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'Camire neither can nor ought to obey. If he || Jesuit missionaries were selected to assist this refuse, he will be suspected of treachery ; in aged priest. This treaty dispelled the fears of taking up his defence, I shall be thought as cul- the Guaranis; they repaired to the Assumption, pable; and the governor, I fear, is capable of and divided themselves in:o several tribes, each any thing. You have only one alternative, which of which built a small village, where, under the is to fly this very night and seek an asylum with paternal authority of a Jesuit, every individual the Guaranis. I will follow you, my children ; | learned to cultivate the earth, and the most use. yes, I will, notwithstanding my advanced age.
ful arts. The number of these tribes soon en. Armed with the cross, I will preach to Camire's creased ; in 1734 they consisted of thiny thoubrethren; I shall lead them to Christianity, as I sand families. Every village had its Alcacle, have led him. lo that state of innocence and which was annually chosen by the inhabitants. peace you will always reinain attached to each The vicar watched over the execution of the other; and I shall fulll my duty, I shall serve laws, which were neither numerous ror severe; my God, and my happiness will be equal to the greatest punishments consisted in fasting or yours.”
imprisonment; and it seldom happened that After having displayed the most lively marks there was any cause for their being indicted; of grati' ude to Maldonado, Camire and his be- for this peaceful and innocent people had not loved partner immediately prepared for their de. even the idea of thelt or murder, because the parture. Our hero procured a canoe, in which, Jesuits did not permit any foreigners to enter as soon as the shades of right ha-l descended, they their country. The small tax' which the King all three embarked. Camire skilfully managed of Spain required, was easily paid by exchanging the oars, and they rowed up the river as far as the the sugar, tobacco, and cotton, which a large entrance of the inountains; here they landed, portion of land, cultivated by every inhabitant, and after having sunk their canoe, followed a
who each dedicated two days in the week to this desert path which led through a thick forest; labour, produced. The overplus of this harvest and, after continuing their route for three days,
was destined for the support of the sick, the aged, found themselves in the midst of the Gua. and the fatherless. The young men were taught ranis. Camire met with a truly fraternal recep- the art of war; on festivals they took from the tion; he told them what had happened to him, public armoury their swords and muskets, and and what he owed the Jesuit ; upon hearing of after having been exercised, returned them again which, all the savages overwhelmed him with to the armourer. Often did the invading Portu. attentions, and instantly set to work to build him guese or Brazilianis experience the effects of their a cabin, and one also for Angelina and her hus- discipline and their courage. The villages were band. These habitations were erected on large filled with schools for the instruction of children trees, and were entered with the assistance of a in reading and writing ; they were taught every ladder, which was afterwards removed; this pre- useful art and trade according to the tali nis with caution being necessary to insure safety from the which nature had endowed them; and nothing intrusion of wild beasts and inundations. Soon was wanting among thein but luxury, vice, and established in their new abode, freed from all care poverty. and anxiety, and the troubles which men have
The author of this astonishing change, the so laboriously imposed upon themselves, de- young Camire, easily obtained i he forgiveness of dicating their existence to love and friendship, Pedreras; who, when the Guaranis left their the happy couple tasted the sweets of free native woods, had been put in possession of the dom and innocence united beneath their roof. gold mines. He continued 10 rule under him Beloved by tliat mild nation, Maldonado
with wisdom, till the governor's rapaciousness preached the precepts of his religion, and easily being made known to the court of Madrid, he converted those simple beings who witnessed and was recalled, and liis nephew appointed his sucadmired his virtues.
cessor. Surrounded with aliuence, Camire and All the Guaranis were baptized, and became || Angelina did not neglect their first and best willing subjects to the King of Spain, on condi. 1 friend, the aged Maldonado, who continued to tion that he should send among them no other | bless them with his presence and advice, and missionaries than Maldonado's colleagues. The spent his declining years in happiness beneath Court of Madrid acceded to this proposal, and the roof of his adopted son.
