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nity so long exercised by the house of Austria in ing is properly noticed, particularly the singular Germany has been annihilated, and Bonaparie manner in which nearly all the houses are built, declared chief of a new circle of feudatory princes. so as to lean considerably forward in the street,
In the preface, Sir John Carr states that the which we do not recollect being noticed by other Tour was taken amidst many untoward and em- travellers. We also find ( what is generally conbarrassing circumstances, the melancholy effecı sidered to be otherwise) that mendicity exists in of war, and therefore trusts that his pages will be Holland as well as in other countries Upon this perused with indulgent candour. It will na- || suliject Sir John Carr remarks: “I soon found turally be asked under what protection the author that the received opinion of there being no ventured upon a foreign and a hostile shore; this beggars in Holland, is perfectly erroneous.
I was we know hot better how to explain than in the frequently beset by those sons and daugh'ers of author's own words, “the public shall be my sorrow or idleness, who preferred their petition confessor.” “ In the summer of the last year, with indefatigable pursuit, but in so gentle whilst the larger portion of the civilized world was tone, that it was evident they were fearful of the anxiously awaiting the result of our sincere ne
lo his account of this city, some gotiations for a peace, which, alas! the crafty curious and interesting anecdotes are given of the Ministers of Napoleon never intended should be family just raised to the throne of Holland, to other than mere“ Romans politiques.” The de- which we refer our readers. In speaking of the sire of contemplating a country and a race of Dutch language, our antihor übserves: “It is people to me entirely new, induced me to tres- generally understood that the language of Hol. pass upon their shores. I resolved upon visiting land is divided into High and Low Dutch, whereas Holland, although in a state of reluctant war with there is but one pure language as in England, my own country, of a war which yet permitted to which is called Neder Durch; the language of her commerce a few stolen embraces with that of the Netherlands, or of a country lying very low. England, and which forced many a pursy Dutch- || In Holland, as in every o: her country, ibere is a man to lament the separation, and in the narcotic variety of provincial idioms; for instance, a raw atsmosphere of his consoling pipe, wish for better native of Friezland would not be understood at times. In gratifying my wishes, I was guilty of Amsterdam.” The Dutch have been long ceassuming a character respected in every country,
lebrated for the harmony of their chimes, or as as well for its being most wisely and profitably at they are called carillons, of which the following peace with all the world, as for its integrity and interesting account is given : “ This species of enterprize.
music is entirely of Dutch origin, and in Holland, “I became an American, and by an act of tem- and in the countries that formerly belonged to porary adoption fixed upon Baltimore, in North her, can only be heard in great perfection. America, as the place of my nativity.” Our “ The French and Italians have never imitated author also observes, “ The stratagem, if not the Dutch in this taste; we have made the at. perfectly blameless, was at least intended to be an tempt in some of our churches, but in such a inoffensive one, I had no hopes of a peace, and miserably bungling manner, that the nerves of consequently none of seeing Holland in a more even a Dutch skipper would scarcely be able to rezular mode.
endure it. The carillons are played upon by “I sent not to investigate the nakedness of the means of keys, communicating with the bells, as land, and by availing myself of its confidence to those of the piano-forte and organ do with penetrate the military depôts, the dock, and strings and pipes, by a person called the Carile arsenal of a country not in amity with my own. loneur, who is regularly instructed in the science; 1 abhor the character of the spy moving in a the labour nf the practical part of which is very friendly garb, however useful his treachery may severe, he being almost always obliged to perform be to his employers. My imposition extended in his shirt with his collar unbuttuned, and geneno further than to enable me to make a pic. rally forced by exertion into a profuse perspiraturesque tour through an almost aqueous king- tion, some of the keys requiring two pounds dom, to view its natives in their ordinary habits, | weight to depress them. After the performance to glide upon their liquid roads, to saunter in the carilloneur is frequently obliged immediately their green avenues and Mourishing gardens, and to go to bed. By pedals, communicating with trace the wonderful resulis of that daring and in the great bells, he is enabled with his feet to play defatigable ingenuity, which has raised the per- the base to several sprightly and even difficult manent habi!ation of man in the ocean, and made airs, which he performs with both his hands upon successful inroads opon the physical order of the || the upper species of keys, which are projecting universe.” After such a confession, we shall not sticks, wide enough asunder to be struck with withhold our absolution.
