bis father in extreme distress, the tramroads were carelessly laid out and not kept in good repair.

709

STEPHENSON, GEORGE.

STEPHENSON, ROBERT.

710

In 1816 therefore he took out a patent for an improved form of rail tions for assistance and advice from projectors and inventors of all and chair, and for further improvements in the locomotive engine, kinds, to whom however he was invariably attentive and kind, he one of which was placing it on springs, and they were attended with passed the remainder of his days in ease and peace, and died after a marked success.

short illness on August 12, 1848, leaving a name rendered illustrious The construction of railroads had for some time occupied much of by the patient perseverance of a high-minded industry, and the widely. the public attention. The first contemplated was the Stockton and developed productions of a remarkable genius. A valuable biography Darlington, for which an act of parliament was obtained by Mr; of this eminent man has been written by Mr. S. Smiles, to which we Pease in 1820, to be worked with men and horses, or otherwise.” are indebt-d for many of the facts in this notice. In 1819 the owners of Hetton Colliery, desiring to turn their tramroad STEPHENSON, ROBERT, the son of the preceding, was born, as into a railway, employed Mr. Stephenson in its construction. The we have already said, at Willington, on December 16, 1803. His length was about eight miles, and being over a hilly country he took father, who had felt the want of early education, resolved that his son advantage of the heights to form self-acting inclines, the locomotive should not suffer from the same cause, and accordingly, though at working on the level part; and on the 18th of November 1822 it was the time he could ill afford it, sent him to a school at Long Benton, opened for traffic. He was next employed to construct the Stockton and in 1814 placed him with Mr. Bruce at Newcastle. Robert soon and Darlington line, which the proprietors had agreed, on his recom- displayed a decided inclination for mechanics and science, and becoming mendation, to make as a railroad and not as a tramroad, with a member of the Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Institution, stationary engines for the steep gradients, but horse-power was to be was enabled to take advantage of its library; so that, as the Saturday used for the levels, for Mr. Stephenson's confident anticipations of the afternoons were spent with his father, the volume which he invariably success of his locomotive engines were still regarded with suspicion. took home with him, formed the subject of mutual instruction to He began the work in May 1822, in 1823 an amended Act was procured father and son. Robert's assiduity attracted the attention of the for working the line with locomotives, and Mr. Stephenson was Rev. Wm. Turner, one of the secretaries to the Institution, who readily appointed resident engineer at a salary of 300l. per annum, upon assisted him in his studies, and was also of much service to his father which appointment he removed to Darlington. The line was opened with whom he soon after became acquainted. Under Mr. Bruce, Robert ip September, 1825, and an engine driven by Mr. Stephenson himself acquired the rudiments of a sound practical education, and under bis drew'a load of ninety tons at the rate of a little more than eight miles father's direction was always ready to turn his acquirements to account. an hour. It proved highly remunerative, for besides a far larger There still exists in the wall over the door of the cottage at Killingamount of goods traffic than had been calculated on, a passenger traffic worth, a sun-dial of their joint production, of which the father was arose that had been wholly unthought of; the passengers however always proud. In 1818 Robert was taken from school and apprenticed were for a time conveyed in carriages drawn by a horse at a speed of to Mr. Nicholas Wood as a coal-viewer, acting as under-viewer, ten miles an hour. It may be mentioned, that this railway has created and making himself thoroughly acquainted with the machinery and the town and port of Middlesborough-on-Tees, then the site of a farm, processes of coal-mining. In 1820 however, his father being now somebut now containing 15,000 inhabitants.

what richer, he was sent to Edinburgh University for a single session, In 1824, while the Darlington line was in progress, Mr. Stephenson, where he attended the lectures of Dr. Hope on chemistry; those of Sir feeling the difficulty he had experienced in constructing his engines John Leslie on natural philosopby; and those of Professor Jamieson on in a blacksmith's shop, proposed to Mr. Pease, of Darlington, his geology and mineralogy. He returned home in the summer of 1821, firm friend and great patron, the establishment of an engine-factory having gained a mathematical prize, and acquired the most important at Newcastle. The proposal was adopted, and for a considerable time knowledge of how best to proceed in his self-education. In 1822 he it was the only manufactory for locomotives in the kingdom; it is was apprenticed to his father, who bad then commenced his locomotive now increased to an enormous extent, and has been the training-school, manufactory at Newcastle, but after two years' strict attention to the whence has issued a vast number of skilled workmen and eminent business, finding his health failing, he accepted, in 1824, a commission practical engineers.

