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my dearest

tears in her eyes, that they ought to resolve on il postscript, in which he was informed of the an eternal separation; he came incognito in the dangers of the least attempt. He had placed environs of the Baron's castle, and having bribed himself under the windows of the chamber inone of the servants, he informed his beloved of habited by his mistress. “ My dear Federouna!" his secret arrival. Ai the first moment Mary was said he, in a supplicating voice; “ exceedingly concerned. She forgot that her Mary!” and by the aid of some branches of father and her governess were in the castle ; she i trees, nailed ag iinst the wall he clambered up to wrapt herself up in her cloak, and notwithstand- the window and entered the room. The young ing the intense cold of the season she went out, Baroness was so terriñed that she could neither and directed her steps towards the place where speak nor act. He assured hier he would depart she expec'ed to meet her friend. All at once || directly, that he only wished to fuld her once in the idea of her father struck her, and froze all her is his arms and to touch her mouth with his lips. members, she fell senseless on the road. She He supported her, and placed her on a chair. was found and brought home without any one's In this vast castle, the apartment of Mary was guessing the reason of her fainting; but next very distant from that of the Baron. That of the morning she wrote to Markof hy the person he had governess was nearer, but the melancholy of himself employed. The certainty that they should Mary had long kep! that governess at a distance, never see the accomplishment of their vows, the and she was accustomed to the solitude in which order she was going to send him to cease all pur Mary chose to remain for hours. Nothing was suit, inflamed her imagination. The heart guided attended to; the moments flew, till at last the the pen, the expression of her love appeared to Baron surprised to find that his daughter did not burn on the paper; but, little able to write with as usual come to wish him a good night, caine to any order, in that letter, which was hardly legi- know the reason. ble, and wherein she recounted her impotent The two lovers heard him; they trembled. efforts to meet him, she added in a scrawl which Mary, in terror, opened an empty chest which could scarce be decyphered, her commands that happened to be in a corner of the room; although he should leave the place without delay; she rather strait, Markof jumped in, laid cluse, and told him that the whole province was subject to Mary shut it. The Baron entering his daughter's her father, alled the hatred he manifested for him room, sat down, enquired tenderly after her was more outrageous since he resided in the healih, her melancholy slate, and having for some country ; and, lastly, that it would endanger his time conversed with her, he retired without any life as well as that of his love, if he remained suspicion. any longer. She concluded with saying, in a As soon as he was gone, Mary ran to the fatal postscript on the other side of the page, that a trunk, she opened il-She thought Markof slept. secret, foresight warned her that the moment of He was indeed asleep, but never to wake! their interview would, be very soon followed by He was smothered. He might, without doubl, cruel misfortunes,

as soon as he found the danger of his situation, have As soon as she had sent away her letter, she made some motion which would have delivered repen'ed having written it. She reproached her him ; but the dread of exposing to the Baron's self with having destroyed all Markof's hopes. resentment a woman whom he loved more than She had never longed so much to see him, as just life, had resigned him to death. after she had forbidden his coming. Her agita- We can form no adequate idea of the terrible tion was exireme; whilst moving about her condition of Mary at such a sight. She at first apartment, she loudly exclaimed, “ Can he love thought the Count affected to sleep; she even me, und obey? Will he go without making at

reproached him for so doing; after which lifting Jeast some sign to me; without waving his hand-him up with some effort, the body fell again. kerchief :” Then she approached the window, She uitered piercing cries. Alas, had it pleased and casting her eyes round the country which the God tlie Biron hod heard those cries! Mary's last rays of the sun continued to enligt ten, she situation was dreadful, and the idea of her father's sighed, and retiring precipitately : “Imprudent! anger, even of the excesses which his fury might what dare I desire? what dare I wait for? My make him couunit on the bor!y of his enemy, ruin and luis---An! may he not come!”

