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receive the principal part of their provisions in them a small sum of mones, which has been rekind; while the soldiers only receiv., including served for them at the school, for the close of the money for their bread, six sous a day, French | their studies. This is the produce of ancient money (three pence;) and the grenadiers six || legacies, of which there are others that furnish a sous and a liard. The pay of a cominodore is fund to supply those students who have under1848 rix-dollars, and that of a colonel only 1740. gone the requisite examinations, with the means A lieutenant in the navy has 192 rix-dollars, and of improving themselves by travelling, and a rea lieutenant in the army 135.

sidence in foreign universities. These usually, The Danish Minerva has an observation with || during the last year, go to London, or Paris, or respect to the sailors, which appears to us founded even farther; but it is much to be regretted, that on the strictest truth. “ It is," says the author, “a they rarely take their course towards Sweden and fact generally acknowledged, or, at least easily | Russia, and that frequently they do not even proved, that there is nu nation which has applied | visit Norway, itself with more earnestness and success than ours The library of the university is very volumito preserve the health of its sailors, and furnish nous, but it is not in fact of great utility. It them with good provisions. The English alone contains few modern works, and many of the supply theirs with food as wholesome and in ancient are not coni plete. It seems to have been equal abundance; but no nation has been more adopted as a principle which does not appear to minutely careful in the measures it has taken to be ill founded, that a library so complete as that maintain order and cleanliness on board its vessels. of the King, and which may so easily be conThe same may be said relative to the arrange- sulted, is sufficient for such a city as Copenments made with respect to the sick and wound- hagen. But what is especially valuable in the ed. No where is so much care taken to provide | library of the university, is a collection of Icethem with the necessary clothing, and furnishlandic manuscripts, many of which have already them with it at a reasonable price. The sailors || been published. are not treated like prisoners, who cannot be The botanie garden contains about seven thou. suffered to go on shore. The list of the deaths | sand plants, from every part of the globe. It is that have taken place on board our ships during daily open to those whu apply themselves to the the last nine years, is a strong testimony in favour | study of that science, and plants are likewise disof the good treatment of the crews."

tributed several times in the week to such stuCopenhagen possesses a very considerable and dents as wish to form collections. richly endowed university; but it is an ancient The cabinet of natural history is well furnished, establishment, which, notwithstanding various and contains many rare specimens; the collecreformations and changes, still too evidently bears | tion of serpents especially is very considerable. the marks, inanners, and religion, of the age in | A great number of insects have been presented which it was founded. It is composed of twenty. by the society of Arabian travellers, Niebuhr, &c. eight professors; viz. four of theology, five of The collection of minerals contains almost all jurisprudence, five of physic and surgery, the the known species, and some others which have rest are professors of philosophy, in the vague

not been described. The whole is arranged acacceptation of that word, for there is only one cording to the system of Werner. This cabinet who gives a course of philosophy, properly so is open to every person once a week. called, while another gives a complete course of The university has besides a chemical laboFrench belles lettres. All the sciences are culti. ratory, and an anatomical amphitheatre. vated here, with the exception, perhaps of one The academy of surgery, composed of dis*: .. or two, and all the professors have made them- | guished and celebrated professors, is independent selves known by learned works; some have even of the university. acquired a reputation which has extended The veterinary school is equally respectable; throughout Europe. The number of students is but it is not yet required in Denmark, as in Ausestimated to amount to 700, and in general we tria and Saxony, that all apprenticed farriers shall may affirm that they are well instructed. They l) indiscriminately go through a course of lectores undergo strict examinations on several subjects, ll in it: it has been judged sufficient to oblige which even in Germany are too much neglected, I every diocese to send to it a pupil. The number as the mathematics, astronomy, the learned lan- of scholars in it is usually about forty. guages, &c.

