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of Protector, but with kingly and inore than kingly power. That his authority was lawful, never was pretended; he himself founded his right only in necessity: but Milton, having now tasted the honey of public employment, would not return to hunger and philosophy, but, continuing to exercise his office under a manifest usurpation, betrayed to his power that liberty which he had defended. Nothing can be more just than that rebellion should end in slavery; that he who had justified the murder of his king, for some acts which to him seemed unlawful, should now sell his services, and his flatteries, to a tyrant, of whom it was evi. dent that he could do nothing lawful.
He had now been blind for some years; but his vigor of intellect was such, that he was not disabled to discharge his office of Latin secretary, or continue his controversies. His mind was too eager to be diverted, and too strong to be subdued.
About this time his first wife died in childbed, having left him three daughters. As he probably did not much love her, he did not long continue the appearance of lamenting her; but after a short time married Catharine, the daughter of one cap, tain Woodcock of Hackney; a woman doubtless educated in opinions like his own. She died, within a year, of childbirth, or some distemper that followed it; and her husband honored her memory with a poor sonnet.
The first Reply to Milton's Defersio Populi was
published in 163l, called Apologia pro Rege & Populo Anglicano, contra Johannis Polypragmatici (alias Miltoni; defensionem destructivam Regis & Populi. Of this the author was not known; but Milton and his nephew Philips, under whose name he published an answer so much corrected by him, that it might be called his own, imputed it to Bramhal; and, knowing him no friend to regjcides, thought themselves at liberty to treat him as if they had known what they only suspected.
Next year appeared Regië Sanguinis clamor ad Colum. Of this the author was Peter du Moulin, who was afterwards prebendary of Canterbury; but Morus, or More, a French minister, having the care of its publication, was treated as the writer by Milton in his Defensio Secunda, and overwhelmed by such violence of invective, that he began to shrink under the tempest, and gave his persecutors the means of knowing the true author. Du Moulin was now in great danger: but Milton's pride operated against bis malignity; and both he and his friends were more willing that Du Moulin should escape than that he should be convicted of inistake.
In this second Defence he shews that his eloquence is not merely satirical; the rudeness of his invective is equalled by the grossness of his flattery. • Deserimur, Cromuelle, tu solus superes, ad te
summa nostrarum rerum rediit, in te solo con• sistit, insuperabili tuæ virtuti cedimus cuncii,
nemme vel obloquente, nisi qui æquales inæqualis ipse honores sibi quærit, aut digniori concessos invidet, aut non intelligit nihil esse in societate hominum magis vel Deo gratum, vel rationi consentaneum, esse in civitate nihil æquius, nihil utilius, quam potiri rerum dignissimum. • Eum te agnoscunt omnes, Cromuelle, ea tu civis maximus & * gloriosissimus, dux publici con silii, exercitum fortissimorum imperator, pater patriæ gessisti. Sic tu spontanea bonorum omnium & animitus missa voce salutaris.'
Cæsar, when he assumed the perpetual dictator ship, had not more servile or more elegant flattery. A translation may shew its servility; but its elegance is less attainable. Having exposed the unskilfulness or selfishness of the former government, • We were left,' says Milton, “to ourselves: the • whole national interest fell into your hands,
and subsists only in your abilities. To your 'virtue, overpowering and resistless, every man
gives way, except some who, without equal * qualifications, aspire to equal honors, who envy
the distinctions of merit greater than their own, or who have yet to learn, that in the coalition of human society nothing is more pleasing to God or more agreeable to reason, than that the highest
• It may be doubted whether gloriosissimus be here used with Milton's boasted purity. Res gloriosu is an illustrioris thing; but vir gloriosus is commonly a braggart, as in miles gloriosus. Dr. J.
mind should have the sovereign power. Such, • Sir, are you ly general confession; such are the
things atchieved by you, the greatest and most 'glorious of our countrymen, the director of our • public councils, the leader of unconquered ar
mies, the father of your country; for by that "title does every good man hail you, with sincere • and voluntary praise.'
Next year, having defended all that wanted defence, he found leisure to defend himself. He undertook his own vindication against More, whom he declares in his title to be justly called the author of the Regiz Sanguinis clamor. In this there is no want of vehemence or eloquence, nor does he forget his wonted wit. Morus es ? an Mo.
mus? an uterque idem est ?' He then remembers that Morus is Latin for a Mulberry-tree, and hints at the known transformation ;
-- Poma alba ferebat
Quæ post nigra tulit Morus, With this piece ended his controversies : and he from this time gave himself up to his private studies and his civil employment.
As secretary to the Protector he is supposed to have written the Declaration of the reasons for a war with Spain. His agency was considered as of great importance ; for, when a treaty with Sweden was artfully suspended, the delay was publicly imputed to Mr. Milton's indisposition i and the Swedish agent was provoked to express his wonder, that only one man in England could write Latin, and that man blind.
Being now forty-seven years old, and seeing himself disencumbered from external interruptions, he seems to have recollected his former purposes, and to have resumed three great works which he had planned for his future employment : an epic poem, the history of his country, and a dictionary of the Latin tongue.
To collect a dictionary, seems a work of all others least practicable in a state of blindness, because it depends upon perpetual and minute inspection and collation. Nor would Milton probably have begun it, after he had lost his eyes ; but, having had it always before him, he continued it, says Philips, almost to his dying day; but the papers were so discomposed and deficient, that they could not be fitted for the press. The compilers of the Latin dictionary, printed at Cambridge, had the use of those collections in three folios ; but what was their fate afterwards is not known *.
• The Cambridge Dictionary, published in 4to, 1693, is no other than a copy, with some small additions, of that of Dr. Adam Littleton in 1695, by sundry persons, of whom, though their names are concealed, there is great reason to conjecture 1241 Miltori's nephew, Edward Philips, is one; for it is expressly Duld by Wood, Fasti, vol. i, p. 260, that Milton's " Thesaurus' came to his hands; and it is asserted, in the preface thereto, that se celitors thereof had the use of three large folios in manu
ript, collected and digested into alphabetical order by Mr. John V.lion.
It has been remarked, that the additions, together with the