6lled her soul with terror. In those delirious At that instant she heirs a timid voice from moments, she pressed her dead lover's head to her without, calling her by name. She listens, runs bosom; in calmer instants, she tried all the means to the window, opens it, and in the dress of a she could think of to restore him to life. The peasant she stiscovers Markof.

whole night was passed in this manner; the He had read Mary's letter with transport, he break of day added to her anguish; she had covered it with ardent kisses; but in his de- ! thought on the scenes which that day would enlirium he had entirely neglected to observe the lighten,


Iu Rusia ev. ry considerable house keeps a But the villain knew his own advantages tvo man, whose business is to watch all night. He well to obey; he was in possession of her secret is commonly one of the meanest slaves; in the || and threatened to go to the Baron. Mary cast herday-tine he is employed in the vilest offices, and self at his feet; promised him his freedom, offered his lodging is liule better than a dog-kennel. her fortune; all her efforts were in vain; he still Mary, in her distress, applied to this wretch. He persisted in his execr:ble design. Then Mary enters her chamber, prostrates himself, and begs pretend d she would consent to his desires ; she her protection. She raises him, promise it, and conjured him only to do what she required, and lik-wise promises him a sum of money, if he swore she would wait for him in her chamber. will do her a piece of service, and furthfully keep The slave did as she wished. Nobody was yet the secret. She then discovers her misery, and stirring in the ca tle. As soon as she saw him intreats him to take the body of her lover and beyond the walls, she went and knocked at the bure it in the wood.

door of her governess, commanding her to go to The man sullenly listened to her; he imme- the Baro, and to intreat himn to come that indiately perceived the importance of the service stant to his daughter, whose life was concerned. which was required, and from that moment She then returned to her apartment and fastened affected the insolence of a clown who finds him- herself in. Her father arrives, finds the door self necessary. Mary gave him some money, /' shut, speaks to his daughter, and asks her the which he received with indifference, and gave her reason of this proceeding. Shę raises her faint to understand that the Baron would give him voice as much as she is able after what she has more to betray her. This rascat, who a few suffered, and without opening the door, she tells minutes before dared not life his eyes to the her father the whole story; she reproaches him das.ghter of his master, and who was accustomed with having contemned her love, and the irreto lock on them both as divinities on whom his sistible passion she had felt; ther., in a more fate, his lif: depended, who thought himself affectionate tone, she swears she has forgiven hima happy to sleep in the corner of a stable, and 10 ail, but that she could no longer live after such escape the chastisenient which the meanest ser

horrors. vant might daily inflicton liim for his negligence; The terrified father calls his servants, they this monster darer! to wish to

possess the

person break open the door ; but it was too late ; she of Mary. He explained himself sufficiently, and had stabbed herself, and was no longer living. begin to behave himself with impudent audacity. i The Baron was then sensible how dearly his in. The young Baroness, although overwhelmed veterate cruelty cost hiin, and the vile slave rewith grief, found strength to repel him, and with ceived the just punishment of his villany; he was becoming dignity ordered him to get out. on the same day empaled alive.



When a publication of any description is virtue, which alone give honour to rationality, sent into the world, it is the privilige of each and dignity to humanity. individual to examine its contents, and state his The leading feature which is observable in opinion of the degree of merit or demerit that every publication, is always the most illustrative ought to be attached to it; and in proportion as he of its true character and real tendency and deavail: hirself of this privilege with a view to pro- sign. When therefore we find ourselves disposed mote the true interests of society, the task he per- to compare a few publications of a peculiar de. forins becomes interesting, useful, and acceptable. scription, and of a recent date, with each other,

In a community celebrated for refined taste, we cannot but observe something so much like for polished manners, for the endearing felicities a systematic design to destroy, in the estimation of domestic intercourse, and for all the engaging of the people, that due respect for those who accomplishments and fascinating elegancies of move in the very first circles of life, that we cinsocial life, any attempt, consistent with truth and not reflect on the tendency of those publications propriery, that can be made to rescue characters without experiencing sensations of terror arising of acknowledged eminence from the destructive ll from a consideration of the consequences to effects of calumny and detraction, must be highly | which such diabolical liberties, ii countenanced gratifying to every person who possesses a mind and encouraged, must eventually lead. It is ovr influenced by those solid principles of genuine interest to respect virtue above all things; and it No. XXIII. Vol. III.