violence and celerity by either of the two hands At Rotterdam, every objeet particularly strik. || edgeways, without the danger of hitting either
of the adjoining keys. The player uses a thick standing the severity of British blockades, leather covering for the little finger of eucli hand, and the vigilance of British cruisers. We also to prevent the excessive pain which the violence find that the universities here participated in the of the stroke necessary to produce sufficient sound melancholy effects of war, which has very much requires. These musicians are very dexterous, reduced the number of its students, by attracting and will plig pieces in three parts, producing the
them to the army. first and second treble with the two hands on the
The principal objects in Amsterdam are briefly upper set of keys and the base, as before de
noticed. In the description of the Stadt House, scribed. By this invention a whole town is enter there is a curious account of the prisons and the tained in every quarter of it; that spirit of in- state of the prisoners confined in dungeons, dustry which pervades the kingdom, no doubt which form part of the foundation of that stuoriginally suggesed this sudorific mode of amus. pendous pile, which must prove interesting to ing a large population, without making it ne.
every humane reader. cessary for them to quit their avocations one Of the canals in this great city our author thus moment to enjoy it.
The British army was speaks :-“ the canals of this city are very conveequally surprised and gratified by hearing upon nient, but many of thein most offensively imthe carillons of the principal church of Alkmaar pure; the uniform greenness of which is their favourite air of “God save the King,'' || checquered only by dead cats, dugs, offal, and played in a masterly manner as they entered that || vegetable substances of every kind, which are
Sir John Carr observes that the same left to putrify at the top, until the canal scaven. thrifty spirit, united to the beneficial effects of
gers remove them; the barges used on these oc. public and expanded education, preserved the casions present a very disgosting appear.nce; the monuments and works of art in Holland froni. mud which is raised by them forms most excel. violence during the fury of the revolution which Jerat manure, and the sum it fetches in Brabant is annihilated the Stad:holderate.
calculated to be equal to the expence of the Anin'ere ting account is given of the revolu- voyage. Some of the most eminent Durch tion, which changed the republic into a royal physicians maintain, that the effluvia arising from governinent. In the new constitution, which is
the floating animal and vegetable mat'er of these given nearly a full lengih, (and which, by the canals is not injurious, and in proof, during a bye, unnecessarily swells the volume), we notice contagious fever which ravaged this city, it was the following striking features : the guarantee of || observed that the inhabitants who resided nearest the national debt; the free and unqualified ex- the foulest canals were not infected, whilst those ercise of religion; the predominant, or, as we who lived near pure water only in few instances think, Sir John Carr ought to have called it, the escaped; but this by no means confirins the asserdespotic authority vested in the King. The esta tion, because those inhabitants who lived adjoin. blishment of the Salique law, that only na- ing to foul canals were inured to its contagion, tives shall be eligible to any offices under from its habitual application ; for the same reason the state, exclusive of those immediately ap- inedical men and nurses generally escape insec. pertaining to the King's household; that the tion, from being so constantly exposed to it." royal revenue shall be two millions of Aorins, The ladies of Holland are spoken of very handor about
hundred thousand pounds; // somely by our Tourist, and are represented as and that the royal palaces shall be confined to observing the French fashions in their attire. three ; namely, the Hague, the Houses in the
There is a charming anecdote given in the acWool, and a' Soeldyke. As this constitution has
count of the resuscitation societies, of the heroic not yet had time to shew whether its fruits will humanity displayed by the present Emperor of be palatable to the Dutch or not, the author | Russia, in saving a poor fellow-creature from a con'en's hinself wi'n merely, and we may add | watery grave in Lithuania. Our fuir readers will perhaps unnecessarily, submiiting it lo the com- smile at the account given of a very singular ment of his readers.
establishinent, called the work-house of Amster. The descriptions of the several towns through | dam, where “ husbands upon complaint of exwhich Sir John Carr passed, are enlivened with trav.ganice, drunkenness, &c. duly proved, send brief bur interesting, and not generally known, their wives to be confined, and receive the disanecdote, of the most distinguished among the cipline of the house; and wives their husbands, Dutcli priniers.
