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The differences with Portugal in 1801 afford. not dismiss or disgrace, he removed by advance ed him a safe opportunity to indulge his new- nient into distant provinces, or sent them with born anıbition for military honours and exploits. i liberal pensions to reside in the country. He Accordingly, at the cominencement of the cam- observed the same conduct with regard to the paign, he boldly took the command, well in- | offices of the ministers of state; where the most formed that the Portuguese had no means of re- inferior clerks, messengers, and attendants, as sistance against the forces with which they were well as the chief secretaries, all are indebted to assailer by France and Spain at the same time. him for their places. Such is his jealousy and This generalissimo had never even witnessed an precaution, that nobody is admitted to the preengagement; and, from the nature of his educa- sence of their Spanish Majesties, who has not tion, could have but a slight idea, if any, of the previously asked and received his approbation theory of military tactics.

arid consent. Like all other ignorani people he Perhaps there is not to be found, among the is governed by prejudices, and tormented by illimany incapable members of the cabinets of most beral and superstitious notions. Every body who Princes of Europe, a person inferior in talent, or is not born a Spaniard he despises; and those ang mental acquirements, 1o the Prince of Peace. who are not inembers of the Church of Rome, But the exclusive favour of the Queen, who has he hates under pretence of pitying them. He procured him the favour of the King, supplies thinks that all valour, honour, and virtue, on the all defects, overlooks all errors, and bestows all other side of the Pyrennean Mountains are artiadvancements. His abilities are the object official; and that all religion, not acknowledging universal ridicule among the enlightened men of a Roman Pontiff for its visible chief, and the Spain, and his character is very much despised | Vicar of Christ upon earth, is not only conby the ancient and more respectable part of the demnable and dangerous, but false. He makes nobility. In opposition to their wishes, and to no distinction between the faith of the Protestant, counteract their jealousy, he has made a vast ad. or the creed of the Mussulman. In his opinion dition of upstarts, like himself, to the noblesse of they are both infilels, and as such, undeserving Spain. No man of learning has ever experienced confidence in this world, and certain of damna. his patronage, no merit has ever obtained his re. tion in the next. wards, and no patriotism his protection. He is The confessor of the King and of the Queen entirely surrounded by his own creatures, among is also the confessor of the Prince of Peace, who whom there is not one of reputed or even com- generally every Saturday (but never less than mon capacity.

iwice a month) eases the burden of his mind beIn providing for his relations, however, he has fore the reverend father, and receives his absolu. been nearly as extravagant as Napoleon Bona- tion. All persons who desire to continue in his parte. Every person who can claim the least | good graces must imitate his devout example. affinity to him, either direct or indirect, lineal or His nurse, on whom he bestows a pension of collateral, is sure of a good place, whatever his four thousand dollars, resides with him at Madrid, abilities may be. The first offices in the country as well as in the royal palaces in the country are occupied by his relations. His father, who Her sole occupation is to interpret his dreams, has scarcely learnt the first elements of educa. || she having, when he was a baby, from one of tion, now fills one of the highest situations in

hers, predicted that he should become a great Spain. His elder brother is Viceroy of Mexico man! His first occupation every morning is to and the West Indies, and his younger brother, write down what he has dream in the night, and Diego, who is almost literally an ideot, has been to give it to her, that he may have an explicapromoted to the rank of a captain-general in the tion before he goes to bed again. In his day army, with large pensions.

dreams, during his nap after dinner, in the after. It has surprised many that the Prince of Peace, noon, he has no confidence nor she any power with all his numerous deficiencies, has been able to comprehend them.. He is so jealous of this to preserve himself so long in favour at a court, || precious talent, that he was near turning her off which for centuries has furnished, by the capri- || for having once gratified the curiosity of the Prin. cious inconstancy of its choice with regard to cess of Peace on this interesting subject. favourites, materials both for romances and sales, His annual revenue, from his numerous places for history, and for the drama. But during the and pensions, and from the many estales viven first warmth of the friendship of the King, and of bin by royal bounty, amounts to five hundred the attachment of the Queen, he took care to and fifty thousand dollars, about one hundred clear the court, from the first lord in waiting and twenty-five thousand pounds. But as he is down to the lowest valet, of every person whom the master of the royal treasury, no other bounhe suspected of envy at his elevation, or whose | dary is set to his expences or cupidity, but his frdelity he doubted. Those he could or dared own discretion. He is supposed to have placed several considerable sums in the public funds of believed in most other countries. The fanatics England, France, and Holland, in his own name at Rome alone do the Prince of Peace the honour or in that of his wife. This lady is a daughter of of accusing him of impiety for this act, not of an uncle of the King, whose marriage with a philanthropy but of justice. subject was regarded as a mėsalliance, and never Both when at Madrid, and in the royal palaces confirmed by the late or present King.