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is equally our interest to respect virtuous cha- not to add to the deformity of o: hers. For ob. racters for virtue's sake. It is also highly ex- jects and for subjects on which to exercise a pedient to respect rank, as a link essentially ne- malignant disposition, he who is disposed to de cessary in the chain of social and political life, fame can never be at a loss. From the exercise without which mankind cannot exist with com- of a disposition diabolical in its nature, and beyond fort or security. Rank is a prize which stimulates all calculation dangerous in its tendency, nothing many a one to the achievement of deeds of l but disaffection, discord and rebellion can will heroism, which perhaps nothing but rank would be expected to take place. Detraction is the have moused him to perform). At the prospect of produce of a soil that is never barren; and in honour thousands disregard dangers, and brave the proportion as we weaken, either by this or any terrors of death with a fortitude that nothing can other vice, the moral and political influence and appai or surpass; of this manly and laudable | salutary operation of public respect, we open the spirit of rational enterprise, which may be render- door to public calamity. Every avenue that ed subservient to the noblest purposes of life, || leads to disrespect leads to disaffection; and if nothing can deprive the possessors but a certainty | pursued will terminate in batred. When the and conviction that the honours they are zealously conduct of mankind is influenced by opinion emulous to deserve and obtain, will never be instead of principle, the greatest villain is likely conferred.

to obtain the greatest confidence and the greatest Consistent with the respect in which rank

patronage. It is a melancholy trait in the cha. ought ever to be held for its salutary influence racter of man that he is much less ready and on the public mind, a reflecting person cannot zealous in defending and protecting a character but consider every attempt that is made to lessen

that report may have loaded with suspicion, than or destroy such influence, either in public or he is to receive and admit suspicion as a proof of private life, as derogatory to the true and essen- guilt. Nor can his pride stoop to the acknox. zial interests and permanent felicity of every ledgment of what is good in others so readily as enlightened and civilized establishment. Nor is his meanness can descend to the belief and proour respect for rank to be confined to characters mulgation of what is not so. This is a defect of our own sex. The female character has equal arising less from mental debility than from men. clain to ali the deference and respect to which cal indolence, gross corruption or conscious de the rank she may move in entitles her. And he, || pravity. All nature is defective in some point; who by calumny, slander, or defamation of any and all the operations of nature collectively taken description, attempts to lessen or destroy that re- are intended to co-operate for !he purpose of sup• spect which is properly due to any individual, is plying such defect, providing a remedy for it, an enemy to the community to which he belongs. or counteracting its influence. Man is a defec. Truth is not defamation. It is the manner in tive being, and when his defects are multiplied which, and the intention and design with which, or exaggerated for the purpose of generating or for which truth is circulated, described, and mischief, the circumstance becomes too seriously impressed upon the attention of others, that and too conspicuously dangerous to be treated attaches defamation to the publication of it. with indifference inipunity. The design of a Crime may be correctly stated without being publication constitutes the character of its author. liable to the imputation of defamation. When | Either he is a friend to the community before it is so stated, it evidently carries with it nothing whom he makes his appearance, or he of that spirit which is calculated to inflame the enemy. If he is a friend, eviden: traits of that public mind, to excite resentment, disaffection, friendship will be readily recognised and generally disrespect and contempt; a practice which in the acknowledged. If he is an enemy, his cunning, present age is not only extremely fashionable, but his sophistry, bis asperity, or his malevolence apparently highly gratifying to the peculiar taste will form some of the characteristic fea:ures of of the day. These refinements of moraliey can his work. never be introduced as appendages to happiness, Of the defects of men, none are more extenInflammatory publications are no criterions of the sively, none are more universally inischievous than sound stale of the public body. When those those which are calculated to create a supposi'ion publications are circulated for the purpose of de- l of the certain existence of crime or deformity, grading female characters, and when we perceive || where no such supposition existed before; or to them to be countenanced or even connived at by heighten the degree and the effect of it where it men, we are almost induced to ask if the latter unfortunately might have exister, although un. can possibly be rational beings ! To the weight attended with extensive publicity. To a mind of truth, whatever that weight may be, the actuated by the principles of goodness, a more generous mind adds not a single grain of suppo- | painful duty cannot be performed than that of nitionary demerit. Beautiful in itself, virtue loves publishing the misconduct of another ;

