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met and covered, like our pantaloons, by the lined with wool and edged with fur. tops of yellow Turkey-leather buskins. The rice is not wholly discontinued, but their ordinary tunic is open at the bosom lo display the silk cloths are now more commonly lined with wool, sest beneath, and edged throughout with fur, or rather with prepared sheep-skin; so that a sometimes with ermine. The shirt collar should Polish gentleman may walk or ride out apparently be open, or confined only by a single button. A only in a sort of shooting jacket and bouts, ina' neck handkerchief, however, is now usually the first would be lined with sheep-skin, and the added Without doors, a roundish cap of some last perhaps with wolf-skin, the hair turned togay coloured leather is worn, ornamented with wardo che leg. The only apparent difference fur. The head is shaved with the exception from the dress of an Englishman would consist only of a circular patch of short hair, about three in the furred or velvet cap, lined also with sheepor four inches in diameter. Whiskers also, and skin. If a person goes out during the severity of a sabre, as a mark of nobility, are essential to the frost without one of these caps, he is liable complete the costume, but the latter is discon- to a headache so treniendous as scarcely to be tinued. When on horseback, the Polish noble borne. The Poles speak of it with horror. I has a sumptuous mantle thrown over his should
have been so imprudent more than once, to walk ders.
out only with an ordinary hat; and though I did This dress is undoubtedly grand and pictur- not feel in consequence a headache of the violence esque, but nore showy than useful. No dress described, I yet felt enough to be convinced that can be founded on a just table which does not the warning which had been given ine was not join convenience to elegance. It is now very without reason. The gloves are also lined with generally laid aside. The Poles have adopted fur. the English fashions in this, and in some other During the summer the reilingote is worn by particulars. But there is rarely any considerable most persons not of the first rank. This word is party without the presence of several persons in evidently borrowed from the English riding.coat, the ancient national costume. These instances It is the common surtout, or upper-cnat, and is are almost always found among elderly men, and worn without any other under it. Within door, those too not of the first consequence. I do not it is the ordinary coat also in winter. recollect more than a single instance of a young The chief peculiarity in the dress of the ladies person, in genteel company, thus habited. The is, in winter, a large silk pelisse, lined or rather old farmers retain the ancient custom; the young padded with wool, and often anged with fur. ones have abandoned it.
This is used only when they go into the open air. In winter the Poles formerly wore sables, the In general, their dress differs little or nothing skias of tygers and leopards, &c. also velvets | from that of English or French ladies.
A TOUR IN ZEALAND IN THE YEAR 1802.
BY A NATIVE OF DENMARK,
I had contracted an intimacy with a young assumes an appearance which, encouraged, will gentleman at Copenhagen, who came from Nor- rival in taste and natural beauties, the first cities way, to enter himself a student at our university ; l of the world. and we proposed, in tbe summer of 1802, to As soon as the gates are opened on Sunday make an excursion into the country. We set off afternoon (they are always shut during divino in the month of June, by the western gate, close service), immense crowds flock along this road. without which a glorious monument stands on The avenue fills with company, who cambie to the high road, in commemoration of the eman- the Royal Gardens, or the village, where the ear cipation of the peasants.
is entertained with music from every quarter. The road, on either side, leads to large, hand- | Mirth and festivity are universal, and good order some, and even magnificent houses. At some pervades the whole. little distance from the monument it branches We entered the gardens, and passed some into an avenue on the right, composed of six re. ll agreeable hours in viewing the different improvegular rows of lofty lime trees. These lead to ments. They are not, however, equally deserving Fredericksberg, over fertile and highly cultivated commendation, particularly the canal and waterfields, many of which have latterly been meta- fall; but the grotto, which embowers the spring, morphosed into gardens, surrounding elegant and and the singularly beautiful serpentine walks Sanciful villas, Thus, this delightful avenue which conduct you, as it were, through irregular paths of uncultivated nature, deserve particular | tends all this prince's actions bas established his notice.
character, both as a ruler and a man, with every The palace stands on a beautiful eminence, and i judicious and impartial foreigner ; but with his forms a coup d'æil particularly attractive. Lime own countrymen it has given birth to sentiments trees, in romantic groups, range along the decli- of confidence and attachment; which, co-operatvity on the side facing the gardens, through the ing with his exertions, bid fair to preserve a middle of which a rich lawn has been levelled country whose real happiness lies in its own lup. down the slope.