So in the provinces, the King and Queen always great, however, is his authority, that she is how | sleep in the same room in different beds, and admitted at court wi:h all the honours and dis- often the Prince of Peace ob:ains the honour of tinctions due to a Princess of the blood.

having his bed placed by the side or between the Such are some of the traits and particulars | beds of his royal master and mistress. During of a person, who, by his shameful power over the journey to the frontiers of the kingdom in the Queen, has reduced the Spanish monarchy | 1796, where the King and Queen went to meet to a wibutary state of France. By his dangerous their daughter and son-in-law, the Princess and incapacity and impolitic conduct, the throne of Prince of Brazils, the bed of the Prince of Peace Madrid is suspended between a revolution daily was every night, in every house where they dreaded, and the burden of a disgraceful war, rested, placed between those of his royal So. which has neither object nor motive, in which vereigns, having the Queen on his right and the success would hasten the ruin of the King, and King on his left hand. From the known reliin which every defeat deserves to be celebrated | gious and moral sentiments of the royal couple, with a Te Deum. Thanks to the Prince of Peace, ) and their mutual affection and regard, what in it is in this deceitful position, it is in the arms of other countries would have excited ridicule, if the assassins of his family, that the King of Spain not scandal, was in Spain merely considered as a drags his existence, a prey to the perturbation proof of their reciprocal confidence and friend. of his mind, the ignorance and indecisions of his | ship for their favourite. * ministers, the complaints, the misery of his sub- The Prince of Peace, though the real, is no je:ts; to anxiety for the present and to terror longer the nominal prime minister of Spain. In for the future. Slumbering beneath a roof of || critical affairs, or when transactions of great poignards, this monarch, bound by the ties of consequence are upon the eve of being dean unnatural alliance, can neither break them, | cided, he however always condescends to en. nor suffer them to remain unbroken without tertain foreign ambassadors with his dulness, danger; can neither make peace nor support in his private audiences. Don Pedro Cevallos

His allies are his scourges, his enemies are is the first secretary of state for the foreign dehis protectors. He would cease to be a King | partment. Don Joseph Antonio Caballero is the were the English to cease being victorious. Long | minister of justice, and has ad interim the porte ago would Bonaparte and Talleyrand have struck | folio of the war departinent. Don Domingo off the King of Spain from among the number | de Grandallana is the chief minister of the navy, of crowned heads; long ago would their regicide and Don Miguel Cayeian Soler is the minister of and liberticide politics have disposed of the states || the finances. All these ministers are obliged to of this monarch, had not the imposing force of || communicate their reports, plans, or proposals, to Great Britain, the fear of a new coalition, and the Prince of Peace and the Queen, before they the temporary necessity of recurring to artifices, | lay them before the King; who approves of postponed this event.

them and signs them as soon as he hears that they The weakness of the Queen of Spain, in the have not been objected to by his royal consort. choice of her favourite, is the only error with It is impossible to pay a greater compliment to which she is reproached. She is an affectionate the superior genius of the Queen of Spain. wife, a tender mother, a faithful friend, and a generous and good sovereign. Not entirely free

* Le Voyageur Italien, vol. iii. p. 123. In from the Italian superstition imbibed in her the summer of 1797, the author met with Count youth, nor from the Spanish bigotry, which a long de L- at Paris, who is a Brabant nobleman residence in Spain has almost naturalized; she is, || by birth, but a superior officer of the Walloon however, tolerant and endearing, more so than guard of the King of Spain. He confirmed what either her royal consort or her princely favourite. has been said ef the etiquette of placing the bed Thit her liberal principles and sound judgment of the favourite in the middle. He was one of have restrained the inhuman authority and cruel the officers on duty during this journey, and spoke and persecuting spirit of the so much dreaded of it as nothing extraordinary, or rather as an Spanish inquisition, suspended if not abolished ordinary occurrence. its judicial murders, is reported in Spain, and

war.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

CAMIRE.