to examine the gold and silver mines of South America, whence be was In 1824 the project of a railway, or tramroad between Liverpool and recalled by his father when the Liverpool and Manchester railway Manchester began to be agitated. Increased facility of communication was in progress, and he reached home in December 1827. He took was imperatively required, but there was much controversy as to the an active part in the discussion as to the use of locomotives on the means. At length a railway was decided on, Mr. Stephenson was line, and in conjunction with Mr. Joseph Locke, wrote an able employed to make the survey, and application was made to parliament pamphlet on the subject. He also greatly assisted his father in the for an Act. A strong opposition was raised both within the House of construction of the successful engine, which we believe was entered Commons and without Landowners drove the engineers off their in his name, though he himself ascribes the merit entirely to his grounds, and before the Committee the most absurd objections were father and Mr. Henry Booth, on whose suggestion the multitubular urged against the whole scheme, the idea of any quick transit being a boiler was adopted. subject for especial ridicule. The Bill was however carried on a second Robert Stephenson's next employment was the execution of a application, and Mr. Stephenson was appointed principal engineer. The branch from the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, near Warrington, work was commenced in June 1826, and after struggling through many now forming a portion of the Grand Junction Railway, between difficulties-one, and not the least, being the carrying the railway over Birmingham and Liverpool. Before this branch was completed, he Chat Moss-it was opened on Sept. 15, 1830. During its progress undertook the survey and afterwards the construction of the Leicester eminent engineers had reported against locomotives being worked on and Swannington Railway, and on the completion of that work he the line, recommending horse-traction; but at length Mr. Stephenson commenced the survey of the line of the London and Birmingham prevailed on the Directors to offer a prize for a locomotive engine, con- Railway, of which he was ultimately appointed engineer, and removed forming to certain conditions, which was done, and the prize of 5001. to London. Under his direction the first sod was cut at Chalk Farm was won by the Rocket engine, in the construction of which he had on June 1, 1834, and the line was opened on Sept. 15, 1838. Fully availed himself of the assistance of his son Robert.

aware of the vital importance of obtaining good means of rapid transit, From this moment his fortune was made. Employment of a most he still continued to devote much of his time to improvements in the remunerative character poured in from all sides. Railways were pro locomotive engine, which were from time to time carried out under jected in every direction, and he became the chief engineer of several his direction at the manufactory in Newcastle, which for some years of them. With these he was incessantly engaged till 1840, when he was exclusively devoted to engines of that class, and still supplies resigned most of them, and settled at Tapton in Derbyehire, where larger numbers than any other factory in the kingdom, independent of he commenced a fresh pursuit in working the Clay Cross collieries. At many marine and stationary engines. His engagements on different this time he took much interest in the well-doing of the Mechanics' lines of railway have since been very numerous, but he is more Institutes in his neighbourhood, and on more than one occasion related remarkable for the magnificent conceptions and the vastness of some to them the circumstances of his own career, as an encouragement to of his successfully-executed projects, such as the High Level Bridge the members to adopt a course of steady and persevering industry. over the Tyne at Newcastle, the viaduct (supposed to be the largest His interest in railway extension however continued unabated, and he in the world) over the Tweed valley at Berwick, and the Britannia took an active part, either as engineer, chairman, or shareholder, in tubular bridge over the Menai Strait—a form of bridge of which there the Whitehaven and Maryport, the Yarmouth and Norwich, and the had been previously no example, and to which, considering its length Newcastle and Edinburgh East Coast Line, with which the stupendous and the enormous weight it would have to sustain, the objections and work of the High Level Bridge at Newcastle (designed by his son), difficulties seemed almost insuperable. With the assistance however is connected; he was one of the committee of management, but he of Professor Hodgkinson, Mr. Edwin Clark, and Mr. Fairbairn in did not live to see it completed. He was also employed in Belgium, experiments on the best forms of the various portions of the strucand he travelled into Spain to inspect a proposed line from the ture, the difficulties were triumphantly overcome, and in less than Pyrenees to Madrid, but the project was fruitless. On his return four years the bridge was opened to the public on March 18, 1850. from Spain in 1845 he relinquished still more his attention to railway Mr. Stephenson has also been employed in the construction of many matters, and occupied himself almost entirely with his collieries foreign railways. He was consulted, with his father, as to the Belgian and lime-works, with the cultivation of his farm and gardens, and lines; also for a line in Norway between Christiania and Lake Miösen, indulged in his old fancy for keeping birds and animals. With the for which he received the grand cross of the order of St. Olaf from the exception of promoting the Ambergate and Manchester Railway, king of Sweden; and also for one between Florence and Leghorn, inventing a new self-acting break, of attending the ceremony of opening about sixty miles in length. He visited Switzerland for the purpuse the Trent Valley Railway (when Sir Robert Peel made a speech com- of giving his opinions as to the best system of railway communicaplimentary to him), and of being considerably troubled by application. He designed and is now constructing the Victoria tubular bridge

nii

STEPNEY, GEORGE.

STERLING, JOHN.