Every person conversant in literature, his || Does not this excessive inquietude as to what read the charining letters of Lady Mary Worlley || would become of his possessions, even long after Montagu. Her husband, Ambassador at Con. He was himself forgotten, tolerably explain the stuntinople, was a man of wit ard talents. Born love of glory, which is however a more reasonto a good fortune, he augmenter it by a strict | able sentiment ; for it is a desirable good to be economy, which gradually degenerated into | esteented by mankind, and the enjoyments of the systeinatic avarice
imagination are as real as those of the senses. Is Mr Montagne possessed a very extensive it not as natural to be pleased with the good landed properly ; his passion was for leaving it | opinion of those who come after us, as with that unincumbered to his descendants.
of our contemporaries who live far from us, and He had an only son, destined to be of a still whom we shall never see? more extraordinary character than his fa!her, and Those moralists who ascribe all our actions to who, in his early youth, having run away from soine motive of real utility, do not understand school, and turnert chimney-sweeper, in his the human heart. This is not the place to inmature a le renouncer his country, and turned vestigate such a question, we shall confine ourmahumetan. That son, as his father allowed himselves to the sole phenomenon of avarice. Money nothing, on that account spent the more, and was at first loved as a means of procuring the contracted in a short time, debts to the amount comforts of life ; and people ended in loving of above a hundred thousand pounds sterling. money for its own sake, and in depriving them
Mr. Mon.agu perceiving that this disposition selves, in order to preserve it, of those very enjoy. of his son would disappoint all his hopes, disin. ments which alone can make it desirable. In the herited him, although he loved him sincerely. same manner the chace was at first followed for His avarice was the governing principle of his
the sake of the game, and afterwards for its owa political life. He was always determined in the sake, without caring for the game. part which he took in public affairs, and his con- Avarice does not appear to be derived from any duct in Parliament, of which he was a member, natural sentiment of uncivilized man; it is, like by the object which he constantly kept in many other passions, the produce of society. It view, of keeping his esiales up to their full || presupposes generally an exaggerated uneasiness value. For exainple, he defended with great about the future; the savage knows only present warmth the establishment of the militia, because enjoyments. He sells his hammock for a bottle he regarded it as a permanent force, destined 10 of brandy, without troubling himself with what protect his possessions from foreign invaders, is to happen on the morrow.
His will is a master-prece in refinement: We have at home a curious instance of avarice, Having disinherited his son, he left all his estaies The late Earl of Bath, just before his death, to the second son of his daughter, the Countess sent for his brother, General Pulteney, who was of Bute. The design of this disposal was to as avaricious as himself, gave him the keys of his oblige Lord and Lady Bute to save part of their bureau and of his strong box, and acquainted income in order to leave to their eldest son a hin with the immense treasures there hoarded. for'une proportional to that of his brother. The General said to him : “ Cannot you sur
He had a coal mine, which annually brought render these keys and your affairs to somebody jn above eight thousand pounds. This he left else? I am seventy-eight years of age, I am in. 10 Lady Buie, upon condition that she bought || firm, and have no need of your treasures.”. “I estates with the produce, of which she was lo re- am still older and more infirm," replied Lord ceive the rents, but after her death, they were Bath; “ I am dying, and I am in still less need likewise to become the property of her second of riches than you are."
As this disposal appeared somewhat con- This passion is extremely varied in its causes trary to the laws, it was discussed, found right, and effects; in many men it is rather a madness and confirmed in the House of Lords. Mr. Mon. || ( Ardor, furor, libido), than a passion ; they gather tayu had foreseen the objection which might be and hoard guineas, as others do shells or medals. made to this disposition, and had discovered the chance or fancy began the collection, the more only combination which could reader it legal and it increases the more they are attached to it; and effectual.
they end by making it the sole pursuit and inIt was renvarked that he had never seen the l terest of their life. young man whom he made his heir.