AN AMERICAN TALE.

I #As one day reproaching a Spaniard, lately | terrific detail of the conquest of Peru: I was but arrired from Buenos-Ayres, with the cruelties too well acquainted with it; allow me to relate which his countrymen had committed on their to you, in my turn, the manner in which we ać. first conquests in America. I recalled to mind, quired Paraguay. This recital will be less irk. with horror, the crimes which had tarnished the some, and may, perhaps, inform you of some glory of a Cortez, a Pizarro, and many other circumstances which are not related in history. beroes who have, perhaps, by their talents and Not knowing well how to answer, I determined Talour, surpassed all that we admire in the an. to listen; and the Spaniard commenced in the cients; and regretted, that so glorious an epocha | following words: in the Spanish history should be recorded on Travellers have made the world acquainted blood-stained pages.

with that extensive and delightful country, situ. My friend had hitherto listened to me with || ated between Chili, Peru, and the Brasils. The patience; a tear rolled down his cheek when 1 || gold and silver mines which it contains are the pronounced the name of Las-Casas. “ He is | least of its treasures. The mildness of its clie our Fenelon," exclaimed he," he did not com- mate, the fertility of its lands, the majestic pose Telemachus, but he explored America to course of its rivers, its immense forests, the prosare a few Indians; and traversed the seas to de. ductions of Europe united with those of Amefend their cause at the council of Charles the rica, the abundance of its fruits and of every Fifth, as the Archbishop of Cambray did that of useful animal, make the inhabitants of Paraguay the Protestants, whom the French also massacred enjoy, almost without cultivation, all the gifts in the Cerennes. They were still persecutors at which nature has shared among the rest of the the end of Louis the Fourteenth's reign : and world. Sebastien Cabot was the first who ex. what were we? What was Europe in the 16th || plored it, in the year 1526, while sailing up the century ever to be commemorated by our great || river which he called Rio de la Plata. The bars discoveries, by the flourishing stale of the fine of silver, which the natives offered the Spaniards, arts in Italy, by the new sects in Germany, and soon attracted o:her navigators. Buenos-Ayres by the crimes of every country? Our neigh- was built, soine fortifications were erected in the bours, the Portuguese, put to the sword those

interior of the country; and, at last, a settlement they conquered on the coast of Malabar, on the was formed at a place called the Assumption, on borders of Ceylon, in the promontory of Ma- the borders of the river Paraguay. lacea. The Dutch, who drove them away, The natives, at the sight of our soldiers, had were not less cruel. In Sweden, the Northern || abandoned their country, particularly the Gua. Nero, and the Archbishop of Upsal, were assas- ranis, a numerous and powerful people, who sinating the senators and citizens of Stockholm. || Sed ainidst inaccessible mountains, the roads to la London the pile was lighted for the Lutherans which were totally unknown to us. Several deand Catholics; and the scaffold was already tachments had endeavoured to penetrate into erecied which was to be sprinkled with the blood || them, but our warriors perished in the attempt, of four Queens. At Paris, you doubtless re- either through hunger or the arrows of the samember the name of the Guises, and the horrid vages. Thus all communication was shut be. sight of the 24th of August, 1572. I will say tween the Spaniards and the Guanaris; the lanils Do more, let us not reproach each other: we have remained in their uncultivated state; and the all been barbarians, but leave to history the me- colony, reduced to ask succour of Europe, could lancholy employment of recording the crimes of

not prosper. Our forefathers, and let us, if possible, only re. It was in this unhappy situation, at the becall to our minds their good deeds, and endeavour | ginning of the seventeenth century, when Don to imitate them. You have repeated to me the Fernando Pedreras was sent there as governor.