713

over the St. Lawrence, near Montreal, on the model of that over the which made him afterwards socially celebrated. From Trinity Menai Strait, in connection with the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, College, Sterling removed, along with his friend Maurice, to Trinity for uniting Canada West with the western states of the United States Hall, with an intention of studying law; but in 1827 he left Cambridge of America. He has recently completed the railway between Alex- altogether, without taking bis degree. In 1828 the 'Athenæum,' andria and Cairo, a distance of 140 miles, and has, during its construc. then recently started by Mr. Silk Buckingham, was purchased by tion, several times visited Egypt. On the line there are two tubular Sterling. or at bis instance, and he and Maurice conducted it and bridges ;-one over the Damietta branch of the Nile, and the other wrote in it for some time. The speculation however in their hands over the large canal near Besket-al-Saba. The peculiarity of the did not answer commercially, and the journal was sold to its present structures is that the trains run on the outside upon the top of the proprietor. Sterling, to whom it was not absolutely necessary that tube instead of inside, as in the case of the Britannia Bridge. He is he should engage in any employment for his living, continued to now constructing an immense bridge across the Nile at Kaffre Azzayat, reside in London, the centre of a circle of ardent and thoughtful to replace the present Steam Ferry which is found to interfere too young men, including not only his college friends, but such additions much with the rapid transit of passengers.

as John Stuart Mill. An eager radicalism of opinion was then In addition to his railway labours Mr. Stephenson has taken a gene- Sterling's characteristic. It was about the year 1828 that he first ral interest in public affairs and in scientific investigations. In 1847 became acquainted with Coleridge, then living his recluse life at he was returned as member of parliament, in the Conservative interest, Highgate ; and Coleridge's influence on Sterling was great and for Whitby in Yorkshire, for which place he continues to sit. He has enduring. It was evident in a three volume novel, entitled 'Arthur also acted with great liberality to the Newcastle Literary and Philo. Copingsby,' which he wrote in 1829-30, but which was not published sophical Society, paying off in 1855 a debt amounting to 31001. in till a year or two later. In November 1830 he married; and shortly gratitude, as he expressed it, for the benefits he derived in early life after, being in ill-health, he and his wife went to the West India from that establishment, and to enable it to be as practically useful to island of St. Vincent, where a valuable sugar estate had been be otber young men. He has most liberally placed at the disposal of Mr. queathed to him, his elder brother, and a cousin, by one of his Piazzi Smyth, bis yacht and crew, to facilitate the interesting investi mother's uncles. He stayed about fifteen months in St. Vincent, gations undertaken by that gentleman at the Island of Teneriffe, and returning to England in August 1832. In the spring of 1833 bis very valuable results have been obtained. He has been an honorary novel was published, but obtained little recognition except among the but active member of the London Sanitary and Sewerage Commis- few. Chancing in that year to meet again his tutor, the Rev. Julius sions; he is a Fellow of the Royal Society, a member of the Institu- Hare, at Bonn, the effect of their conversation on Sterling's mind, tion of Civil Engineers since 1830, of which institution he was member then vibrating under the prior influence of Coleridge, was that be of council during the years 1845 to 1847, vice-president during those resolved to take holy orders in the English Church. He was ordained from 1848 to 1855, and president during the years 1856 and 1857. deacon at Chichester, on Trinity Sunday, 1834, and immediately He has received a Great Gold Medal of honour from the French Expo became curate of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, where his friend was rector. sition d'Industrie of 1855, and is said to have declined an offer of Sterling retained his curacy only eight months, resigning it in knighthood in Great Britain. He is also the author of a work on February 1835, on account of delicate health. It is not improbable the Locomotive Steam-Engine,' and another · On the Atmospheric that at the same time there was a change, or a tendency to change, in Railway System,' published in 4to by Weale. [See SUPPLEMENT.] bis opinions. From this time, at all events, there was a gradual

STEPNEY, GEORGE, descended from an ancient family in Pem. divergence in his views from the fixed creed of the Church of England, brokeshire, was born in Westminster, in 1663. In 1676 he was sent though his relations to many of its most excellent members continued to Westminster School, where he continued his studies till 1682, to be as intimate and affectionate as ever. It was in 1835 that he first when he removed to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he distinguished became acquainted with Mr. Carlyle, then recently setttled in London; himself in 1683 by a Latin ode on the marriage of the Princess Anne and it seems evident that gradually the influence of Mr. Carlyle to Prince George of Denmark. He took the degree of M.A. in 1689. modified the results of that of Coleridge. “Coleridge,” says Mr. At Westminster he had formed a friendship with Charles Montague, Carlyle himself, in his memoir of Sterling," was now dead, pot loug afterwards Earl of Halifax, which was continued at Cambridge. They since ; nor was bis name henceforth much heard in Sterling's circle; came to London together, and were both introduced into public life by though, on occasion, for a year or two to come, he would still assert the Earl of Dorset. Stepney's life, which was short, was chiefly spent his transcendant admiration, especially if Maurice were by to help. in diplomatic employments. In 1692 he was sent as envoy to the But he was getting into German, into various inquiries and sources of Elector of Brandenburg; in 1693, to the Emperor of Germany; in knowledge new to him, and his admirations and notions on many 1694, to the Elector of Saxony. In 1695 he published a poem, things were silently and rapidly modifying themselves.” Literature dedicated to the memory of Queen Mary ; in 1696 he went as envoy was thenceforward Sterling's chief occupation; though, from all the to the Electors of Mentz and Cologne, and to the congress at Frank accounts that remain of him, what he accomplished and has left fort; in 1698 to Brandenburg, in 1699 to the King of Poland, in 1701 behind him in literature gives but a faint idea of the influence he to the Emperor, and in 1706 to the States-General. He was made one exerted in intellectual society, and especially in that of London, by of the commissioners of trade in 1697. He died at Chelsea in 1707, bis frankness and powers of talk. Very few men had so many friends and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

