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repaired the mischief done to Sardis by the great earthquake, A.D. 17. Alps, and the tribes which inhabited the Alps, and the valleys belong. (Tacit., ‘Ann.,' ii. 47). There are numerous other passages in this ing to that mountain-system : in general he follows the description of work in which he speaks of contemporary historical events, but Cæsar, and he also used Artemidorus and Polybius, and probably the perhaps none which can with certainty be referred to a later date than work of Aristotle on Political Constitutions, for his account of Massilia the great earthquake. In a passage of the fourth book (p. 206) he (Marseille): his description of Britain is exceedingly meagre; in treating says that it was then the thirty-third year since the Norici had been of Thule he gives some account of Pytheas, but rejects his authority. reduced to obedience by Tiberius and Drušus, which took place about The fifth and six books contain the description of Italy, Sicily, and B.C. 15; according to which Strabo was writing his fourth book in the the adjoining islands: he had probably seen a large part of these year A.D. 18.

countries himself; yet he makes great use of Polybius, Posidonius, Strabo’s ‘Geography' is mentioned by few ancient writers: he is Ephorus, Eratosthenes, and many other writers : in treating of Corsica cited by Marcianus of Heraclea, Athenæus, and Harpocration (mevkás, and Sardinia, he quotes the Chorographus,' without saying who is Méxasov); but Pliny, who might frequently have cited him in the intended by the term : it has been suggested that the word has geographical part of his work, never mentions his name; nor does it reference not to any particular individual, but to the results of the occur in Pausanias. He is mentioned by Josephus and by Plutarch, commission under the direction of Agrippa which made a survey of not as a geographer, but as an historical writer.

the empire: it has also been conjectured that Agrippa himself is meant Very different opinions have been given of Strabo's geographical by the Chorographus. In the seventh book Strabo treats of the counwork. That he was deficient in mathematical knowledge is evident, tries on the Danube, and the parts included between the Danube, the and his accuracy in many cases is at least doubtful. To form a proper Adriatic, and the Black Sea : the parts which treat of Macedonia and judgment of him, we must ascertain wbat he proposed his work to be, Thrace are lost, and in their place we have a scanty epitome. Strabo's which may be collected from various passages. His work was to be authorities for this part of his work seem to have been very defective. practical, that is, adapted to the use of persons of a certain amount of The eighth, ninth, and tenth books contain his description of Greece education, and particularly personages engaged in administration. and the Islands, in which he makes great use of Homer: Ephorus, He says that a man who reads his work ought not to be so ignorant Polybius, Posidonius, Hipparchus, Artemidorus, and Timosthenes, are as never to have seen a sphere or the circles marked on it;" and he also his authorities, in addition to many other writers. With the goes on to say, that a man who is ignorant of these and other like eleventh book Strabo begins his description of Asia, as to the extent matters, which he has enumerated, and which belong to the elementary and dimensions of which his notions are very inaccurate. He divides parts of knowledge, cannot understand his work. “His work,” he it into two main portions, determined by the range of Taurus. The says, “is, in a word, for universal use, political and profitable to all, western portion comprises the countries between the Tanais, Palus just as history is” (p. 12, 13); and “as he had written an historical Mæotis, the Black and the Caspian Seas; the countries east of the work (nouvhuata iotopiné), useful, as he supposed, both for ethical Caspian, bordering on India; and Media, Armenia, and Cappadocia, to and political philosophy, he determined to add to it a geographical the Halys: these are described in the eleventh book. In the twelfth work, which was of a like kind, and addressed to the same class of and following books be treats of Asia west of the Halys and the men, and chiefly to those in power; and, as in the former work, only adjoining islands. His authorities for the eleventh book are, among what related to distinguished men and to distinguished lives was others, Artemidorus; the historians of the Mithridatic wars; Metrorecorded, and things trivial and mean were omitted ; go in his geogra- dorus of Scepsis ; and Patrocles, the admiral of Seleucus and Antiochus, phical work he should dwell only on things which were of note and of for the account of the Oxus and Jaxartes. The twelfth book contains importance, and things in which there was something useful for the description of Cappadocia, Pontus, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Galatia, example, and worth recording, and agreeable." From this it appears Lycaonia, Isauria, Pisidia, Mysia, and Phrygia, a great part of which is that Strabo neither designed a mathematical treatise, nor an enumera- founded on his own personal knowledge. The thirteenth and fourteenth tion of astronomical positions, nor a treatise on the physical character books conclude the description of Asia west of the Halys; and compreof countries. His design was to write something which should give hend also the islands of Lesbos, Samos, Chios, Rhodes, and Cyprus. an educated man a general notion of the earth's surface, its political His description of the Troad, in the thirteenth book, is mainly divisions, the chief peculiarities of each, and so much of its history as founded on Homer; but he also uses Eudoxus, Charon, Scylax, and would enliven and explain his geographical description.

Ephorus. A great number of other writers were also used for the Accordingly Strabo produced a work which contains a great mass of description of the several countries and places included in these two useful information, but is not strictly a geographical work, and though books. In the fifteenth book he passes to the description of the other systematic according to his notion of system, it does not deserve the portion of Asia, which is determined by the Taurus ; and he first name of a system of geography. Though he resided a long time at treats of the southern parts of the continent. In his description of Alexandria, he derived little advantage from the labours of the geo India he chiefly follows Eratosthenes and the historians of Alexander, graphers and astronomers of that school for the correction of positions particularly Patrocles and Aristobulus. His notion of the form of and fixing the bearings of places with respect to one another, or for India was entirely false, and he knew nothing of the great southern determining the general form of the regions which he describes. His peninsula ; but he speaks at some length of the customs and institutaste indeed was for other studies than those which belong to the tions of the people. After India he describes the Persian empire, geographer.