and it


then only becomes a duty when it is undertaken a mind awake to the diabolical influence of for the purpose of preventing a repetition of calumny on the one hand, and to the refined crime, or an extension or continuation of injury. I sensibilities arising from a possibility of existing In both these cases, painful as the duty is, it is innocence on the other; of a mind influenced neither more nor less than a duty arising from by the commiserative operations of sympathy, the nature, influence, and operation of the true under a presumptive probability of frail y; and principles of genuine love and good-will to all of dignited respect and admiration under the mankind. By the influence of these principles || possible inference of malicious and unfounded it is that I would wish to examine the performance | accusations. A respect due to the public ought of Diogenes; but in conformity to the influence to have had, and certainly would have had, some of these principles it is that I am deprived of weight with a writer who was not more under giving him any merit for the productions of his the direction of passions not altogether compen. Whether the “Royal Eclipse" is a fabrica- || mendable, than under the direction of affections tion from newspapers, or whether it is an original calculated to produce regret and reforination production, cannot affect the propriery or im- rather than contempt and disgust. propriety of its publication. If it be asked what One exalted character Diogenes has unequi. good can be expected to arise to the community || vocally attempted to destroy in the estimation of from a publication of this description? I should | the public, without any real or apparent benefit reply, none whatever. It is neither calculated | arising to the community from the attempt. He to promote the interests of virtue, nor to prevent has at the same time intruded on our notice the practice of vice. It carries with it all the another exalted character, with a wantonness malignity of unqualified censure, and all the l altogether irreconcileable to every known prin. malicious impudence of unblushing exposure. ciple of justice, candour, and consis'ency.--Where the succession to the crown is not likely | Nothing betrays the influence of malignity in a to be affected, where national harmony and se. writer more forcibly than a decided propensity lo curity is not likely to be disturbed, the interference | eradicate the very appearance of all existence of of the public can be neither necessary, useful, || virtue and of excellence in those against whom nor political. It can have no tendency to do the overflowing torrent of abuse is directed. He. good, but it may have a very powerful one in who loves truth and sincerity for virtue's sake, producing mischief. The private domestic tran- loves candour and impartiality for truth's sake, sactions of persons in the very highest rank in | He who writes for the public good, writes for life, should be held as sacred as the private domes- ages to come. He writes as he feels; and if he tic transactions of persons moving in any of the feels as, a rational being ought to feel, the feel. inferior stations in society. Where is the family || ings that he describes will be recognised with who would willingly have all the whims and ca- pleasure and acknowledged with gratitude. By prices to which at times, and under peculiar cir- | such a one the prevalence of report will never be cumstances, it may occasionally or accidentally considered as a substitute for reality of guiit. be subject, exposed to the eye or the ear of the || The value of character will never he dintinished public? Where is the family who will not, for || by the determinations of political expediency, its own peace and security, come forward to re- wherein ration :I harmony and rational confidence press a writer that should thus insolently trespass | are, and ever ought to be, peculiar objects of on a privilege that is interwoven with the very || considerative attention. On either side prevalence principles of domestic liberty. The liberty of lof opinion is no criterion of guilt or of innocence; the press I would by no means infringe on; but much less is a spirit of vehement condemnation the liberty of publishing malicious and unne- a proof of exemption from error of decision. cessary representations, even of real facts, that do | The public accusations of an uprighe writer are not concern the public as a community, I would founded only on facts that are indisputable. He endeavour to crush with all the firmness of cool, trusis not to the accuracy of report; he listens deliberate and persevering disapprobation. Never not to the levity of humour; his ear is deaf 10 can the hands of the common hangman be better The voice of slander; and his heart, in a case or more usefully employed than on occasions like like the one under consideration, is open to conthese. To sacrifice the fuel of malevolence at viction only on the eviilence of his senses. In the footstool of disgrace, must be highly gratify- publishing the crime of another he will not subing to all the votaries of virtue.

ject himself to the possibility of a mistake. NoIt certainly might reasonably have been ex- thing less than positive conviction, and that conpected that the discussion of a subject like that viction the result of the evidence of his own of the “ Delicate Inquiry,” if entered into at senses, will induce him to take froin another all, would, at least, have been entered into with that which he can never repay him, or return the feelings of a delicate and sympathizing mind; him an adequate compensation for. Character