The principal Miterary societies are, the acade. There are different establishments in which a my of sciences; the society for promoting the considerable number of students are lodged gratis, | study of the history and languages of the North; and receive a small pension to enable them to the academy of belles lettres; the socitly of rural prosecute their studies. On their arrival at the economy; the royal society.of medicine; the university, the scholars frequently bring with genealogico-heraldic society, which is publish

No. XXIV. Vol. III.

ing an historical accüunt of the noble families of , likewise Petersburgh may oppose some celebrated Denmark, with an engraving of their arms; the arists; but these are phenomena which may be society of Icelandic literature, which bas for its compared to planets surrounded by two or three object the instruction, especially in economical satellites, which may be too easily confounded knowledge, of the Icelanders, by publishing its among the infinite number of common stars. It memoirs in their language; the society of Scan- | is, however, enjoined to all persons, whose pindinavian literature, established to unite the fession requires a knowledge of drawing, to send learned of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway, by regularly their pupils to take lessons at the aca• alternately publishing their labours ; and lastly, demy. They cannot ever obtain their freedom the new society of literature, All these societies in these professions till they have submitted to publish works, propose prizes, and prosecuting the examination of the academy a drawing with zeal and perseverance, their several objects, | made from the work of some eminent master, continually diffuse a variety of knowledge, which | The last public exbibition of pictures was in has already elficaciously contributed to the state 1795. The private collections of paintings are of splendour which has been attained by a small much too insignificant to merit notice, though country so little favourad by nature, and which we sometimes find in them very interesting pic. has had to struggle against more than one power-tures, principally among the portraits, a laste for ful obstacle.

which is much the most general. The superb library of the King is endowed The King's library contains more than eighty with a fund of three thousand rix dollars per thousand engravings, as also a superb collection annum, for adding to it new and rare books, and of Aowers and fruits, painted on vellum, forming has been enriched with two magnificent collec. four large volumes in folio, and one of a smaller tions of prints. It may reasonably be presumed, size, monuments of the industry of the last that in a city containing so many men of learn- age. ing, and in which the study of foreign languages

There are at Copenhagen two equestrian stajs more cultivated than perhaps any whese else, tues, one of which decorates the square of the there must be many excellent private libraries, as new town, and represents Frederick V. It is a also, circalating libraries, and reading societies, superb piece of sculpture, the work of Saly, which subscribe for almost all the new works and who at the time of its erection, published the journals published in Europe.

description of it in French. The writer of the The cabinet of curiosities formerly enjoyed a present article saw this Colossus conveyed to the very great reputation, which in fact it still de- place where it is erected, and is convinced that serves from the valuable things it contains. It it is necessary to have witnessed such a spectacle, therefore is frequently visited by strangers, and to form an idea of what may be effected by the receives the enconiums of amateurs. There are

aid of inachines, and the hands of men, directed also several private collections of curious objects, by genius. It was a scene the most truly grand which there is reason to believe will soon be and majestic that can be imagined. added to the cabinet of the King, to form a na- At a small distance from the ciis, is a very tional museum. In fine, if we wish to have a beautiful obelisk, erected in memory of the aboo general but precise idea of the present improved lition of the feudal rights. One of the most cistate of literature at Copenhagen, it will be suffi. rious edifices is the observatory, finished in 1656, cient to know, that there are now in that city after the plan of the celebrated Longomontanus. seveo:cen or eighteen printers, nearly the same Its height is one hundred and fifty fect, and its number of booksellers; and that there are pub- diameter sixty. A winding ascent, gentle and Jished about twenty journals, and almost as many alınost insensible, without a single step, leads to gazettes and periodical publications.

the top, supported on one side by a column of Notwithstanding all the efforts of the govern | stone, and on the other by the wall of the tower. ment to encourage the fine arts, no:withstanding It is of such a solid construction, and the dethe ancient and admirable establishment of the clivity is so easy, that there are instances of its academy of painting and sculpture, it must be having been ascended in a carri-ge. confessed, chat with the exception of music, it To give an idea of the commerce of Copenis not at Copenhagen that we find the greatest | hagen it will be sufficient to say, ih t in the year number of amateurs and real connoisseurs. It 1798 there were three hundred and thirty-eight appears that, in general, the less temperate cli- || ships, carrying 'wentysix thousand one hundred mates of the north are unfavourable to the cul. and eighty-three lusts, and navigating in every rivation of painting and sculpture. From Dres. part of the globe. In 1745 there were only den to Petersburgh these aris are reduced, ii may reckoned one hundred and three, but the number be said, merely to vegelate. Sweden, indeed, || has been contioually increasing progressively