comprehending under the general name of Ariana (Iran) the country The first two books of Strabo contain his general geography. In bounded on the east by the Indus, and on the west by a line drawn the first book he treats of the advantages of the study of geography, from the Caspian Gates to the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Nearchus and discusses the geographical knowledge of Homer, which he rates and Onesicritus are his authorities for the description of the coast : highly. He then mentions the old geographers, as Hecatæus, Demo- for other parts he uses Aristobulus, Eratosthenes, and Polyclitus. critus, Eudoxus of Cnidos, and Ephorus of Cumæ; and the more The sixteenth book contains the remainder of Asia : his authorities recent geographers, Eratosthenes, Hipparchus, Polybius, and Posi. are generally the same as for the southern and eastern parts of Asia, donius. He passes a critical judgment on the first two books of with the addition of his own observations in Syria. The seventeenth Eratosthenes, which leads him to various discussions, and to observa- book contains the description of Libya (Africa), and concludes with a tions on the changes which the earth's surface has undergone. In the brief sketch of the division of the Roman empire into provinces : second book he extends his criticism to the third book of Eratos. Eratosthenes is his principal authority, but he also uses Agatharchides thenes, and to the three books of Hipparchus. He also discusses the and Herodotus. merits of Posidonius and Polybius. Strabo has thus preserved many The text of Strabo is often corrupt, and there are many defective passages of the Greek geographical writers; but the author's judgment passages. There is extant an epitome, or Chrestomathia, of the whole is often prejudiced and inaccurate. He severely criticises Hipparchus, work, which is referred to the 10th century A.D., which is sometimes and points out many of his errors, particularly as to the latitude of useful in correcting the text. There are also extant various other places. The latter part of the second book treats of the preliminary extracts from the geography of Strabo. The historical work (únouvhuata knowledge which the geographer requires. Strabo was acquainted in topiké) of Strabo, which he mentions in a passage already quoted, is with the fact of the spherical figure of the earth ; and he determines lost: it was a continuation of Polybius, and extended at least to the the boundaries of the habitable part of it. The world is divided by death of Julius Cæsar. the equinoctial circle into the northern and the southern hemispheres. Strabo first appeared in a Latin version in 1472. The first edition The babitable portion is bounded on the north by a parallel of latitude of the Greek text was printed by Aldus, at Venice, folio, in 1516. The which passes through lerne (Ireland), and on the south by the parallel edition of Isaac Casaubon, Geneva, folio, 1587, contains the translation which passes through the Cinnamon country. The parts to the north of Xylander: this edition was reprinted after Casaubon's death, at of the first parallel are not habitable on account of cold, and those to Paris, folio, 1620, with his last corrections. Siebenkees undertook a the south of the second parallel are uninhabited owing to excessive new critical edition, for which purpose he collated several manuscripts: heat. He follows Eratosthenes in his measurements, and compares he only lived to complete the first volume, which contains the first six them with those of Hipparchus and Polybius. The habitable world books: this edition was finished by Tzschucke, and was published at (olkovuévn) is surrounded by water, and the Caspian Sea is a gulf of Leipzig, 6 vols. 8vo, 1796-1811. The best text of Strabo at the date the Northern Ocean, a mistake which he might have corrected by the of its publication was that by Koray, Paris, 4 vols. 8vo, 1815-19, aid of Herodotus. The length of the babitable world is about double which has an index, but no translation; but a much superior edition its breadth.

is that by G. Kramer, 3 vols. 8vo, Berlin, 1847-52. The text of The third book contains the description of the Spanish Peninsula Strabo edited by A. Meineke in 3 vols. 12mo, is included in Teubner's and the Balearic Islands; his principal authorities are Artemidorus, cheap series known as the 'Leipzig Classics ; also, Greek and Latin, Posidonius, and Polybius. The fourth treats of Gallia, Britain, the in Didot's Paris Classics, under the care of Ć. Müller and F. Dübner, BIOG. DIV, VOL. V


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but of this we believe only the first volume is yet published. The was not handsome, but remarkable for the symmetry of his form, for "Chrestomathia' is printed in Hudson's 'Minor Geographers, and in his wit and polished manners, and these, added to bis exquisite style the editions of Almeloveen, and of Falconer. An English translation of singing, made his company desirable in the highest circles. At by Mr. H. C. Hamilton, forms three volumes of Bohn's 'Classical Venice he was engaged by a nobleman to instruct a young lady of high Library. There is a French translation of Strabo in 5 vols. 8vo (1805. birth, named Hortensia, who, notwithstanding her family rank, sub1819), by La Porte du Theil, Koray, and Gossellin; the sixteenth and mitted to live with the noble Venetian in criminal intimacy. After a seventeenth books are by Letronne. Strabo was translated into Italian time the fascinating qualities and accomplishments of her teacher by Ambrosoli, Milan, 4 vols. 8vo and 4to. The valuable German trans. raised a new flame in her bosom. The passion was mutual, the lovers lation of Groskurd, in 3 vols. 8vo (1831-34), is founded on a corrected were married and fled to Rome, whither they were pursued by two text, and is accompanied with critical notes and explanations.

assassins, engaged by the Venetian to punish the inconstancy of his A full account of the editions, translations, and various works in mistress and avenge the injury his pride had sustained. These found illustration of Strabo is contained in Hoffmann's 'Lexicon Biblio- the couple in the church of San Giovanni Laterano, and they detergraphicum.'

