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that running on the summit of a hill, he made a stretch to seize a goat; with which under him, he fell down a precipice, and lay senseless for the space of three days, the length of which time he measured by the moon's growth since his last observation. This manner of life

grew so exquisitely pleasant, that he never had a moment heavy upon his hands; his nights were untroubled, and his days joyous, from the prac. tice of temperance and exercise. It was his manner to use stated hours and places for exercises of devotion, which he performed aloud, in order to keep up the faculties of speech, and to utter himself with greater energy.

When I first saw him, I thought, if I had not been let into his character and story, I could have discerned that he had been much separated from company, from his aspect and gesture; there was a strong but cheerful seriousness in his look, and a certain disregard to the ordinary things about him, as if he had been sunk in thought. When the ship, which brought him off the island, came in, he received them with the greatest indifference with relation to the prospect of going off with them, but with great satisfaction in an opportunity to refresh and help them. The man frequently bewailed his return to the world, which could not, he said, with all its enjoyments, restore him to the tran. quillity of his solitude. Though I had frequently conversed with him, after a few months absence he met me in the street, and though he spoke to me, I could not recollect that I had seen him: familiar. converse in this town had taken off the loneliness of his aspect, and quite altered the air of his face.

This plain man's story is a memorable example, that he is happiest who confines his wants to natural necessities, and he that goes further in his desires, increases his wants in proportion to his acquisitions; or, to use his own expression, “I am now worth eight hundred pounds, but shall never be so happy as when I was not worth a farthing."

THE ENGLISHMAN, No. 26, Dec. 3, 1713.

Though the story of Alexander Selkirk was originally published in the Voyage of Woodes Rogers, some doubt has been lately entertained as to the authenticity of the fact; and it has consequently been asserted, that the interesting adventures of Robinson Crusoe are entirely the creation of Defoe. This paper, by Steele, however, now nearly forgotten, not only sufficiently proves the existence of Selkirk, but that his misfortunes most undoubtedly furnished the outline of the above mentioned popular romance,

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Those who set up for critics in poetry, and are met with in ordinary conversation, may be reduced to two classes ; such as judge by rule, or such as judge by nature. The first are men of little or no taste, who haying read over the mechanical rules, and learned a few 'terms of art, are able to point out palpable faults or beauties in an author, and thereby gain a reputation for learning. The others are generally talkers, of glittering fancies and hurried imaginations, who despise art and method, who admire what was never said before, and affect the character of wits. It is pleasant to see the men of judgment start at a turn or a metaphor; and the men of taste, as they call themselves, yawn at a plain and noble description. A natural critic looks upon a regular as a dunce; and the regular thinks the natural little better

than a coxćomb. If you

ask the one his opinion of a tragedy, he will repeat a rant with rapture; and dwell with delight on a simile; the other will applaud the strictness of the unities, and discover that the action hath a beginning, a middle, and an end. Jack Lively, who pities the ancients, insults his adversary, Sam Scruple, very often with Waller and Cowley. Last might he repeated, in a tone of triumph,

The trembling strings about her fingers crowd,
And tell their joy for every

kiss aloud :
Small force there needs to make them tremble so ;
Touch'd by that hand, who would not do so too?

Scruple shook his head; and having harangued upon strength and simplicity of thought, retorted the following lines upon him out of the same author, with an action solemn and the. atrical:

Bermuda, wall'd with rocks, who does not know?
That happy island where huge lemons grow!

To conclude this comparison : the cautious critics are like the subjects of an arbitrary prince; the licentious are in a state of barbarous anarchy: but the free critic, like a free Briton, is governed by the laws which he him, self votes for ; whose liberty is checked by the restraints of truth, and the monarchy of right


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A man who trusts entirely to his natural talents, is often governed by caprice, and can give no reason why he is pleased. Thus a fanciful fellow, who amuses himself with the woods and mountains which he discovers in the clouds, is angry if his friends are not charmed with the airy landskip. On the contrary, a critic who tastes just according to law, deceives his own heart, and talks of beauties celebrated by others, which he cannot see himself; like good-natured travellers, who own they perceive objects at a distance, out of pure compliance to the master of the company: but a true judge of writing is like a painter or a statuary, who doth not content himself with shewing fine images of nature, unless he likewise informs the spectators wherein the beauties consist; whence arises the propriety of colouring, and justness of symmetry.

To a good natural discernment, art must therefore be joined, to finish a critick. Without a natural talent, all the acquirements of learning are vain; but nature, unassisted, will go no great lengths. The soul of man indeed loves truth alone ; but is easily led to mistake appearances for realities, if judgment, which is built upon

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