. bgas.s her Sergell; to whom Copenhagen, and In the year before last, five thousand nine hume

dired and ninety-four ships entered the port of panies are therefore so mixed that even in those Copenhagen, of which two thousand and sixty- which might be expected to consist only of six were from different foreign ports, iwo thou- courtiers, we find merchants, literary men, artists, sand four hundred and ninety from Danish ports,

and vice versa. The lines of demarkation be. four hundred and fourteen from Norway, nine tween the different ranks are very indistinctly hundred and iwelve from the two duchies, and drawn. I have seen ministers in the saine party ninety-two from the East and West Indies.- with artists, and their ladies with the widow of From 1797 10 1799 more than forty vessels have an apothecary. The brother-in-law of a chambeen annually sent to Iceland. However advan. berlain is frequently only a common clerk, and tageous to Denmark this commerce may appear,

the wife of a marshal of the court, has visited it would doubtless be more so were it not all almost every day at the house of the minister of concentered in the capital, which by attracting the parish."-But when we come out of Copen. to itself every kind of industry prevents its ex- hagen we expect to find the environs full of ertion in the provinces, which are in conse- small inns and ale-houses. They are indeed sufquence condemned to a languor fatal to the ge. || ficiently numerous, but are neither wretched for neral prosperity.

dirty; though they do not present the same As to the mechanical professions they do not cheerfulness nor convenience which we are ac. here afford any subject for praise, nor do the customed to find in the neighbourhood of many abilities of our artisans merit any particular no- other great cities. There are, however, a number tice.' The establishment of corporations forming of handsome country houses, in which strangers a long and fatal chain, which extends from the are the better received, as the inhabitants of Coextremity of the empire far into the north, in- | penhagen, being generally able to speak several cessantly presents obstacles to the progress of in- foreign languages, are extremely hospitable; and dustry. At Copenhagen, indeed, the example it is not necessary for a foreigner to speak the has lately been given of the means which should | language of the country to be well received; it is be employed to destroy this monstrous produc- sufficient to be able to explain him.se!f in French tion of the ages of ignorance, and the moment or German. approaches, when, after considering and regu- Travellers, likewise, should not omit-to visit lating the interests of the poor, attention will be Cronenburg, Elsineur, the manufactory of arms seriously directed to the measures proper for fa- of Count Schimmelmann near Fredensburg, vauring the develrpement and perfecting of | and the cannon foundery of the Prince of Hesse, ialents. A particular society has undertaken to which are superb and delightful situations, execute the plan which will lead to so desirable If we would entirely vary the scene, and turn an object.

our view to a soil, manners, and customs abso. This city, within these ten years, may boast | lutely different, we have only to go to the Isle an establishment, the parallel of which is scarcely | of Amag, which communicates with the city by any where to be found except in some parts of a bridge, and of which a small part is incorpo. Germany. This is a school for forming tutors rated with the city itself. This island, which is for the country schools. The number of pupils sevaral leagues in cireuit, is perfectly level, and which have been sent out or still remain in it | only embellished with two or three small copses, amounts to one hundred and fifteen. These ap- || forming as it were one entire kitchen garden, prenticed-preceptors are taught, boarded, &c. at which furnishes Copenhagen .with vegetables, a price extremely moderate. Another establish- and some fine meadows which supply it with meat is soon to be formed for the instruction of milk. The inhabitants of the Isle of Amag are those who are to exercise the functions of masters

descended from Batavians, who settled there at in the Latin schools. The plan of this latter in the beginning of the sixteenth century. Those stitution has been approved by the King.

of the country parts of the island, though they As to society and visiting, we may refer to the may be said to be at the gates of the city, have testimony of Mr. Ramdvhr. “ In the choice of preserved their ancient dress, customs, and even, associates," says that judicious writer, “no re- in some villages, considerable remains of their gard is had to rank or birth. Every one chuses a language; without, however, retaining either all circle at his pleasure, and without consulting any the industry or all the economy for which theit. thing but his connections and inclinations. Com. ancestors were so commendably distinguished.