mined to carry their design into execution as the fugitives retired, in STRADA, FAMIA'NO, born at Rome in 1572, entered the order of a dark evening, at the conclusion of the sacred service. But while the Jesuits, and became professor of rhetoric in the Gregorian college waiting the favourable moment, they heard the musician sing, and at Rome, where he spent the greater part of bis life, and where he died were so overcome by the charms of his voice and strains, that, conin 1649. He wrote · Prolusiones,' or Latin essays, upon rhetoric and fessing to him what had been their object, they declared their deterliterature, which were admired at the time. In these essays the author mination to abandon it. The intended victims immediately retired to comments upon several of the Roman classical writers, and be intro. Turin. There they were pursued by two other bired murderers, and duces his own imitations of their style. He speaks very unfavourably though taken under the protection of the Duchess of Savoy, and lodged of Tacitus, whom he accuses of malignity, impiety, and want of in her palace, Stradella received three stabs in his breast, and the veracity, though he praises his style. But the work for which Strada assassins found a sanctuary in the hotel of the Freuch ambassador, is remembered, is entitled 'De Bello Belgico ab Excessu Caroli V. ad who refused to surrender them. The wounds, though most dangerous, Annum 1590,' being a history of the revolt and war of the Netherlands did not prove mortal; and as a year elapsed after the recovery of the against Spain, which he wrote in Latin about the same time as his sufferer, and no fresh attempt on his life was made, he considered contemporary Bentivoglio wrote the history of the same war in Italian. himself secure for the future. But the resentful Venetian only awaited Strada brought his narrative down to the year 1590, and the work was a more certain opportunity for gratifying his unquenchable revenge. continued by two other Jesuits (fathers Dondini and Galluzzi), who Stradella accepted an engagement at Genoa, to compose an opera, wrote the sequel as far as the year 1609: their compositions however wbither he went with his wife. Their enemy, informed of this moveare very inferior to Strada's in style. It appears that Strada undertook ment, followed them by the agents of his unrelenting revenge, who, his work at the desire of the Farnese family, one of whose members, rushing into their chamber, stabbed both of them to the heart. This Alessandro Farnese, duke of Parma, became illustrious in the wars of event Walther, in his 'Lexicon,' fixes in the year 1670; but Dr. Burney Flanders, as commander of the Spanish armies. The history of Strada shows that it must have occurred some years later. is not without merit, though it can hardly be expected to be quite STRAFFORD, THOMAS WENTWORTH, EARL OF, was born impartial. His rival historian, Cardinal Bentivoglio, was also biassed in Chancery-lane, London, on the 13th of April 1593. He was the in favour of Catholic Spain against the Protestant Netherlanders, yet eldest son of Sir William Wentworth, of Wentworth Woodhouse, in he wrote with considerable freedom, and the work of the cardinal is the county of York, where his family are said to have been settled generally preferred to that of the Jesuit, but this preference may be since the time of the Conquest. His family was one of the most partly attributed to the circumstance that Strada's work is written in opulent as well as ancient of the class known in England under the a dead language.

name of gentry, and had frequently intermarried with

the higher arisSTRADA, or STRADA’NUS, JOHN, or STRADANO, GIOVANNI, tocracy. The estate which Wentworth inherited from his father was as he is called by Italian writers, was born in the year 1536, of an worth 60001. a year, a very large sum at that time, probably equal to illustrious family, at Bruges, where he studied the art of painting. more than three times the amount in the present day. (Štrafford's He went while very young to Italy, and soon acquired so much pro- Letters and Despatches,' vol. ii., pp. 105-6, folio, London, 1739, and ficiency and reputation as to obtain employment at Florence in the Dr. Knowler's Dedication prefixed to them.) He received part of his palace of the duke, Cosmo I., and in those of several of the nobility. education at St. John's College, Cambridge. In 1611 he married the From Florence he went to Rome, where he devoted himself with the Lady Margaret Clifford, the eldest daughter of Francis, earl of Cum. greatest ardour to the study of the antique and the works of Raffaelle berland. The accuracy of this date, as that of his first marriage, and Michel Angelo. By this means he so much improved his taste, given by his friend Sir George Radcliffe, appears to be established by knowledge of composition, and correctness of design, that he was a letter dated the 11th of January 1611, from Sir Peter Frechevile to ranked among the most eminent artists of his time; and before he left his father Sir William Wentworth ; although the compilers of his Rome he was employed in the pope's palace, in conjunction with Daniel Life in the ‘Biographia Britannica' have chosen, in direct opposition da Volterra and Francesco Salviati. At Naples and other cities of to the statement of Radcliffe, the old and intimate friend of WentItaly to which he was invited, he executed many considerable works in worth, to place his marriage after his return from the Continent, fresco and in oil ; but he fixed his residence in Florence, in which city towards the end of 1612 (by the old mode of reckoning, according to there are still some fine performances of his; the most celebrated is which the legal year began on the 25th of March, but by the new

The Crucifixion;' which is a grand composition, with numerous figures about the beginning of 1613), instead of in 1611, before his going larger than life, and near the cross are the Virgin, St. John, and Mary abroad. The same letter also shows that he was from his early years Magdalen.

of studious and regular habits. He appears to have taken almost as Though he chiefly painted subjects from sacred history, he was fond much pains as Cicero recommends for the education of an orator. Sir of painting animals, hunting parties, and sometimes battles, all of George Radeliffe informs us that the excellence possessed by him in which he executed in a noble style, and with great spirit. It is not speaking and writing he attained "first by reading well-penned authors possible to reconcile the statements of authors respecting the birth in French, English, and Latin, and observing their expressions ; and death of Strada : Sandrart and others say that he was born in secondly, by hearing of eloquent men, which he did diligently in 1536, and died in 1604, aged sixty-eight; and these, or the dates given their sermons and public speeches; thirdly, by a very great care and by Baldinucci, who says he was born in 1536, and died in 1605, are industry which he used when he was young in penning his epistles probably correct. De Piles and Resta say he was born in 1527, and and missives of what subject soever; but above all, he had a natural died in 1604, aged seventy-seven. The authors of the 'Abrégé de la quickness of wit and fancy, with great clearness of judgment, and Vie des Peintres' say that he died at the age of eighty-two; yet they much practice, without which his other helps of reading and hearing fix his birth in 1536, and his death in 1605, which would make him would not have brought him to that great perfection to which he only sixtynine years of age.