The Prince married Maria, daughter of Prince The prospects from this hill are every way | Charles, Stadtholder of Holstein. Several chil. pleasing, but not equally striking. If the eye dren were the fruit of their union, of whom the wanders in vain for mountains, cataracts, preci- | Princess Carolina is the only survivor. She is pices, or cascades, the hear', at least, is gratified; | about ten years old, but excluded from inheriting it contemplates a country made fertile by the the crown by the laws of Denmark, which concheerful labours of an industrious peasantry. fine the succession to heirs male.
The prospect from that side of the palace which Just as we were about to leave the gardens, faces Copenhagen, is most interesting.
the Prince Royal and his consort entered them, To the left lies an avenue leading to Fredericks- | privately, to enjoy an evening's walk free from berg, overtopping a multitude of well contrasted | form. The interesting sight detained us some houses and gardens, which extend and vanish time longer, when we pursued our way towards amidst the larger edifices of the western suburb. Roeskilde Inn, eight miles distant from the me The monument appears in the perspective. tropolis. Here we sojuurned for the night, and
To the right, an arm of the Baltic divides set off again at sun-rise, Zealand from the island of Amack, where in- Those who are acquainted with the state of this numerable flocks are seen to graze, giving you at country twenty or thirty years ago, must exult at once a clear idea of the industry and wealth of its the change time has made for the better; and to inbabitants.
those who are not, it may perhaps be interesting In the centre, Copenhagen presents itself with to know how changes so beneficial could have a degree of splendour and grandeur difficult to boen produced in so short a period. be described. Its numerous towers, one of which Formerly, when you met a peasant driving his is $80 feet high, majestically rear their heads | waggon to market, the appearance of himself above lofty buildings raised upon the ashes of and every thing about him gave you an idea of that part of the ciły which was destroyed in 1795, | forced obedience. Instead of alacrity, you say which are calculated to impress the traveller with sullenness on his brow; instead of the cheerful ideas of its present magnificence equal to those husbandman whistling with the fruits of his laof former times, when the gorgeous palace of bour to market, you beheld a slave toiling for a Christiansborg, and the ancient church of Saint merciless master. Encouraged by no one, but Nicholas enriched the scene; with this essential oppressed by many, he dragged his unwilling difference, however, that formerly the attraction steps slowly along,' reluctantly yielding to the lay in its exterior, now it is transferred to the strong necessity which robbed him of his best interior; and although the massy piles of ruins produce, to satisfy the unfeeling claims of those may seem to derogale from its importance, the whose only merit was the accidental superiority deficiency is anıply supplied by its internal of their birth; so that the fruit of his diligence beauties.
was certain ruin. If he dared to remonstrate he The view is enlivened by innumerable vessels was chastised; if his lands did not thrire he was passing to and from the Baltic, which lase then. I called lazy, and turned out of the farm by the lord selves behind Copenhagen, re-appear, and glide of the manor. If industrious, and his lands imdown the Sound, between the shores of Zealand proved, he was dismissed by the lady, who always and those of Sweden ; which, as well as the isle found out some deserving favourite to reap the of Hreen, are visible from this hill.
rewards of this poor man's industry. His old age The palace is not large, but it is handsome; was uncheered by the fruits of those trees he had and its delightful situation, and vicinity to the planted in his youth; and his death-bed unconcity, render it a most eligible retreat for the Prince soled by the comforts he might otherwise have Royal. Here, in the bosom of his family, this Jeft his children. amiable prince reposes from the fatigues of an Such, and numberless other abuses, at length unremitted attenticn to the duties of his exalted rendered the peasant supine, spiritless, and unfit . station ; while the dexterity with which he steers for enterprise. The gloom extended to every his bark along the dangerous shoal of politics thing around him; the houses, land, caule, all elaims the admiration of the world.