A man of his character was not fit to recall the • Anna Bullen, Catherine Howard, Jane Grey, || Guaranis; the haughty and tyranical Pedreras and Mary Stuart.

wished that erery one should bow beneath his

er Both when at Madrid, and in the royal palaces

several considerable sums in the public funds of believed in most other countries. The fanatics England, France, and Holland, in his own name at Rome alone do the Prince of Peace the honour or in that of his wife. This lady is a daughter of of accusing him of impiety for this act, not of an uncle of the King, whose marriage with a subject was regarded as a mésalliance, and never confirmed by the late or present King. So || in the provinces, the King and Queen always great, however, is his authority, that she is how sleep in the same room in different beds, and admitied at court wish all the honours and dis- often the Prince of Peace ob:ains the honour of tinctions due to a Princess of the blood.

having his bed placed by the side or between the Such are some of the traits and particulars | beds of his royal master and mistress. During of a person, who, by his shameful power over the journey to the frontiers of the kingdom in the Queen, has reduced the Spanish monarchy || 1796, where the King and Queen went to meet to a tributary state of France. By his dangerous | their daughter and son-in-law, the Princess and incapacity and impolitic conduct, the throne of Prince of Brazils, the bed of the Prince of Peace Madrid is suspended between a revolution daily was every night, in every house where they dreaded, and the burden of a disgraceful war, rested, placed between those of his royal So. which has neither object nor motive, in which vereigns, having the Queen on his right and the success would hasten the ruin of the King, and King on his left hand. From the known reliin which every defeat deserves to be celebrated | gious and moral sentiments of the royal couple, with a Te Deum. Thanks to the Prince of Peace, l) and their mutual affection and regard, what in it is in this deceitful position, it is in the arms of other countries would have excited ridicule, if the assassins of his family, that the King of Spain not scandal, was in Spain merely considered as a drags his existence, a prey to the perturbation proof of their reciprocal confidence and friendof his mind, the ignorance and indecisions of his ship for their favourite.* ministers, the complaints, the misery of his sub- The Prince of Peace, though the real, is no je:ts; to anxiety for the present and to terror longer the nominal prime minister of Spain. In for the future. Slumbering beneath a roof of critical affairs, or when transactions of great poignards, this monarch, bound by the ties of consequence are upon the eve of being dee an unnatural alliance, can neither break them, || cided, he however always condescends to en. nor suffer them to remain unbroken without tertain forcign ambassadors with his dulness, danger; can neither make peace nor support || in his private audiences. Don Pedro Cevallos

His allies are bis scourges, his enemies are is the first secretary of state for the foreign de his protectors. He would cease to be a King | partment. Don Joseph Antonio Caballero is the were the F.nglish to cease being victorious. Long || minister of justice, and has ad interim the port. ago would Bonaparte and Talleyrand have struck | folio of the war department. Don Domingo off the King of Spain from among the number de Grandallana is the chief minister of the navy, of crowned heads; long ago would their regicide | and Don Miguel Cayeian Soler is the minister of and liberticide politics have disposed of the states the finances. All these ministers are obliged to of this monarch, had not the imposing force of communicate their reports, plans, or proposals, to Great Britain, the fear of a new coalition, and || the Prince of Peace and the Queen, before they the temporary necessity of recurring to artifices, lay them before the King; who approves of postponed this cvent.

them and signs them as soon as he hears that they The weakness of the Queen of Spain, in the have not been objected to by his royal consort. choice of her favourite, is the only error with It is impossible to pay a greater compliment to which she is reproached. She is an affectionate the superior genius of the Queen of Spain. wife, a lender mother, a faithful friend, and a generous and good sovereign. Not entirely free * Le Voyageur Italien, vol. iii. p. 125. In from the Italian superstition imbibed in her the summer of 1797, the author met with Count youth, nor from ihe Spanish bigotry, which a long de at Paris, who is a Brabant nobleman residence in Spain has almost naturalized; she is, by birth, but a superior officer of the Walloon however, tolerant and endearing, more so than guard of the King of Spain. He confirmed what either her royal consort or her princely favourite. has been said ef the etiquette of placing the bed Thut her liberal principles and sound judgment of the favourite in the middle. He was one of have restrained the inhuman authority and cruel the officers on duty during this journey, and spoke and persecuting spirit of the so much dreaded of it as nothing extraordinary, or rather as an Spanish inquisition, suspended if not abolished ordinary occurrence. its judicial murders, is reported in Spain, and

war.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.