attained. I learned one rule of him," adds Sir George, “which I STRADELLA, ALESSANDRO, a composer much celebrated in think worthy to be remembered : when he met with a well-penned musical history, was born at Naples about the middle of the 17th oration or tract upon any subject or question, he framed a speech century. His works, most of which are to be found in the British / upon the same argument, inventing and disposing what seemed fit to Museum and in the library of Christchurch, Oxford, are chiefly of a | be said upon that subject before he read the book; then reading the miscellaneous kind, consisting of airs, duets, cantatas, madrigals, &c. : book, compare his own with the author, and note his own defects, and One oratorio and one opera comprise the whole of his dramatic com- the author's art and fullness; whereby he observed all that was in the positions that Dr. Burney's diligent search enabled him to discover. author more strictly, and might better judge of his own wants to The former -- San Giovanni Battista'-is highly extolled by the supply them.” (Strafford's 'Let. and Desp., vol. ii., p. 435.) musical historian, who has in his fourth volume given a duet from.it, In some of Strafford's earlier letters, particularly those to Sir George as a specimen of the whole; but in the Fitzwilliam Music' is a Calvert, principal secretary of state in the time of James I., there is, quintet from the same of a far superior order, It seems to be agreed though no marks of profound scholarship, a somewhat pedantic disthat the study of his works contributed largely in forming the taste of play of trite Latin quotations. From these however, though we may many great composers--of our own Purcell, of Clari, Steffani, A. Scar- judge so far of the extent of Strafford's scholarship, it would be latti, and Pergolesi, and this alone is sufficient to bestow on him a incorrect to estimate his abilities, for they are mostly confined to his lasting reputation.

early letters, and, among them, to his letters to courtiers. Upon his The personal history of Stradella is full of interest when fully early habits still further light is thrown by some advice which he gives narrated, but we have only space for a brief sketch of it here. He to his nephew Sir William Savile, in a letter dated "Dublin Castle,





29th September, 1633.” Advising him to “distrust himself and fortify Letters and Despatches,' one of the most reluable collections of his youth by the counsel of his more aged friends before he undertakes papers, both in a political and historical point of view, ever made anything of consequence;' he adds, "it was the course that I public. In that collection there are two letters (Strafford, 'Let. and governed myself by after my father's death, with great advantage to Desp.,' vol. i., pp. 34, 35), to Sir Richard Weston, chancellor of the myself and 'affairs, and yet my breeding abroad had shown me more exchequer, containing very unequivocal overtures, the non-acceptance of the world than yours hath done; and I had natural reason like of which at the time would seem to have produced the indignant outother men, only I confess I did in all things distrust myself, wherein break of patriotic eloquence above alluded to. you shall do, as I said, extremely well if you do so too." (* Let. and In June 1628, the parliament ended. In July Sir Thomas WentDesp.,' vol. i., p. 169.)

worth, having been reconciled to Buckingham, was created Baron The letter from which the above quotation is made contains 80 Wentworth. The death of Buckingham soon after removed the only much good advice, so well and so weightily expressed, that it may obstacle to higher honours. In Michaelmas term he was made bear a comparison with Burleigh's celebrated * Advice to his Son:' the Viscount Wentworth, Lord President of the North, and a privy resemblance in some passages is striking. With respect to the greater councillor. part of this advice, particularly what regards economy and regularity The establishment of the Council of the North originated in the in the management of his private affairs, temperance in drinking, and frequent northern rebellions which followed Henry VIII.'s suppression abstinence from gaming, it was the rule by which Wentworth shaped of the lesser monasteries, and extended over the counties of York, his own conduct, and to which, according to Radcliffe, he strictly Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Durham. The adhered. The part of the advice to which he himself least adhered commission, though apparently only one of oyer and terminer, conwas that recommending calmness and courtesy of demeanour; for tained a clause authorising the commissioners to hear all causes real even bis most intimate friend Sir George Radcliffe admits that " he and personal, when either of the parties was poor, and decide according was naturally exceedingly cholerick,” and the actions of his life show to sound discretion. This clause was declared by all the judges to be that in that particular he was never able thoroughly to subdue illegal. James issued a new commission, by which the commissioners nature.

were not ordered to inquire "per sacramentum bonorum et legalium In the same year in which he was married, Wentworth went into hominum," or to be controlled by forms of laws but were merely France, having previously been knighted. He was accompanied by referred to certain secret instructions which were sent down to the the Rev. Charles Greenwood, fellow of University College, Oxford, as council. Against this however the judges had the courage to protest, his “governor,' or travelling tutor, for whom he entertained the greatest and to issue prohibitions on demand to the president and council; respect and regard to the end of his life. In February 161$, he and the instructions were ordered to be enrolled, that the people might returned to England. He was returned and sat for the county of have some chance of knowing them. York in the parliament which began April 5th, 1614. Radcliffe's Dr. Knowler, the editor of the 'Strafford Papers,' in the adulatory account as to this date, though rejected by the writers in the dedication of them to his patron, the grandson of the Earl of Strafford, * Biographia Britannica,' and Mr. MacDiarmid, is confirmed by Browne gravely observes that “Sir Thomas Wentworth, who was a true friend Willis's Notitia Parliamentaria,' vol. iii., p. 169: “Co. Ebor. Jo. to episcopal government in the church, and to a limited monarchy in Saville, kt., Thomag Wentworth, kt. and bart., anno 12 Jac. I., began the state, could have no reason, when the Petition of Right was April 5, 1614, and continued till June 7, and was then dissolved.” | granted, to refuse to bear his share of toil and pains in the service of During this short parliament, which continued only two months, the public, or to withstand the offer of those honours his majesty Wentworth does not appear to have spoken. Mr. Forster, his latest was graciously pleased to make him, especially when it gave him an biographer, says that he has examined the Journals, and finds no trace opportunity of setting an example of a wise and just and steady of Wentworth's speaking on either side in the great struggle that was administration." then going on. ("Life of Strafford,' in the Cabinet Cyclopædia;' Wentworth's acceptance of the office of president of this council *Lives of Eminent British Statesmen,' vol. ii., p. 197.)