Avarice is said to be the vilest but not the most What reflections do not these refined combi- | unhappy of passions. But this opinion is con. nations of an extravagint passion give rise to! trary to that which universally prevails. The
1: "He often lent money, when he was sure of
latin word miser, (miserable) occasionally de- || Peterborough, one of the bravest and most ge. noted an avaricious man, among the Romans; nerous of men, was once accosted by a poor man for instance in the Self-tormentor of Terence, act || begging charity, calling him my Lord Marlboiii. sc. 2. “ Sed habet patrem quendam avidum, | rough. “Me, Marlborough!" cried he, miserum, atque aridum;" and we have adopted | prove I am not him, take this.” The beggar was the name miser; and the lialians similarly term much surprised at receiving a guinca for having such a one misero.
mistaken a name. Seneca says, “ Many things are wanting to
I shall add another singularity. I was in my the indigeni, the miser wants every thing." || youth acquainted with a man in whom avarice Useless to others, a burthen to himself, no means was united to all the social and domestic virtues, are left for him to be good for any thing but to He was a good master, a good husband, a good die.
father, even a good friend. As a magistrate, he The coretous man, says Charron, is more un. acted with justice and integrity. Although he happy than the pour juan, as a jealous husband was excessively parsimonious in all his personal is more miserable than a cuckold.
wants, he always wished his wife to appear like Quevedo tells us that a miser is a man who other women in her station, and he spared no knows xbere a treasure is hidden.
necessary expence for the educati n of his son It is possible that a miser, as well as a devotee, and daughter, but he calculated this expence as may enjoy his privations, but to want fuel in closely as possible. In thirty years he never raised winter, and broth in sickness, are evils never. the leases of any of his lands, although their theless. The miser would doubtless prefer to be value was nearly doubled in that time; but he well lodged, well clothed, and well fed, if it cost required his tenants to pay their rents exactly on him nothing.
the appointed days, on pain of being turned out What indeed is avarice? a voluntary poverty, at the expiration of their lease. accompanied with toil, inquietude and contempt.
Every passion in which fear predominates, can being reimbursed, but he never would take more be no otherwise than vile and miserable. Avarice than four per cent. interest, although he might is particularly odious, as it excludes all natural | legally have taken five. “ 'Tis enough,” sair! and social affections.
he, “ when the capital is not endangered; my Will you judge immediately in which class lands do not bring me in so much.” of vices avarice is to be placed ? It is the One of his particular friends, whose ill-conrluct only one which is incompatible with grandeur, in the employment of his fortune he was grieved benevolence, generosity, humanity, confidence, | at, had an urgent occasion to borrow 6001. He and candour; with love and true friendship, with addressed himself to his friend, and made his paternal tenderness and filial affection. What | distress known: “.
“With your easiness, and the virtue remains then for the miser ? What hap- | disorder of your affairs, I am well acquainted," piness can a man without virtue enjoy?
says our miser, "and, therefore, I cannot in conIt has been said that there have been illustrious || science lend you a sum which you are not sure villains, but no illustrious wisers. This opinion of being able to return, and which I reserve for is, however, contradicted by the example of the my daughter's portion.” “Well !" replied the celebrated Duke of Marlborough. This man friend, “ I have got my wife's diamond necklace coveted glory, but he still more coveted gold, and || in my pocket; she has permitted me to pawn it, in order to satisfy this shameful cupidity, no but the usurer to whom I applied will not lend means were too shameful for him. A person me the money on it for less than one and a half who wished to obtain a lucrative place, went to per cent. per month.” “ In this case,” said the beg his assistance in procuring it. “If I obtain || miser, “give me the necklace, I will lend you it,” said he, "I have a thousand guineas at your the 6001. without more than common interest. Grace's service, and you may be assured I shall || As I run no risk as to being repaid, I do not not mention it to any one.” “Give me two wish to receive any benefit from a service which thousand," answered the Duke," and tell it, if I render to my friend, and which costs me you chuse, to all the world."
nothing?" On the evening before the battle of Hochstet, I formerly met with a nobleman who was very Prince Eugene went into the Duke's tent, to rich, very proud, and very covetous, he wore consult with him upon the plan for the next day. laced and embroidered clothes, diamond rings As soon as he retired, the Duke scolded his ser- and buckles, but burnt tallow candles at vant outrageously for having lighted six wax- home. Every year he gave one magnificent candles in his tent, when two would have been dinner to his acquaintance, and the rest of the quite sufficient.