or was so loved by them. It was unfortunate for them and him that Stepney's poems are few, and of little value. He was one of the his extremely precarious health caused him every now and then to 'eminint hands' who were united with Dryden in the translation of absent himself from London and seek a warmer climate. In 1836 he ‘Juvenal' in 1693. Jobpson says," he is a very licentious translator, went to the south of France; and in the following year he went to and does not recompense the neglect of his author by beauties of Madeira. While at Madeira he wrote much, and sent some contrihis owo."

butions, in prose and verse, to 'Blackwood's Magazine.' Io the spring STERLING, JOHN, was born at Kaimes Castle, in the island of of 1838 he returned to England, and for a time he resided on the Bute, Scotland, on the 20th of July 1806. Both his parents were southern sea coast, making frequent visits to London. He began to Irish. by birth, though of Scottish descent; and his father, Edward write for the Westminster Review,' then under the charge of Mr. Sterling (afterwards well known as a leading writer in, and editor of, John Stuart Mill; he was also busy privately with various composithe Times' newspaper, but then pursuing the occupation of a tions in prose and verse. It was at this time too that, in order to gentleman-farmer, after having been educated for the Irish bar, and secure Sterling's meeting with as many of his friends as possible on having served for some time as a captain in the army) had rented his flying visits to London, the famous so-called “Sterling Club” was Kaimes Castle a short time before his son's birth. John was the formed. A list of the members of this club is given in Mr. Carlyle's second child of seven, five of whom died while he was still a Life of Sterling,' at page 208. youth, leaving only himself and an elder brother, who survived him. Part of the years 1838 and 1839 were spent by Sterling in Italy; In 1809, the family removed to Llanblethian, in Glamorganshire, and on his return he took up his abode in Clifton. It was while Wales; and here John Sterling received his first school-education. residing here that he published under the general title of Poems, by His father about this time began to contribute to the Times' as an John Sterling' (Moxon, 1839), a collection of his metrical effusions up occasional correspondent; and the interest he thus took in politics, to that time. The two next years were spent in migrations from led bim, on the peace of 1814, to remove again with his family to place to place, including a second visit to Madeira, on account of Paris. Driven from Paris by the return of Napoleon from Elba and health. In 1841, while living at Falmouth, he published 'The Electhe resumption of the war, the family in 1815 settled in London, tion: a Poem, in Seven Books'—& poem of English life and society. where gradually the father rose to his eminent position in the world He was then engaged on what he intended to be his best workof politics and journalism. He was destined to outlive his son. Strafford, a Tragedy,' which however was not published till 1843.

After havirg been at various schools in or near London, Sterling This year, 1843 (he had again been absent in Italy in the interim), was sent to the University of Glasgow ; whence, after a brief stay, he was one of calamity to him and his. His wife died in April, and his was removed in 1824 to Trinity College, Cambridge. Here Julius own always feeble health was rendered more precarious than ever by Hare, afterwards Archdeacon of Lewes, was bis tutor, and here he the accidental bursting of a blood-vessel. Sterling retired to Ventnor formed the acquaintance of various young men afterwards dis- in the Isle of Wight in June 1843, where his last labours were on a poem tinguished, including Frederick Maurice, Richard Trench, Spedding, on the subject of 'Cour de Lion,' still unpublished. Here he sank J. M. Kemble, Venables, Charles Buller, and Monckton Milnes. In gradually, and on the 18th of September 1814, he died at the age of the Union Debating Club of Cambridge, of which these and others thirty-eight. A collection of his Essays and Tales' from the Athewere members, Sterling was one of the chief speakers; and it was here næum, Blackwood,' and other periodicals, was edited in two volumes, perhaps that he first exhibited the qualities of intellect and character with a memoir prefixed, by Archdeacon Hare, in 1818; the well

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