was a flagrant violation of the fundamental principle of the Petition In 1615 Wentworth was appointed to the office of custos rotulorum of Right. His career in the office too did not belie the promise of its for the west riding of the county of York, in the room of Sir John acceptance. One of his first acts was to declare that he would lay Savile; an office of which Savile attempted to deprive him about two any man by the heels who ventured to sue out a prohibition in the years after, through the influence of the favourite, the Duke of Buck- courts at Westminster. (Rushworth, vol. ii. p. 159.) And one of the ingham, but without success, though he succeeded afterwards. The judges (Verpon), who had the courage to resist these encroachments result was a feud between Wentworth and the Saviles, the father and on the ancient laws of the land, Wentworth tried hard to have reson, Sir John Savile the younger, afterwards Lord Savile. In 1621 moved from bis office. (Strafford, “Let. and Desp.,' vol. i. pp. 129, Wentworth was again returned to parliament for the county of York; 130.) Indeed, like his friend and coadjutor Laud, Wentworth never let and this time he brought in Sir George Calvert, one of the secretaries slip an opportunity of expressing his bitter dislike of the interference of state, along with him. In Michaelmas term he removed his of the judges and common lawyers with his scheme of governing, not family from Wentworth Woodhouse to London. He took up his by the laws of England, but according to "sound discretion." abode in Austin Friars, where in 1622 he had a "great fever.” When In January 1631, Wentworth was made lord deputy of Ireland. he began to recover, he removed, about July, to Bow, where shortly The principle on which he set about governing there was in substance after his wife the Lady Margaret died. On the 24th of February the same as that of his government in the presidency of York. 1624, he married the Lady Arabella Hollis, a younger daughter of the “These lawyers,he writes to the lord marshal, “ would monopolise Earl of Clare, a lady, observes Radcliffe," exceeding comely and beauti- to themselves all judicature, as if no honour or justice could be rightly iful, and yet much more lovely in the endowments of her mind.” administered but under one of their bencher's gowns." (Strafford,

Hitherto, though Wentworth had not taken a very prominent part Let. and Desp.,' vol. I, p. 223.). And he adds, a line or two after, in the proceedings of parliament, still he was considered to have acted “Therefore if your lordship’s judgment approve of my reasons, I with the party that opposed the court, as appears from the fact of his beseech you assist me therein, or rather the king's service, and I shall being, on the eve of the calling together of a new parliament, among be answerable with my head.” It is remarkable how frequently he the number of those whom Buckingham attempted to disable from alludes to this last as the test of the soundness of the policy of his serving, by having them pricked sheriffs of their respective counties. measures. They were in the end so tested, and being found wanting, In November 1625 Wentworth was made sheriff of Yorkshire. A he was taken at his word; he was called upon to pay, and paid the passage from one of his letters at this time shows that he was never forfeit. One of the principal means by which Wentworth sought inclined to go the lengths that some others did in resistance to the to squeeze money out of the people of Ireland was by holding a royal prerogative. (“Let. and Desp.,' vol. i, p. 33.)

parliament. In May 1627 he was committed a prisoner to the Marshalsea by the Wentworth's political economy was not very sound, yet he saw far lords of the council for refusing the royal loan; and about six weeks enough to discover that to enrich the king, the way was, to begin by after, his imprisonment was exchanged for confinement at the town of enriching the people. “For this is a ground,” he says, " I take with Dartford in Kent, from which place he was not to go above two miles. me, that to serve your majesty completely well in Ireland we must About Christmas he was released, and shortly after the third parlia- not only endeavour to enrich them, but make sure still to hold them ment of Charles began, in which Wentworth served as knight for dependent upon the crown, and not able to subsist without us." Yorkshire. Wentworth bad now resolved to make the court party (Strafford's 'Let. and Desp.,' vol. i. p. 93.) But the plan he proposed more aware of the extent of his talents than they yet appeared to be. does not seem certainly very well adapted for enriching the people. On the discussion of the general question of grievances, he spoke “Which will be effected,” he proceeds, " by wholly laying aside the with an ability and spirit which proved to them that he might turn manufacture of wools into cloth or stuff there, and by furnishing them out such an enemy, that he was worth having as a friend. It has from this kingdom; and then making your majesty sole merchant of been usual to speak of Wentworth as an apostate; but he never all salts on that side ; for thus shall they not only have their clothing, appears to have been at heart on the popular, or rather the parlia- the improvement of all their native commodities (which are principally mentary side. Jis whole conduct both before and after he became preserved by salt), and their viètual itself from hence (strong ties and the king's minister shows that he considered the general movement in enforcements upon their allegiance and obedience to your majesty); modern Europe to be not towards democracy, but towards the establish- but a means found, I trust, much to advance your majesty's revenue ment of absolute monarchy. The several springs of Wentworth’s con- upon salt, and to improve your customs. The wools there grown, and duct are now fully laid bare in a manner that they could hardly be to the cloths there worn, thus paying double duties to your crown in both his contemporaries, and in a manner that few men's have ever been to kingdoms; and the salt outward here, both inward and outward there." after-ages, by the publication of the two large folio volumes of his He thus sums up the advantages of the measures proposed :—“Holding





them from the manufacture of wool (which, unless otherwise directed, He had studied for a considerable time, when he joined the forces of I shall by all means discourage), and then enforcing them to fetch the Pretender, and was appointed a lieutenant in the Life Guards, a their clothing from thence, and to take their salt from the king (being step he was induced to take with a view of obtaining the hand of that which preserves and gives value to all their native staple commo- Miss Isabella Lumisden, who consented to marry him "on condition dities), how can they depart from us without pakedness and beggary ? that he should fight for the prince," and who did marry him in 1747. Which in itself is so weighty a consideration, as a small profit should After the battle of Culloden he sought refuge in the Highlands, where not bear it down.” (“Let. and Desp.,' vol. i. p. 193.)

he suffered the severest privations. Subsequently he ventured to In one particular he did benefit Ireland. At his own risk he im. Edinburgh, where he subsisted upon the produce of a sale of his ported and sowed a quantity of superior flax-seed. The first crop drawings of the chiefs of the rebellion, which he privately disposed of having succeeded, he next year laid out 10001, on the undertaking, set at a guinea each. He had also made a half-length portrait of the up a number of looms, procuring workmen from France and Flanders, Pretender, from which he subsequently made an engraving—the first and sent a ship to Spain freighted with linen at his own risk. Thus he executed on his own account. After his marriage he went abroad, began the linen manufacture of Ireland, which in some measure verified and at Rouen obtained an honorary prize for desigo, when he proWentworth's prediction that it would greatly benefit that country. ceeded to Paris, where he studied engraving under the celebrated Le (Strafford, 'Let. and Desp.,' vol. i. p. 473.)