for two, thrce, and four years together." It appears that the Higue has materially suf From Holland Sir John Carr depariet for the fered by the revolution, much more so than the Rhine, where he met with ainple subjects for his commercial towns, owing to the resources pen and pencil. which they derived from a high and unsubdued In the beginning of Chap. 22. a singular ad. spirit of commerce and enterprize, notwith- venture which occurred to the author, is related,
in which his liberty, if not his life, was in immi- | times condescends to supply original inforination nent peril, and displays by what artful stratagems by the records of magazines and the collections the French police is supported.
of newspapers ; and the simplicity of good sense A description of the principal cities on the yields to the unmeaning melody of poetic nonright and left banks of the Rhine, and of their sense,-yet will the lines of Sir John Carr not political and social state, since the horrors of war only amuse the hours of leisure, but improve have been removed from them, is given. The those of thought. author proceeded as far as Darmstadt, when hosti- When the“ bird's eye view” which our author lities, which were just commenced against Russia | takes of a country is considered, the greatest and the state of the Continent, obliged him to re- credit is due to his industry and observation, and turn.
our wonder is excited, not at his opportunity lo The volume is embellished with twenty see so litile, but at his ability to write so much. exquisite engravings by a distinguished artist, He appears indefatigable in his study of countries from drawings made on the spot by Sir John and manners, and his remarks and observations Carr, and is in no respect inferior to his other are in general well expressed, penetrating and productions. Though in some instances the just. Upon the whole, we recommend this work direly imagination of Sir John Carr leads him to the notice of all those who cultivate a spirit of into the error of verbose composition, and words inquiry, and are interested in the state and history are sometimes more redundant than ideas;- of other nations. though the sober narrative of the traveller some.
AN HISTORICAL ESSAY ON THE SECRET TRIBUNALS IN GERMANY.
Tue curiosity of the public was strongly || appeal from the country and provincial tribunals, excited some years since by the allusions that and to give jurigment, and enforce execution in occur in Hermann of Unna, and several other cases relating to property, personal liberty, breach novels, to a powerful society, once existing in of the public peace, apostacy, and transgressions Germany under the name of the Secret Tribunals. committed against the church, they sat in judgAs no satisfactory account has hitherto been given ment three times a year, in an open field, when of the nature and origin of this singular society, || all the hereditary proprietors of the district were we have been led to suppose, that a brief narrative unexceptionally bound to appear. On these of its institution and original tendency would, occasions, the ancient national laws of the Saxons, by no means, be displeasing. On this presump- as well as the privileges and restrictions granted tion we present it to our readers from the third by the Emperor, were discussed, the lawful sal s volume of Veit Weber's (Sagen der Vorzeit) || of estates confirmed, and all illegal actions comTraditions of Antient Times.
mitted since the last session, reported. On these When after a war of thirty-three years, the || heads, the community consulted the decrees of Emperor Charles I. had subjected the Saxons to the law, and pronounced decisive sentence, prothe sway of his sceptre, and compelled them to vided every thing were perfectly clear, and no worship the cross, the conquered districts were capital crime could be proved. divided by him into counties and bishoprics. On lilegal actions, at that time, were divided into the conclusion of a peace, in the year 80s, the such as admitted reparation, and such as did not Saxons, amongst other privileges, attained per- || (ahlosliche, and unablösliche). The former, for mission to retain their national laws, under the instance, calumny, manslaughter, &c. might be inspection of imperial judges (counts,) and to be || compensated by fines, whilst the latter, treason, entirely exempted from the control of the bishops, | assassination, adultery, &c. were punished with except in spiritual matters. Several counties and death. In the latter class of offences were coin. bishoprics composed a delegate county (send. || prized, apostacy, sorcery, sacrilege, contempt of grafschaft), which was superintended by an im- the christian festivals, profanation of christian perial delegate (send-gruf), whose office was to tombs, and conspiracies against the worshippers watch over the preservation of civil and ecclesi- of the cross. In all cases of this kind, the trial astic order, to unite the private and often clash- was begun in the public session, but concluded ing interests of the counts and bishops for the before a private or secret tribunal. The whole Emperor's service.