were tinctured with his wretchedness. The steady adherence to his word which at. When I therefore reflect on bis miserable lot,
I cannot sufficiently respect and admire those my friend seemed little disposed to undertake that proprietors of lands whose philanthropy was journey, we pursued the plan we originally set mused in his behalf.-Vassalage was abolished; out with. the lands were parcelled out in lots, upon which The numerous spires of the castle of Fredefarm-houses were erected, and those peasants only ricksborg now appeared in the horizon, and we remained in the village whose lands were con- mounted an eminence whence we beheld the tiguous. This arrangement made the peasant gothic castle floating, as it were, in the lake below. his own master. He could now act according to The town of Hilleroed, which is small and inconhis own judg inent; he had merely his own be- 'siderable, o cupies one side of the banks, and nest to consult, not that of others.
presents a very picturesque scene,
There are While indulging these reflections, cheered by gardens to all the houses, which slope down to the smiling fertility of the surrounding country, the water's edge; while the other side displays ve imperceptibly reached the valley in which corn fields in high cultivation, mingled with Roeskilde, the most ancient town of Zealand, is avenues, and closed by woods that confine the situated. As it has been constantly on the de- view to a very limited compass. dine, nothing particular can be said in its favour, It being the hour for divine service, I proposed except what its pleasant situation claims. It is that we should go to church, and afterwards bailt on a branch of the Jiseñord, the banks of return to the castle. The church is a very neat which form a very striking contrast. To the left building, and its interior presents a singular specke rast forests of oak, through which, at inter- tacle, the walls being lined with a vast number of vals, various spires and steeples steal upon the the escutcheons of our nobility.-" Pray, gentleview, and to the right lie innumerable corn fields, || men,"civilly asked a man who concluded we were interspersed with insulated farms.
strangers,“ do you wish to see our Saviour ?" We entered the town, and put up at the sign | We thanked hiin, and said, “ Yes.” He conof the Prince, where a cheerful looking landlady || ducted us to a heavy mass of silver, modelled in welcomed us with much good humour. Having the form of Christ. “ There were," continued Tested a little, we walked out to view the town, the man“his twelve apostles, but they are gone and particularly the cathedral, which contains away. When Charles IX. of Sweden, possessed the remains of all our royal family for ages past. himself of great part of the island, including the The building, though very extensive, has been castle, he carried them off, saying to our Saviour, increased by a mausoleum for the reception of You may stay, but your disciples shall go into the future kings...
world for the benefit of mankind." We beheld the resting place of Christian IV. From church we went to view the interior of a king who held the balance of justice in equal || the castle, which, however presented nothing to scales, and who consulted in all things the good | engage our attention, excepting the peasant maid ef his subjects, happy in an honourable peace, who shewed us the apartments. Her singular bat provoked by injuries, the first to meet danger dress and manners visibly interested my friend ; in maintaining the rights of his people. His
nor was I less pleased with the fascinating simpliyirtues have procured him the surname of Great.
city of her whole appearance, so superior to the • Hariag seen every thing worthy our attention, limitations of our dashing belles, who at times 7e returned to our good humoured hostess, who || borrow the rustic garb, without being able to confirmed the favourable opinion we had pre- complete the metamorphosis by assuming the viously formed of her. We were well served, rustic's peculiar graces. Her petticoat was of charged reasonably, and left theion highly pleased | green taffeta; a pale pink silk corset, made to with our entertainment.
her shape, displayed all the symmetry of her fine We now directed our route towards Hilleroed, form; while a silken cap, entwined with threads a market town, famous for a castle called Fre.
of gold, sai close to her face, just permitting her dericksborg. After having proceeded a consider
features to peep forth, and express a countenance able way, it occurred to me that we might, by which the fancy of no painter could equal. My taking the circuitous route through Horn's Her- || friend asked her a very natural question; she red, have surveyed Jaegerspriis, a country seat cast down her fine blue eyes, and with a sigh belonging to Prince Frederick. The Prince has answered, she had now no friend; "he fell," erected monuments in his gardens to those great | said she, “ last year in the battle, yet I grieve men who have, in their different capacities, ll not so much for myself; he died for bis country, signalized themselves for the good and glory of it was a noble end,--but he might have become their country. From that place we would have a firm supporter of my aged parents, if distress re-crossed the branch of the Jisefiord, and come should ever bow them down." We noticed to to Fredericksvaerk, an extensive cannon foundry, l her, that she had as just a claim as others to benefit established by the late General Classen. But, as by the general subscription. Her reply won my No. XXII. Vol. III.