Bas, from whom he learned the use of the dry point, of which he Wentworth appears to have been of very infirm health, which, made such successful use in his own plates ; he also worked for a time taken with the general course of his education and his position in with Descamps. In 1751 Strange settled in London, and soon estalsociety, will in part account for the acerbity and irritability of temper, lished a high reputation as an historical engraver, of which class he is and the impatience of any opposition to his will, which throughout considered to be the first in the English school. his career involved him in so many personal quarrels. The number of In 1760 he again went abroad, and executed plates after pictures powerful personal enemies which Wentworth thus arrayed against by many of the greatest of the old masters, and was made a member himself appears to us to be a proof of the want of real political talent of the academies of Rome, Florence, Bologna, Parma, and Paris. On of a high order. A really wise politician, such as Oliver Cromwell for his return to England, he was received with every mark of distinction, example, does not raise up such a host of powerful personal enemies. and in January 1787 was knighted, though he complains incessantly Laud gives a good hint about this in one of his letters. “And yet, of suffering persecution on account of his supposed Jacobite principles

. my lord,” he says, "if you could find a way to do all these great He died on the 5th of July 1792. He left a widow, three sons, and services and decline these storms, I think it would be excellent well one daughter, amply provided for by the fruits of his industry and thought on." (Strafford, 'Let. and Desp.,' vol. i. p. 497.)

ability. His gains were, it is only right to notice, considerably In 1639 Charles raised Wentworth to the dignity of an earl, which increased by dealing in pictures, in which his shrewdness as well as he had in vain solicited formerly. He was created Earl of Strafford his knowledge appear to have stood him in good stead. Strange is and Baron of Raby, and invested with the title of lord-lieutenant, or the only Englishman whose portrait is introduced in the painting in lieutenant.general of Ireland—a title which had not been borne since the Vatican of The Progress of Engraving.'. Force, vigour, clearness

, the time of Essex.

and precision are the prevailing characteristics of his style, por is he In 1640 the Earl of Northumberland being attacked by severe less noted for the careful distinction which he makes in his plates illness, the king appointed Strafford in his place, to the command of between the texture of the various materials represented. He was the the army against the Scots. He does not appear to have performed author of an unpublished treatise entitled 'The History of the Proanything here to make good either his own high pretensions or the gress of Engraving,' to wbich he added impressions of his principal character for valour given him by some writers. Of his impeachment plates and a portrait of himself. He also commenced an Autobioat the opening of the Long Parliament, Clarendon gives the following graphy, which is printed in Mr. Dennistoun's very amusing work account :-"It was about three of the clock in the afternoon, when referred to below. The following is a list of Strange's most importthe Earl of Strafford (being infirm and not well disposed in health, ant works :-'St, Cecilia,' after Raffaelle ; the Virgin and Infant and so not having stirred out of his house that morning), hearing that Christ,' with Mary Magdalen, St. Jerome, and two Angels, after both houses still sate, thought fit to go thither. It was believed by Correggio; Mary Magdalen,' The Death of Cleopatra,' Fortune some (upon what ground was never clear enough) that he made that flying over a Globe,' 'Venus attended by the Graces,' and 'Joseph and haste there to accuse the Lord Say, and some others, of having induced Potiphar's Wife,' after Guido; Christ appearing to the Virgin after the Scots to invade the kingdom; but he was scarce entered into the his Resurrection,' • Abraham expelling Hagar,' Esther and Ahasuerua,' house of peers, when the message from the House of Commons was and the Death of Dido,' after Guercino ; 'Venus and Adonis,'' Venus called in, and when Mr. Pym at the bar, and in the name of all the reclining,' and · Danäe,' after Titian ; 'Romulus and Remus,' and Commons of England, impeached Thomas, earl of Strafford (with the Cæsar repudiating Pompeia,' after Pietro da Cortona; 'Sappho con: addition of all his other titles), of high treason."

secrating her Lyre,' after Carlo Dolci; the ‘Martyrdom of St. Agnes, In the article Prm we have shortly adverted to the trial of the Earl after Domenichino; Belisarius,' after Salvator Rosa ; "The Virgin of Strafford for bigh treason. To the remarks made there we may with St. Catherine and Angels contemplating the Infant Jesus' after add that, though it was not to be supposed or expected that the Carlo Maratti; “The Choice of Hercules,' after Nicolas Poussin ; and Statute of Treasons of Edward III. (25 Edward III., st. 5, c. 2), being the 'Return from Market,' after Philip Wouvermans.

Amongst his made to protect the king, not the subject, would provide specially for portrait engravings may be particularly mentioned the Children of the punishment of such attempts as those of Strafford; it does Charles I., and Queen Henrietta Maria, with the Prince of Wales, nevertheless appear that Strafford was punishable for having become the and Duke of York, after Vandyke. instrument for administering the government of the Council of the (Memoirs of Sir Robert Strange, Knight, Engraver ; and of his North, carried on in direct violation of the Petition of Right, which Brother-in-law, Andrew Lumisden, Private Secretary to the Stuart during the time of Strafford's being president of that council was the Princes. By James Dennistoun of Dennistoun. 2 vols. 8vo, 1855.) law of the land. However the Commons changed their course and STRANGFORD, PERCY CLINTON SYDNEY SMYTHE, SIXTH introduced a bill of attainder, which was passed on the 21st of April, VISCOUNT, was born in 1780, and graduated in 1800 at Trinity in the Commons, and soon after in the Lords. The king with tears in College, Dublin, obtaining the gold medal and other honorary dishis eyes and other demonstrations of weakness characteristic of him tinctions. He entered the diplomatic service early. Before he was of signed a commission for giving the royal assent to the bill, and age he had gained a high reputation by his contributions to the then made some feeble and unavailing efforts to save the life of his · Poetic Register.' In 1801 he succeeded to his father's Irish peerage, obnoxious minister, "The resort to the bill of attainder,” observes and became secretary of legatiou at Lisbon. Here his love of lanMr. Forster (“Life of Strafford,' p. 404), "arose from no failure of the guage and poetry led him to master the Portuguese language, and to impeachment, as has been frequently alleged, but because in the translate the poems of Camoens, to which he prefixed the life of that course of that impeachment circumstances arose which suggested to poet. This translation is highly praised by both Lord Byron and the great leader of the popular cause the greater safety of fixing this Thomas Moore, and attained considerable popularity, several editions case upon wider grounds. Without stretching to the slightest extent having been called for. He became afterwards British envoy at the boundaries of any statute, they thought it better at once to bring Lisbon, and accompanied the court and royal family of Portugal to Strafford's treason to the condemnation of the sources of all law." Brazil.' In 1817 he became ambassador at Stockholm, from whence he