community, by right, should have pronounced lavested with the power to decide in matters of sentence in open cuurt upon the guilty, but the
superficial knowledge which ihe incidental owners maintained, that Charles I. had instituted the of hereditary estates might have of the christian secret tribunals in the same form, both external religion, rendered them incompetent to decide and internal, which it had in the 13th and 14ih on the heinousness of the crime; hence, trans- centuries, and conferred upon them that astoactions of this nature were not finally decided nishing extent of jurisdiction, which was grain public session, and seven judges (schiffen) dually wrested froin the enfeebled executive auwere selected froin the community, to inquire, i thorities. in a secret meeting, into the criminality of such The Westphalian secret tribunals are first mentransactions, and to pronounce sentence of death, tioned as generally known in the year 1211, and or decree the payment of a finc, as circumstances recorded as having still been in force in the year mighe require. In the secret meeiings also the 1659. They never were formally abrogated ; judges gave informations of crimes privately com- but only lost their influence by degrees, when the mitted, and which were reporied to them by their sword of justice was again wielded by, vigorous spies,
hands. When the criininal, after having been sum- These Westphalian secret tribunals, at first, moned, appeared, and was incap.ble of making were only designed for Westphalia, and had no a satisfactory defence, he was condemned either jurisdiction over any o:her province. The exto pay a mulct, or else was sentenced to suffer tent of their jurisdiction was limited in the west death. The latter punishment, however, was by the Rhine, in the east by the Weser, in the remited, if he had previously confessed his crime north by Friesland and the territory of Utrecht, to a priest, and atoned for it as required by the and in the south by the Westerwald (western ecclesiasticallaw; whilst, in such cases, neither || forest) and Hessia. Tribunals of these secret the priest nor judges were permitted tu divulge Westphalian judges ( Freystühle) were to be found it. The interest of Christianity, which it was only in the duchies of Guelders, Cleves, and the Emperor's wish to recommended, rendered Westphalia, in the principalities of Corvey and this indulgence necessary to the Saxons. If, Minden, and the Landgraviate of Hessen; in the however, the accused did not appear, he was counties of Benthiem, Limburg, Lippe, Mark, out-lawed, and this sentence was cominunicated Ravensberg, Rechlinhausen, Rietsberg, Sayn, to the neighbouring counts, who were called to Waldeck, and Steinfurt; in the signories of assist in giving it effect.
Gehmen, Neustadt, and Rheda, and in the ter. Annually a public diet was holden by the ritory of Dortmund, a free imperial town. Emperor's delegate, in Saxony, to inquire into The Emperor, being supreme judge of all se. the state of the Christian religion, and in what cular courts of judicature in Germany, was also. manner the magistrates had discharged their che sole creator and chief of all free tribunals. duty; as well as to compel the counts and Free counties were certain districts, comprejudges to administer justice with impartiality, || hending several parishes, where the judges and and to give information of such illegal acts of counsellors of the secret ban administered justice, their countrymen, as had occurred to their know. conformably to the territorial statutes. A free ledge. Besides this diet, he also held special county generally contained several tribunals sub(gebotene) sessions, in which judgment was given | ject to the controul of one master of the chair in matters of appeal, and against such persons as (stuhlherr). There masters of the chair, who could not properly be prosecuted before the re- commonly
secular ecclesiastical gular judges. The decrees pronounced in these princes, held their appointment by the will of sessions affected the life of the accused. Those | the Emperor, and forfeited it on deciding in matwho refused to appear, were declared to be out- lers not coming under their jurisdiction, or delawed (verrehmt), whence, afterwards, arose the viariag in their decrees from the laws of the free denomination of vehmgericht, i.e. the tribunal tribunals. They appointed the free counts by which the criminal was separated from those | (. freygrafen), who were presidents of individual who enjoyed the ordinary protection of the tribunals of the secret bad. They were presented laws.
to the Emperor for confirmation by the masters If a conclusion may be drawn froin a similarity of their chair, who were made responsible for of procedure and tendency in two criminal in- them, upon which they were invested with the stitutions, it may be concluded, that these two royal ban, and obliged to swear fealty and obehad both a common origin, and that the secret dience to the head of the empire. The latter tribunals of Westphalia were continuations of also could punish the free counts, or deprive these secret criminal sessions, gradually changer them of their office, occupy the seat of a free and new-moulded in conformity to circumstances count in the tribunals, decide in matters of apand the wants of the times; although the free peal brought before him, inspect and reform the kaights, actuated by family pride, unanimously tribunals, and appoint the free knights (froy
schaffen), though in the territory of Westphalia resident in the free coun'y, and natives of Westalone He could, indeed, exercise these prero- phaly. The number of these free-knights be. gitives only when himself was initiated; this, | longing to each tribunal, never was less than however, was generally done by the master of seven, nor did it amount to more than eleven. the chair of the Imperial Chamber of Dortmund, | Seven free-knights, at least, were required to on the coronation of the Emperor at Aix-la- compose a plenary-court (Voltgericht), in which Ch pelle. If, however, the Emperor was not the final sentence was pronounced. Knights of initialed in the mysteries of the secret tribunals, ll other tribunals were indeed permitted to be prehe could demand of the judges of the secret sent on these occasions as visitors, but were not ban no other answer to his inquiries but yes | reckoned, nor allowed to vote. On their recepand no.