heart: :-" There are widows, orpharts, and Fredensborg, situated on the lake of Esrom, wounded enough," answered this lovely daughter wbich is one of the largest in the island, forms of simplicity, “ to share the just reward of their a very considerable village. It is surrounded by grateful country; my parents will soon leave this woods, and from its exquisite situation has been world, and honesty with industry will help me adorned with a royal palace, which, though at through it.” Had I been a painter, the portrait | present uninhabited, ranks with the more elegant of this affecting girl should have graced this order of buildings. page!
We next crossed the country towards Elsinore, Having passed two very pleasant days at Hille- || which we reached at sun-set. It is impossible to roed, we proceeded to Fredensborg, taking the comprehend the beauties of this prospect on a 1oad which winds along the remains of the fine summer's day without having seen it. We beautiful oak wood, whose foliage once hid the ascended a rising hillock, to delight our eyes with village of Groenholt. On entering this village, the charming scenery around. The town lies we observed a stork's nest on the church, which immediately beneath, and a little beyond it the we found engrossed the interest of the whole ancient castle of Cronborg. The Sound presented village. There were iwo birds, and the rustics | itself, covered with an immense number of shiptarefully provided them materials to build with, ping, and the shores of Sweden displayed the and guarded them from the wanton pranks of town of Helsingborg, which afforded us a most the mischievous. One of them Aew over our brilliant spectacle, the sun reverberating his rays heads with food for its mate, which was perched on the windows, by which the houses assumed upon the back of the church tending her young the appearance of one continued blaze. To this brood.
magnificent view, the clearness of the calm evenThe bell now struck eight, and we had a long ing very materially contributed, the objects aproad before us; but the evening being extremely proaching nearer in semblance than in realiiy. fine, and my friend making the proposal, we de- At this moment the bells of Cronborg chimed termined on seeking a supper in one of the nine. The flag of the guard ship was hauled down, cottages. We entered beneath a neat looking and a solitary shot bade farewell to the setting sun. roof, and having made our wishes known to a We left our post and walked on towards the town. clean tidy looking woman, she gave us a hearty Elsinore is the second town in our island, and if welcome. Every thing we saw displayed the the spectator were to calculate on the activity and attentive housewife, and increased our good. || bustle visible in every corner of it, he would estiwill for our hostess. On an vaken table she
mate its number of inhabitants at many thousands. spread a clean cloth, and served up supper, con- The fact however is, they scarcely exceed five. sisting of a dish of sour milk strewed with grated It needs little penetration to discover to whom rye-bread and powdered sugar, bread, fresh butter, this town chiefly owes its prosperity; for, if the and some new.laid eggs. Appetite seasoned this Aag on the castle did not inform you it was Densimple repast.
mark, you would fancy yourself in England. This While we sat at supper, a hale, hearty man resemblance of exterior is verified with still greater entered the room, whom we found to be our exactness in the interior. Many of the inhabihost; anil shortly after a grey headed old man tants are Britons born, they naturally retain the joined us, he was the father of our hostess, and manners and customs of their country; and those had been, many years since, a soldier. The who are not, take peculiar delight in wishing to veteran placed himself in a large wicker chair. appear like Englishmen. In the summer season Cheerfulness sat on his brow, and his old age the liveliness and cheerfulness of this town, com. was a perfect picture of content. He began a paratively, farsurpasses Copenhagen; but during lively conversation, related anecdotes of the ser- the winter Elsinore puts on a very sombre garb, vice, and dwelt with peculiar delight on the new the navigation being shut up for four or five regulations, which do away the old established || months. Yet the inhabitants are not at a loss to custom of enlisting Germans for our army. amuse themselves, they form clubs, give balls,
It was near eleven when we broke up and asked | and contrive to kill time. There is no regular for the reckoning; but our good host could not theatre ; now and then a Swedish company of be prevailed upon to receive any remuneration. itinerant players make a halt, as do the Germans, We left the cottage highly impressed with his l who torture us incessantly with miserable frage hospitality, and proceeded to Fredensborg, wbich ments of the dramatic art; but latterly, Mr. we reached about twelve o'clock. The distance Schwartz, of the Theatre Royal at Copenhagen, was scarcely two miles, but the night being un- has obtained a licence to perform plays in Zeka commonly fine, and having, in our island, no land generally, and we have every thing to hope apprehension of robbers, we indulged the scene from the abilities of an actor who has long deserat our leisure.