Strafford was beheaded on Tower Hill on the 12th of May 1641. was transferred in 1820 to the Sublime Porte, and to St. Petersburg In his walk from the Tower to the place of execution his step and in 1825. In 1828 he was sent on a special mission to the Brazils. He manner are described by Rushworth as being those of “a general was created a D.C.L. of Oxford in 1834, at the installation of the marching at the head of an army, to breathe victory, rather than Duke of Wellington, with whom he had been associated as co-pleni

. those of a condemned man, to undergo the sentence of death." potentiary at the Congress of Verona. He was made in 1825 a Knight Within a few weeks after his death, the parliament mitigated the Grand Cross of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order, and raised to the penalties of their sentence to his children. In the succeeding reign, peerage of England as Lord Penshurst. Lord Strangford was an the attainder was reversed, and his son was restored to the earldom. ardent lover and patron of literatura and the fine arts, an active

STRANGE, SIR BOBERT, a descendant of the family of Strange member and vice-president of the Society of Antiquaries, and a of Balcasky, in the county of Fife, was born at Pomona, one of the frequent contributor, under the initials of P. C. S. S., to the GentleOrkney Isles, on the 14th of July 1721. After successively adopting man's Magazine' and 'Notes and Queries.'

He was collecting and abandoning the study of the law and the pursuit of a sea-faring materials for the biography of his ancestor Endymion Porter, to life, he was apprenticed to an engraver, Mr. Cooper of Edinburgh, whom Milton has addressed a sonnet, when he was carried off by & who had a considerable establishment and a school for apprentices. short illness May 29, 1855.

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* STRATFORD DE REDCLIFFE, STRATFORD CANNING, sistent. Considering the integrity of the Ottoman power to be FIRST VISCOUNT, is the fourth son of Stratford Canning, Esq., essential to the permanent relations of Europe; having learned also merchant of London, and first cousin to the late Right Hon. George to respect that power, in regard of the strenuous efforts towards Canning, and of the first Lord Garvagh, and is descended from a reform and regeneration which it has been recently making, with younger branch of the ancient family of Canning of Foxcote, in the more or less success

, he has given a firm support to the independent county of Warwick. He was born in London January 6th, 1788, policy of the Porte, against the attacks and machinations of its and received bis early education on the foundation at Etou, where avowed enemy, Russia. Shrewd to detect the crooked schemes of he rose to the captaincy of the school. He was admitted a scholar that government, he has met them when discovered with a bold and of King's College, Cambridge, in 1806, but quitted the university in resolute front. In the dispute between the Porte and the Court of the following year, without having taken a degree, on being appointed Russia, Lord Stratford de Redcliffe gave to the Porte the full extent a précis writer in the Foreign Office under his cousin; and in the same of the moral support at his command, without in any way comproyear he accompanied Mr. Merry as secretary on bis embassy to Den- mising his government beyond the point to which bis instructions mark and Sweden. In 1808 he was despatched as secretary, to Mr. warranted him. When, in May 1854, the Foreign Secretary of the (afterwards Sir Robert) Adair's special mission to the Dardanelles, for Ports consulted bim, in common with the representatives of France the purpose of negociating terms of peace between this country and and Austria, in reference to the ultimatum of Prince Menzikoff, the the Porte, which had been forcibly interrupted in 1807; an object reply was one leaving the Ottoman government free to adopt' and which was eventually accomplished by the treaty signed January 5, declare its own line of policy; but that line of policy being once 1809. These negociations were secretly opposed by both France and adopted, and announced to the British ambassador, the latter did not Russia ; but the Sultan Mahommed remained firm to the interests of hesitate to express his approval of it. and to promise the friendly Britain. In the following April Mr. Canning was made secretary of offices of his government. Independently of the more important legation at the Porte, and on the recall of Mr. Adair in 1810 was political questions bearing upoa European relations, to which Lord accredited minister plenipotentiary at that court. This important Stratford has never been blind, and of the part which he has taken in post he retained till 1812, when he returned to England and took the transactions connected therewith, too numerous for us to mention, degree of M.A. by royal letters at King's College, Cambridge. In there have been very many occasions on which he has been the means 1814 he was appointed envoy to Switzerland, and assisted in the of promoting the ends of humanity, religious freedom, and intellectual formation of the Treaty of Alliance between the nineteen cantons, progress. Owing to his successful representations, the infliction of which eventually became the basis of their federal compact. In 1820 torture was prohibited in the Turkish dominions; to him is due the having been sworn a member of bis majesty's Privy Council