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is a jewel of intrinsic valuc. This value none conspicuous than those of their predecessors. can diminish or destroy but its owner. Ils ex- , Rank and elevation were the objects aginst trinsic value itay be diminished and ruined by which the very first efires of th sirit oi re. the conduct if thot sands. It it is undeservedly beliion in tha' country were dirc.ed. Libels dimir ild, the world at lige becomes the were daily issued from th press in Paris, for the suffer. r. Oftentims the energies of virtue Perute express purpose of desiroving public ecnfidence in proportion to the public estimation of cha- and genera’ing national dissertion. The poral racter to the boner: uud advantage of mankind;! fauily were more particularly the otjects agas! and if tho e energi -- onerate to the advantage of which the venom of invelerare od malevolent the community in proportion as characters become! calumny was directed. The op-ration was gradual conspicuously estimable, much of that influence in its progress, but fit:liy successiul in its effect. must necessarily be lost when those energies are ; It eradicated affection and respect; and it proenfolded in the strong web of public calumny, 'duced suspicion and hatred. It effected a change from which they can never be wholly rescued of opinion inimical to virtue and religion; and after they have been once enviously and mali- 1 by this change the kindling sparks of di-affection, ciously, although unjustly, entangled. This is a disloyalty, and infidelity, were blown in'e a flame, consideration of so serious and of so lamentable whi h devoured and consuned every thing that a nature, that I have often supposedl ir to be almost was before esteemed sacred and respecable, impossible that any person exercising the privi. Against this fame the rie; of consanguinity and lege of a rational being, and possessing the smallese, frientship were equally insecure. The toleration possible degree of sympa: hy ar fellow.feeling for of caluniny is the certain forerunner of inevitable another, could be so despicabl: dcpraved as to

destruction. Those who connive at this vice, attempt to ruin, or even to call in question the sleep in danger; but those who encourage it, are respectability of ny character, for any purpose roused from their error only by the ruin that whatever, where the proof of its deformity was awaits them. Of all calumny, political calumny not altogether clear, satisfactory and unequivocal. or calumny circulated for the purpose of eff.ctThe nurderer is far less cruel than a person of ing some political views, or of resenting some this description; and he is far less an enemy to political measures, is always the most extensively the happiness of his own species. He s'abs, but ruinous. Its prevailing object is to dispossess the pang of regret excited by the effect of his virtue of excellence, goodness of value, honesty barburity in the victim of his hatred is healed for of confidence, affatsility of popularity, dignity of ever. The other also stabs, but it is with a view respect, generosity of merit, rank of veneration, to establish a cause of reflection, une isiness, and religion of utility. It contubutes to annihi. discord, and disgrace for ages to come. The one late all love of goodness, all deierence tu greatis soon forgotten, because its effects have, with ness, and all subordination to law. It mark, no respect to this world, only a temporary duration,

distinction bewren taleprs and virtues; it preo and a temporary operation : the other is remem- serves no medium between ablity and fidelity; it bered for ever; because the attachment of vicc maintains no precise separation beween the cunto rank, is what too many in all ages of the solations arising from confidence and the apparewirld refer to with a kind of avage delight and hensions resulting from suspicion. To sincenty brutal avidity, incompatible with every ieelug it pays not the homage of approbation ; to deceit that can possibly arise from any rational or reli- it evinces not a disposition to be displ-ased. Like gious principle. Nothing less than a determined the whirlwind, in its progress, it involves us in and continued activity of virtue can effectually dangers that no niortals can relieve us froin. In check or counteract the progress and establish- every direction the effect is felt, but from no ment of this powerfully destructive vice. To

quarter can its consequences be avoided. The weaken the influence and the effect of every state is as insecure as the individual. The court exertion and of every undertaking and design as the cottage. Royalty is invested with no talisthat is truly commendable, is the undeniable

man by which its direction can be changed, its motive of every species of defumation. Persons | velocity impeded, or its ruinous consequences pecularly respected for their doinestic, their prevenied. The toleration of calumny is the social, and their public virtues, who have obtained toleration of universal inischi f. To this tolerasomething more than a common share of pop- tion must be attributed the insecurity of king, larry, are always to be found among the number | donis, of nations, and of empires. Nothicg an selected as objects of public reprobation. It is 11 withstand that tempest which is suffered to beat the object of calumny to gener te mischief. It down virtue by the admitted and predominant was by this destructive engine that the families li operation of this malign.:nt and destructive vice, of the nobility of France were swept away to which in its birth wears the appearance of werkmake room for those whose virtues were not mure ness and inconsequentiality; it begins its course

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