year his kitchen was very little used. He had - His avarice was universally known, Lord made it a rule to spend only half his income; but sometimes he took a fancy to exceed his own young lord waited on his uncle with proposals monthly allowance; then he turned his strong for an arrangement, by which he meant to repay box into a pawnbroker's shop, and deposited a the sum lent. , His uncle flew into a great diamond ring, or a gold snuff-box as a pledge for passion, and said to him, “O thou wretch, why the money he took, which he borrowed from co
comest thou to remind me of the folly I have himself at ten per cent, and which he faithfully been guilty of? I had forgotten it. If thou ever replaced with interest in the following month, | mention the subject to me again, I will never when he redeemed the pledges.
see the more.” This is certainly a stroke of I also knew a young nobleman who had lost avarice of a very particular stamp. a considerable sum at play, and had no means of What shall we conclude from these appareatly satisfying his debt of honour. He applied to contradictory observations. That there is nothing his uncle, who was very fond of him, but was more supple than the human heart, and that there very avaricious: he was, however, so much are no affections, however dissimilar, which canmoved with the despair of his nephew, that he not form themselves, and continue their existence lent him the money. A few months after the in it without disquietude.
CURIOUS ACCOUNT OF TWO ELEPHANTS.
cularly. He raised it with his trunk, pushed up MR. EDITOR,
the door, and entered into the second apartment, SINCE I sent you the interesting account of || where he rouk his breakfast quietly, and appearthe effects of music on two elephants, I have met ed to be perfectly easy. with some curious circumstances respecting those In the mean time the female (Peggy) was animals, which I presume will be no less accept-conducted into the first lodge. The mutual attachable to your readers; they are taken from a ment of these animals was recollected, and like French journal which was published half a year wise the difficulty with which they were parted, before the concert was performed.
and induced to travel separately. From the time These elephants were taken from the menagerie of their departure from the Hague, they had not of the Prince of Orange, at the House in the seen each other ; not even at Cambrai, where Wood, near the Hague; the place for their re
they passed the winter in 1797. They had only ceprion had been previously prepared: it is a been sensible that they were near neighbours. spacious hall in the museum of natural history, Hans never lay down, but always stood upright, adjoining to the national botanical garden in or leaning against the bars of his cage, and kept Paris, well aired and lighted. A stove warms it | watch for Peggy, who lay down and slept every in winter, and it is divided into two apartinents, | night. On the least noise, he sent forth a cry which have a communication by means of a to alarm his mate. large door, which opens and shuts perpendi- The joy they felt on seeing each other again, cularly. The enclosure consists of rails made
was thus expressed :- When Peggy entered, she of strong and thick beams, and a second enclosure, emitted a cry denoting the pleasure she exbreast-high, surrounds i', in order to keep spec-perienced on finding herself at liberty. She did taturs from too near an approach.
not immediately observe Hans, who was feeding The morning after their arrival in Paris, these in the inner lodge; neither was be directly aware animals were put in possession of their new that she was so near hiin; but the keeper having habitation. The first who entered was the male, I called him, he turned round, and on the instant (Hans) who seemed to go in with a degree of the two elephants rushed into each other's suspicion, after having issued with precaution | embraces, and sent forth cries of joy, so animated from his cage. His first care was to survey the land so loud, that they shook the whole hall, place. He examined every bar with his trunk, They breathed also through their trunks with and tried their solidity. The large screws by such violence, that the blast resembled an iin. which they are held together were placed on the
petuous gust of wind. outsile; these he sought for, and having found The joy of Peggy was the most lively : she them, triel to turn them, but was not able. expressed it by quickly Aapping her ears, which When he came to the partition, or gate which she made to move with astonishing velocity, and divides the two apartments, he found it was drew her trunk over Hans with the utmost tenderonly fixed by an iron bar, which rose perpendi- ness. She, in particular put her finger (the ex.