, he was abolition of the penalty of death, formerly inflicted upon renegadesaccredited as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the that is, Christians who, having embraced the Mohammedan belief, United States, and remained at Washington for three years; during reverted to Christianity; also the appointment of the mixed courts which time he had an opportunity of obtaining correct knowledge of the for the trial of civil and criminal causes in which Europeans are details of the various questions which had been left for future adjust- concerned, and the reception therein of the testimony of Christians ment between the two governments by the treaty of Ghent. At the upon an equal footing with that of Mohammedans; he likewise proend of 1824, Mr. Stratford Canning was sent to St. Petersburg on a cured, in 1845, a firman for the establishment of the first Protestant special mission, having reference to the Greek troubles, and another chapel in the British Consulate at Jerusalem; and in 1855 another also to the Emperor of Austria. After accomplishing the duties of firman, establishing the religious and political freedom of all descripthese missions he proceeded to Constantinople, having been appointed tiods of Protestants throughout the Turkish empire-for which he ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to that court on the has received memorials of thanks from the representatives of various 10th of October 1825. Here he lost no occasion of negociating with bodies of Protestants. On the other hand, complaints have been the sultan in favour of the Greek nation, whose heroic exertions and made of Lord Stratford's haughtiness, which has, it is affirmed, horrible sufferings had engaged alike the admiration and sympathy of occasionally been productive of most important results, and has men of all nations and of all parties ; but his appeals were unfortunately given occasion to grave censure in Parliament, and angry comments without avail. The obdurate sultan could pardon, but would not by the press. To scientific discovery Lord Stratford has always lent treat with men whom he looked upon as his slaves. Under these cir- his valuable aid. In 1845, when Mr. Layard could not find a govern. cumstances, the three powers-England, France, and Russia-deter. ment, or scientific body, or public, to second his aspirations for the mined upon concerting more effectually for terminating a condition discovery of ancient Nineveh, Lord Stratford authorised and enabled of things which had become a scandal to all Europe. In 1827 Mr. him, at his own risk and expense, to proceed upon his researches. In Canning returned to England for a time, and in the July of that year 1847, those interesting relics, the Budrum marbles-being, as sup. was signed the treaty of London, by which the three powers agreed to posed, the remains of the mausoleum erected at Halicarnassus, by tender to the Sublime Porte their mediating offices towards putting Artemisia, queen of Caria, to her husband, Mausolus—were obtained an end to the internal war and establishing the relations which ought by Lord Stratford, by firman from the Porte, and presented by him to to exist between Turkey and the people of Greece, and in event of the British Museum. Lord Stratford returned to England in 1858. such mediation being rejected, to interfere by force in the matter. Lord Stratford de Redcliffe married-1st, in 1816, Harriet, tho The reply of the Porte was a refusal, and was immediately followed daughter of Thomas Raikes, Esq., Governor of the Bank of England, by active measures of coercion. The battle of Navarino, on the policy who died in 1817; and, 2ndly, in 1825, Elizabeth Charlott., daughter of which so much discussion and debate has taken place, was fought of James Alexander, Esq., of Somerhiill, near Tunbridge, and niece in September 1827, and the allied powers resolved to take the Greek of the Earl of Caledon. nation under their protection, and consulted on the propriety and STRA'TICO, SIMONE, COUNT, was born at Zara, in Dalmatia, means of establishing it as an independent state. Mr. Canning, on the in 1730, of a family originally from Candia, studied at Padua, where part of the British government, took an active share in the inquiries he took his ductor's degree, and was made professor of medicine in and deliberations necessary towards this result. In 1829 he had con- that university when only twenty-five years of age. In 1761 he accom. ferred upon him the distinction of a Civil Knight Grand Cross of the panied to England the ambassador sent by the Venetian senate to Bath for these and former diplomatic services. He had been already congratulate George III. on his accession; and on his return to Padua olected for the borough of Old Sarum, and shortly afterwards was he succeeded the Marquis Poleni in the chair of mathematics and chosen to represent the since disfranchised constituency of Stockbridge, navigation. He wrote several works on hydraulics and hydrostatics, Hants. In October 1831 he was again despatched on a special mission and upon naval architecture and navigation. In 1801 he was appointed to the Ottoman Porte, for the purpose of treating upon and defining by the government of the Italian republic to the chair of navigation in the future boundaries of the kingdom of Greece, which were eventually the university of Pavia, and under Napoleon's kingdom of Italy he was settled according to his recommendations in 1829. The result was made inspector-general of roads, rivers, and canals, and senator of the another treaty signed at London, on May 7th 1832, between the same kingdom and knight of the iron crown. After the Restoration the three powers, and ratified by Bavaria on the 27th of the same month, Emperor of Austria gave him the cross of the order of St. Leopold. upon the basis of which Prince Otho of Bavaria accepted and ascended Count Stratico died at Milan in 1824, at the age of ninety-four. * His the throne of Greece. In the same year Sir Stratford Canning was principal works are-1, 'Raccolta di Proposizioni d'Idrostatica ed deputed upon a special mission to the courts of Madrid and Lisbou, Idraulica,' Padova, 1773; 2, Vocabolario di Marina,' 3 vols. 4to, Milan, the latter of which however he did not visit. In December 1834 hé 1813-14, a work which was wanted in the Italian language : Stratico was again elected to parliament, this time for King's Lynn, Norfolk, collected the nautical expressions used by the Venetians, Pisans, and which he continued to represent down to the month of January 1842. Genoese in the time of their maritime greatness, and added the modern In 1836 and again in 1841 the ministry of Lord Melbourne offered to him, expressions adopted from the French and English ; 3, ‘Bibliografia di though politically opposed to them, the governorship-general of Canada, Marina,' 1823; 4, ‘M. Vitruvii Pollionis Architectura cum Exercitathe acceptance of which however he declined. Towards the close of tionibus J. Poleni et Commentariis Variorum,' Udine, 1825. This is the year 1841 he was appointed a third time as ambassador at Con- an excellent edition of Vitruvius, with important illustrations and stantinople, in succession to the late Lord Ponsonby : this post he has comments by Poleni and Stratico, and was published after the latter's held under each successive ministry down to the present time (June death. Stratico was one of the most distinguished men of science in 1857). In April 1852 he was elevated to the peerage as Viscount Italy. His cabinet of models for shipbuilding, and his collection of Stratford de Redcliffe, a title which he chose to mark his paternal books relative to the art of navigation, were bequeathed by him to the descent from William Canpyoge, the “pious founder of the Church of Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and they have been placed in the library St. Marye Redclyffe," at Bristol.

of the Institute of Milan. (Maffei, Leiterutura Italiana ; Biographical The policy of Lord Stratford in Turkey has been manly and con- Notice of Stratico, in the ' Antologia' of Florence, vol. xvi.)

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