tion they promised on oath: to be faithful in disThe Dake of Saxony was supreme governor || charging their functions as free-knights; to give and administrator of the Westphalian secret tri- || information to the secret tribunal of every thing bun Is, and after the partition of the Duchy of coming under its jurisdiction, perceived by them. Saxony, was superseded in this function by the selves or reported to them by credirable persons, archbishop of Cologne. To him also the mem- and not to suffer any thing created betwixt bers of the secret tribunals were obliged to swear heaven and earth, to divert them from the execuobedience. The free-counts, whom he nominated tion of their duty. They also bound themselves for the duchies of Engern and Westphaly, were to promo:e the interest of the sacred Roman subjected to his examination and instruction, and empire, and to invade the possessions of the after being invested by the Emperor with the masters of the chair and of the free-courts only rogal ban, were not only installed by him, but on legal grounds. After having taken this oath, made liable to be deprived of their function, at they were not perniitted to reveal even to their his pleasure, without being permitted to appeal. confessors the secrets of the tribunal, and on
Every master of the chair was authorized to transgressing this law, though only in the most prohibit the free-counts of his tribunals, to decide trifling point, were hanged without mercy. They in certain cases, and to grant letters of protection pronounced judgment according to the statutes against the proceedings of the. Jaiter. He re- of the Westphalian secret tribunal, and executed ceived of every free-judge, admitted as a member | it conformably to the decrees of the free-courts, of the tribunals subject to his jurisdiction, one They knew each other by certain secret signals. mark of gold, if the candidate was of noble The free-bailiffs ( Freyfrohnen) performed the descent, if not, a mark of silver. Beside this ; | office of messengers, and also were required to he also enjoyed other perquisites, amounting to be freemen, begotten in legal wedlock, and of an a considerablesum.
unimpeached character. The free-counts (vehmgrafen).
- were required The original constitution of the secret tribunals to be begotten in legal wedlock, born in West- || did, however, not long continue in force, bastards phaly, and distinguished as free, unblemished, || and wretches of the most abandoned character and respectable men in their community. They || being adınitted. The number of free-knights promised on oath, at their nomination, to be allowed to every tribunal, was originally limited obedient to the Emperor, the governor and the to eleven, but in a short time in many amounted Raster of the chair, to discharge the duties in- to fifty and more, who possessed not an inch of cumbent on them as free-counts, to take cogni- || landed estate in Westphaly, and were induced zince of no cause not coming under the jurisdic- || by self-interest, ambition, thirst after vengeance, tion of the secret ban; to give to the accused or other disgraceful motives, to join the associaevery opportunity of defending himself; to ini- tion. The meeting places of the members of the tiate no one whose free and legal birth and un- secret tribunals degenerated into haunts of sanblemished life were not warranted as the statutes | guinary banditti, who indiscriminately assassinated required; to promote the good of the sacred the innocent with the guil:y. The masters of Roman empire; not to injure the countries and the chair being actuated by the most sordid subjects of their superiors, unless they had lawful avarice, divided the free-countries into nuauthority to do it, and never to oppose the re- merous smaller seats of justice, whereby the forma:ion of the secret tribunals. They were number of spies and secre: informers naturally intitled to receive thirty guilders of every free- was encreased to a most alarining degree, and judge admitted as a member of their tribunal, and numberless opportunities for fraud, imposition, one-third of all perquisites. Their persons were and extortion were presented. Although they sacred and inviolable.
were originally authorized to pronounce sentence The free-knights ( Freyschöffin, Vehmschöffen, only in criminal cases, they interfered in private Itissende) were required to be begotten in legal and domestic affairs, in order to encrease their wedlock, freeborn, of an unimpeached character, | fees, and contrived to lay even Counts and Princes No. XX. Vol. III.