LI 2

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE LATE ARCHBISHOP OF YORK,

William MARKHAM, LL. D. Archbishop of by darkening and perplexing the human under. York, was born in Ireland, we believe, in the standing, and bringing into contempt whatever year 1718. He was the son of an officer, at that had been esteemed sacred in religion, science, or time with his regiment in Ireland, and who was government. The Corcio was published, together of a Nottinghamshire

' family: he sent this his with a Latin speech made on presenting Dr. eldest son in Westminster school for education. Thomas as prolocutor to the higher house of conFrom Westminster he removed to Christ Church, || vocation. Oxford, where he took the degree of bachelor of In January 1771, Dr. Markham was conse. arts in 1742, and ihat of master in 1745. Atcrated Bishop of Chester, and in the succeeding school and at college he was distinguished by the month was, in the first establishment for the eduelegance of his exercises, and particularly of biscation of the Prince of Wales, chosen preceptor Latin verses.

to his Royal Highness. Dr. Cyril Jackson, the About the year 1750, Dr. Markham was ap- || present Dean of Christ Church, was at the same pointed first master of Westminster school ; time appointed sub-preceptor. ..and he continued to discharge the laborious In June 1776, a new establishment was formed, duties of that useful and honourable employ. I when Dr. Markham was succeeded by Dr. Hurd, ment until January 1764. During his being the present Bishop of Worcester, and Dr. Jack. master of this school, we can truly assert, that son by Dr. Arnold, tutor of St. John's College, none who preceded him was more truly beloved, Cambridge. Why Dr. Markham and Dr. Jack. of held in greater respect by the youth of that son were not allowed to complete the education highly esteemed seminary of learning: indeed of the Prince of Wales, is not generally known: we have heard numbers of those who were under their successors had been celebrated tutors at his care, and who are now in the first situations Cambridge, and they had been distinguished at in the country, mention Dr. Markham with the Oxford. It seems, therfore, that it was intended utmost regard and veneration.

to afford bis Royal Highness the united advan. Anuble first master of Westminster is too pro- | tages that might be expected from those who minent a person to be overlooked by those who excelled in the different pursuits of the two have the disposal of perferment. We find ac universities." cordingly that in 1759, Dr. Markham was pro

This at least is known, that Dr. Markham, in mored to the second stall in Durham cathedral, the discharge of his duty, gave great satisfaction while he held the mastership, and in 1765, to

to the King, who personally superintended the the deanery of Rochester, after he had resigned education of his son, and that he has always reit. Both promotions were most probably owingtained a very enviable portion of the royal to patrons, to whom he had been recommended favour. The following anecdote may be men, by his public services.

tioned in proof :-Mr. Pite promised to a friend In 1767 he vacated the deanery of Rochester, the deanery of York, when it should become and was created dean of Christ Church. The vacant by the death of Dr. Fontagne ; but he deanery of Christ Church is a dignity of very great was obliged to revoke the promise, having found importance and responsibility, involving the care that the King, in consequence of an application both of a college and a cathedral.

from Dr. Markham, intended it for his second In 1769 he was chosen tn preach the Concio son, the Rev. George Markham, who now enad Clerum to the synod of the province of Canter-joys it. bury. On this occasion he demonstrated, with On January 20, 1777, Dr. Markham was transgreat force of argument and elegance of languagelated to the Archbishopric of York. His life, as it that whatever in human knowledge is vain and can be viewed by a distant observer, appears to fanciful, has always been contrary to true religion; have been an uninterrupted series of uncommon while it never oppused that learning which is con- | felicity. Distinguished at a great school and an formable to reason and nature. He bestowed a eminent college, over both of which he was after just encomium on the character of Newton and wards called to preside, and over the former at a his views in philosophy; and at the same time very early period of life; advancing in prefere lashed, with deserved severity, the metaphysi- ments and reputation until he was promoted cians of the French school, who were then al- to a bishopric, and selected for an employment