veully claimed the approbation of the metropolis,
In order to form a clear idea of the business || the least injury from the fort was fully proved in transacted at Elsinore, you must repair to the 1801, when none of the British, except the headbridge, which is constantly filled with merchants, most, returned the fire. clerks, and boatinen, on the look out for every The palace of Marienlyst, belonging to the new arrival. The alacrity prevalent here is Prince Royal, but never occupied by him, stands wonderful. The moment a vessel is discernible in the suburbs. It is built on a steep hill, interthe boatmen put off, contending with each other sected with winding roads which reach the sumwho shall first reach the ship; but they often | mit, and are neatly laid out in terraces; on one labour in vain, when the captain chuses to go we took our seat. ashore in his own boat. On his arrival at the As it is usual in times of peace for English ships bridge there is as much contention among the to pass singly, or in small divisions, we could not merchants to welcome him, and to entreat the expect to be gratified with a repetition of the management of his affairs, should he not be re- magnificent spectacle of four or five hundred commended to any particular house.
vessels going through the Sound at the same It was very much our wish to have taken a moment, however, we indulged the picture in survey of Cronborg; but the late orders were so miniature; fortunately, about thirty sail from strict that it was impossible to get access to the the North Sea were then coming in sight. We castle. We were therefore obliged to content soon distinguished a ship of war among them, ourselves with admiring its noble gothic turrets, || which particularly drew our attention, as we knew towering above the fortifications. A traveller, she could not be English. With the help of a who visited this fort in 1793, informs us, he found spyoglass I discovered her to be the Naiad of the sentry boxes lying upon the ground, and the thirty-six guns, from her peculiar construction. soldiers asleep in them; at the same time he ob. This frigate was the first ship built, in 1796, on serves, that he could easily take it with two sail the plan of the ingenious Captain Hohlenberg, of the line and five hundred determined men; who may very deservedly be called the restorer but I will venture to aver, that the outside of the of our navy. Her stern, in particular, difiers fortification is so formidable that the gentleman from all others, having neither cabin windows who made this assertion would now be as little nor quarter galleries. There are merely lwo able to take the furt as we are to prevent a fleet port holes abaft, glazed, to admit light. Ships of from passing the Sound; the breadth of which, war should be planned for utility, not for the as measured at the instance of the Royal Society accommodation of large parties. of Sciences at Copenhagen, in the year 1796, is
[To be continued.) about four miles. That ships may pass without
FAMILIAR LECTURES ON USEFUL SCIENCES.
ADJUDICATION OF PRIZES,
WITH A PROPOSED NEW QUESTION BY
The Imperial Academy of Sciences had, in 11 learned, who might have similar pursui!s, that their last public notice, proposed the prize of five | they contented themselves with stating the subhundred roubles, to be given to any professor of ject generally, leaving them at liberty to consider physic, who would establish and communicate to the question in any point of view, that might the academy, “ a series of new and instructive appear the best calculated to elucidate the access ex periinents, on light considered as matter, also to a question so difficult. on the properties which may in part be attributed The academy has received, within the preto it, on the affinities which it may appear to
scribed time, six tracts on the question, each have, either to organized, or unorganized bodies, !! having a note sealed and a moito, viz. and upon the modification and phenomena of
No. 1. In the Russian language, with the these substances by their combination with the motto “ A philosopher who has learned to doubt, matter of light.” The academy had declared at knows more than all the learned, &c." the same time, that in order not to confine the X2