tremity of the trunk terminales in a protuberance man and other travellers in the interior of Africa, which stretches out on the upper side in the form to be from twelve to fifteen feet, measured to the of a finger, and possesses in a great degree the nice- top of the back; the female is much less than Dess and dexterity of that useful member), in:o the male. They are said to live to the age of a his ear, where she kept it a long time, and after hundred and twenty or a hundred and thirty years having drawn it affectionately over the whole even in a state of captivity. body of Haus, she put it tenderly into her own
In the third volume of the Asiatic Researches, mouth. Hans did exactly the same to Peggy, l published in 1789, 's a long and very particular but his pleasure was njore concentrated. This account of the method of catching wild ele. he appeared to express by his tears, which fell || phants, by John Corse, Esq. and in the first part from his eyes in abundance.
of the Philosophical Transactions for 1799, is Since that time they have never been separated, || another paper, which contains much curious in. and they dwell together in the same apartments formation on the manners, habi's, and natural The society of these two intelligent animals, their history of the elephant, by the same gentleman. habitudes, their mutual affection, and their
From these it appears that the accounts of the natural attachment, still excited notwithstanding / sagacity, modesty, and size of the elephant, have the privation of liberty, might furnish curious been greatly exaggerated by natural historians. observations for the natural history of their
As to what relates to the modesty of these species.
animals, we must refer to the latter paper.
The These two elephants, who are natives of Cey. | author's observations are the result of many years lon, were brought to Holland when very young.
residence in India, and from 1792 to 1797, the They are nearly fifteen years of age.
Their | elephant hunters were under his direction. A height is about seven feet and a half. Their few extracts from his remarks may suffice in this tasks, which are very short, have been broken, place. but they will grow again as they become older. “ I have seen young elephants from one day The tail of the male hangs down to the ground; to three years old sucking their dams, constantly that of the female is much shorter.
with their mouths, but never saw them use The following anecdote appeared in another their trunks, except to press the breast, which, French journal about the middle of the year by natural instinct, they seemed to know would 1799.
inake the milk filow more readily. (Aristotle A sentinel belonging to the menagerie at Paris, says expressly, that the young elephants suck was extremely careful, every time he mounted with their mouths and not with their trunksguard near the elephants, to desire the spectators Aristot. Opera. Basile, 1500, fol. p. 494.) So nut to give them any thing to eat. This was by that Buffon's account was made merely from connu means pleasing to the elephants. Peggy, injecture, and proves to be erroneous.” particular, beheld him with a very unfavourable “ The mode of connexion between the male eye, and had several times endeavoured to correct
and female is now ascertained beyond the possihis unwelcome interference, by besprinkling his bility of a doubt, and is exacıly similar to the head with water from her trunk. One day, horse. The exact time an elephant goes with when a great number of people were collected to young is not yet known, but it cannot be less view these animals, the opportunity seemed con- than two years, as one of them brought forth a venient for receiving, unperceived, a small bit of young one twen!y.one months after she was bread; but the vigorous sentinel was on duty. I taken. This young one was thirty-five inches Peggy, however, placed herself before him, high, and grew four inches in as many months. watched all his gestures, and, the moment he || Another young one was measured as soon as born, opened his mouth to give his usual admonition and was found to be of the same size; at a year to the company, discharged in his face a large | old he was foriy-six inches in height; at two stream of water. A general laugh ensued; but years, fifty-four; three, sixty; four, sixty.five; the sentinel having calmly wiped his face, stood five, seventy; six, seventy-four; and at seven a little en one side, and continued as vigilant as years, six feet four inches. When full grown, before. Soon after, he found himself obliged to the male elephants of India are from eight to repeat his notice to the spectators not to give the nine feet in height, measured at the shoulder, as elephants any thing; immediately Peggy snatched horses are measured; to this must be added his musket from him, twirled il round in her eighteen or twenty inches, if the height be taken trunk, trod it under her feet, and did not restore to the top of the curvature of the back. The it until she had twisted the barrel into the forn | female is generally a foot less. The largest eleof a screw.
phant known in India was ten foct six inches in The height of the elephants is said by Spar- height, to the shoulder.
No. XXI. Vol. III,