, tempting to carry their designs into execution, l) with the due execution of which the future hipo

piness of his country was intimately connected; and graceful; in his manners and address, afterwards rewarded by the second dignity of the extremely dignified ; and in his conversation, English Church, which he held nearly chiriy.one instructive, entertaining, and lively: our best years; the father of a numerous and prosperous encomiums, however, must fail in delineating family, and continued till within a year or two of his character; yet is but justice to his his death, in an extreme but vigorous old age, memory to assert, that he passed an honourable able to feel all the happiness of his situation; life the service of his King, his County, what has he not enjoyed of those things which and the Church, with the additional lustre of are supposed to constitute the splendid or the every social and private virtue; and closed solid satisfaction of life? These satisfactions he the scene, with a death worthy that high and did enjoy, and he enjoyed them worthily. sacred office which he had so long and deser

In his person the Archbishop of York was tall || vedly filled.

ESSAY ON LEARNING.

« Perhaps in the same open basket laid,

with sundry articles of trade that have little conDown to the street together be convey'd ;

nection with classical fragments, whilst the Where pepper, odours, frankincense are sold, tradesman, like the Sibyl, cares not a farthing And all small wares in wretched rhimes unrolrd." | what becomes of them.

FRANCIS.

Vunquam deinde cato volitantia prendere sa.ro The following Essay is written by the Rev. Nec revocare silus aut jungere carmina curat. H. Keti, author of the celebrated work, entitled

VIRGIL. 66 Elements of General Knowledge.” — It was written in the year 1786, and published in

I was led into this train of thought by rethe Olla Podrida, a work orginating and pub-ceiving a pound of sugar from my neighbour lished at Oxford.

Tim Tear-tiile, the grocer, wrapt up in a sheet

of letter-press. Tim deals so largely in books, It it melancholy to reflect on the unhappy that he has many more than are sufficient for his circumstances which have frequently attended

own (ise, with which he very bountifully obliges the death of authors. If we turn over the pages the literati in foreign parts. I reinember, just of literary history, we shall find thit although before the American war broke out, my curiosity many have enjoyed the gratification of hearing

was excited to know what a large hogshead, their own praises, and some have been basked

which stood at the door contained. I found, on in the sunshine of opulent patronage, yet their examination, that it was filled with old pamphlets, deaths have been often obscure, and some

most of thein on subjects of liberty, non-con. times disastrous. Cicero fell a victim to party- formity, and whiggism, which Tim was going to rage; Sidney expired in the field of batile; ship of for a Yankee shopkeeper in New-EngCrichton fell by assassination; and Otway perish-land. Whatever sage politicians may have said ed by famine.

to the contrary, it it not at all to be doubted, The fate of books is oftentimes similar to that that the importation of this cargo spread the of authors. The Aattery of dedication, and the wild-fire of rebellion among the Bostonians, and testimony of friends, are frequently interposed was the sole cause of the late bloody and in vain to force them into popularity and ap- expensive war. Although my neighbour Tim plause. It is not the fashion of the present day is no scholar by profession, yet it is astonishing to indulge the hangman with the amusement of what a progress he has made in books. He has committing books to the flames; yet they are finished a complete set of the General Councils, in many instances condemned to a more ignoble and is now hard at work upon the Anle. Nicene destiny. The grocer, the chemist, and the tallow. | Fathers, whom he cuts up with greater expedichandler, with “ruthless and unhallowedshands," tion than Dr. Priestley himself. Perhaps more tear whole libraries in pieces, and feel as liitlelogic and metaphysics have passed through his compunction on the occasion, as the Thracian hands than Lord Monboddo ever saw. He would ladies did, when they dismembered Orpheus. have been a long time dispatching a set of French The leaves are distributed among their customers Reviewers, had he not begun upon them when

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