CAMIRE.

AN AMERICAN TALE.

i was one day reproaching a Spaniard, lately , terrific detail of the conquest of Peru: I was but arrived from Buenos-Ayres, with the cruelties too well acquainted with it; allow me to relate which his countrymen had committed on their to you, in my turn, the manner in which we aċfirst conquests in America. I recalled to mind, quired Paraguay. This recital will be less irkwith horror, the crimes which had tarnished the some, and may, perhaps, inform you of some glory of a Cortez, a Pizarro, and many other circumstances which are not related in history. heroes who have, perhaps, by their talents and Not knowing well how to answer, I determined valour, surpassed all that we admire in the an- to listen; and the Spaniard commenced in the cients; and regretted, that so glorious an epocha foHowing words: in the Spanish history should be recorded on Travellers have made the world acquainted blood-stained pages.

with that extensive and delightful country, situ. My friend had hitherto listened to me with ated between Chili, Peru, and the Brasils. The patience; a tear rolled down his cheek when 1 || gold and silver mines which it contains are the pronounced the name of Las-Casas. “ He is || least of its treasures. The mildness of its clie our Fenelon," exclaimed he," he did not com- mate, the fertility of its lands, the majestic pose Telemachus, but he explored America to course of its rivers, its immense forests, the prosare a few Indians; and traversed the seas to de. ductions of Europe united with those of Amefend their cause at the council of Charles the rica, the abundance of its fruits and of every Fifth, as the Archbishop of Cambray did that of useful animal, make the inhabitants of Paraguay the Protestants, whom the French also massacred enjoy, almost without cultivation, all the gifts in the Cevennes. They were still persecutors at which nalure has shared among the rest of the the end of Louis the Fourteenth's reign : and world. Sebastien Cabot was the first who ex. what were we? What was Europe in the 16th plored it, in the year 1526, while sailing up the century ever to be commemorated by our great || river which he called Rio de la Plata. The bars discoveries, by the flourishing state of the fine of silver, which the natives offered the Spaniards, arts in Italy, by the new sects in Germany, and soon attracted o:her navigators. Buenos-Ayres by the crimes of every country?

Our neigh- was built, soine fortifications were erected in the bours, the Portuguese, put to the sword those

interior of the country; and, at last, a settlement they conquered on the coast of Malabar, on the was formed at a place called the Assumption, on borders of Ceylon, in the promontory of Ma- the borders of the river Paraguay. lacca, The Dutch, who drove them away, The natives, at the sight of our soldiers, had were not less cruel. In Sweden, the Northern | abandoned their country, particularly the GuaNero, and the Archbishop of Upsal, were assas- ranis, a numerous and powerful people, who sinating the senators and citizens of Stockholm. || led amidst inaccessible mountains, the roads to In London the pile was lighted for the Lutherans which were totally unknown to us. Several de and Catholics; and the scaffold was already | tachments had endeavoured to penetrate into erecied which was to be sprinkled with the blood | them, but our warriors perished in the attempt, of four Queens.* At Paris, you doubtless re- either through hunger or the arrows of the samember the name of the Guises, and the horrid vages. Thus all communication was shut ben sight of the 24th of August, 1572. I will say tween the Spaniards and the Guanaris; the lands no more, let us not reproach each other: we have remained in their uncultivated state; and the all been barbarians, but leave to history the me- colony, reduced to ask succour of Europe, could lancholy employment of recording the crimes of not prosper. our forefathers, and let us, if possible, only re. It was in this unhappy situation, at the becall to our minds their good deeds, and endeavour Il ginning of the seventeenth century, when Don to imitate them. You have repeated to me the Fernando Pedreras was sent there as governor.

A man of his character was not fit to recall the • Anna Bullen, Catherine Howard, Jane Grey, || Guaranis; the haughty and tyranical Pedreras and Mary Stuart.

wished that every one should bow beneath his

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