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common expenditure of the island amounts !! ject to the British government. The Candians to £.330,000, occasioning a yearly charge on I are entirely shut up in the beart of the country, his Majesty's treasury of £. 103,400. In this and have never been subdued by any foreign state of the revenue the produce of every power. source is included, allowing £.40,000 sterling “There is a tribe of wild people who inhaas the average gain by pearl fisheries. The i bit the mountains, they are not many thuuEast India Company pays £.60,000 yearly for sands in number.” cinnamon.
We must refer to the fourth chapter of “ The English circle at Columbo consists of about one hundred gentlemen, and only twenty
the work for further particulars. ladies; but the other European settlements
“The Cingalese of both sexes have unican muster three hundred respectable persons, formly black eyes, and long smooth black hair, and nearly an equal number of both sexes. which they always wear turned up, and fast
“ Two weekly clubs are established at Co-ened on the crown of the head with a tortoiselumbo. At one of these the principal amuse- shell comb, or other instrument. Many of ment is cards. It is held about four miles the higher classes of people who are not exfrom the fort, and consists of twelve members, posed to the rays of the sun, have complexions who give dinners in rotation, and generally so extremely fair, that the ladies seem lighter invite twelve strangers. The other club is for than the brunettes of England. In ali ranks, the purpose of playing at quoits, the cocoa- the palms of the hands and the soles of the uut trees affording a pleasant shade' at all hours' feet are white. of the day.
“ The dress of the common people is no“ The rent of the most magnificent mansion thing more than a piece of calico, or muslin, in Columbo amounts only to £.300 per an- wrapped round the waist. They wear no earmum; a good family house may be procured for riugs; their ears are not pierced
£. 100. An unmarried man must keep a “ The dress of the women in the highest stapalanquin and a one-horse chaise. Ten pa- tions is of the same form of that of the poorer lanquin bearers, the common set at Madras, sort, but their clothes are finer, and a greater cost there above 2.100 per annum, and one- quantity is worn. third more at Columbo, where the maintenance “ The garment which the ladies use instead of a horse costs .50, double the sum neces- of a petticoat, is often of coloured silk, or satin, sary to keep one at the former settlement. No over which is thrown white muslin embroiderbachelor cau keep house comfortably at Co-ed with Aowers, and spangled with gold. The lumho for less than £.800 a year.
shift, which is always the upper covering, is “ On the 17th July, 1905, when the Hon. trimmed round the bottom with lace, and deFrederick North was preparing to leave his corated at the sleeves with ruffles of the same government, the civil, judicial, and military materials. On the head are gold and tortoiseofficers resident at Columbo presented bis shell combs, and pins set with clusters of preExcellency with a piece of plate of the value cious stones. They have neat earrings of a of one thousand guineas, and an address which similar description, and slippers of red and concludes: 'We beg leave to offer to your white leather. By their side is bung a small Excellency the respectful expression of our box of gold or silver, in which are deposited gratitude and esteem, our grateful acknow- the necessary refreshments of betel-leaf, arecaledgments for the uniform kindness we have nut, and chunam, a fine species of lime made enjoyed under your government, and our un
of calcined shells. These three articles are frigned and fervent wishes for your future | eaten together, and are a luxury of which all health and bappiness.'
ranks partake. A slice of the areca-rint and a “ The great body of the inhabitants of Cey- | pinch of chunam, are rolled up in a betel-leaf, lon is divided into three classes, Cingalese, ll put into the month, and chewed; from the Candians, and Malabars. The first and second mastication of the three together, the saliva is are descended from the aborigines of the island; rendered of an ugly red, which is not the case the third consists of the offspring of colonies | when the nut and leaf are eaten without the which have emigrated from the Indian penin- lime, the teeth and lips acquire a reddish sula. Each class contains about five hundred tinge, as if coloured with Peruvian bark, which thousand persons, making the whole popula- | has a disgusting appearance to an European, tion one million and a half. The Cingalese ! but is esteemed ornamental by an Asiatic. occupy the coasts of the southern half of the The nut corrects the bitterness of the leaf, island, those of the northern half are peopled and the lime prevents it from hurting the with Malabars. Both these classes are sub- stomacb; united together they possees an extremely wholesome, nutritious, and enlivening | their employment is more of a civil thav a quality. The teeth of children and of grown military nature. Cingalese, who do not follow the custom of “ All the men in office wear swords of a chewing these articles, are of the most beanti- moderate size, antiquated, and not formidable ful wbiteness and most perfect regularity. in appearance.
The hilt and scabba d are « The men, in general, labour but little, ll made of silver. The former imitates the head where rice is not cultivated; and all the of a tiger, the latter is curiously embossed, drudgery of life falls upon the women. The and turned round at the point. The sashes possessor of a garden, which contains twelve are either of rich gold or silver lace, to which cocoa-nut, and two jack-trees (the largest is attached a brilliant star, o. cluster of various species of bread-fruit), finds no call for any | gems. The design and workmanship exhibited exertion. He reclines all day in the open air, 1 in these decorations are distinguished badges literally doing nothing ; feels no wish for active of the particular rank of the wearer. employment, and never complains of the lan- -“Subservient to the modelears, to maintain guor of existence. What has been ascribed the peace of the country, are men wbo may be to Indians in general is not inapplicable to called secretaries, lieutenants, corporals, and these people. They say it is better to stand private soldiers. In the district of Columbo than to walk, better to sit than to stand; alone are registered, for the public service, 114 better to lie down thap to sit; better to sleep sergeants, 234 corporals, and 2815 families of than to be awake; and death is best of all. If privates. All these wear swords, but the scabthe owner of the garden wants any article of bards of the lower orders are made of wood luxury which his owu ground does not pro- instead of silver, and their belts of somewhat duce, his wife carries a portion of the fruits to less rich ma erials. market, and there barters them for whatever “A modelear sometimes gives a breakfast, commodity is required. The only furniture sometimes a dinner to a select party of bis in their houses is a few coarse mats, rolled up British friends, and often a ball and supper to in a corner, which are spread upon the earthen || all the European gentry of Columbo. In ex. floor when the inhabitants intend to sleep; pences of this nature he is never backward. tables, chairs, beds, and all those articles which | Spacious bungaloes are often erected for the are considered as necessary iv Europe, are here use only of a single evening, the pillars ornatotally unknown. The ideas of the common mented with cocoa-nut leaves, the roof spread people seem not to extend beyond the incidents with white muslin, emhellished with beautiful of the passing hour; alike unmindful of the
moss, and hung with a profusion of brilliant past and careless of the future, their life runs | lamps, the manufacture of European glasson in an easy apathy, but little elevated above houses. Sometimes wooden platforms, eight mere animal exístence. A state of inaction is inches high, enclosed with rails, are provided the consequence of an indulgent climate; and for the purpose of dancing, and sometimes where nature has been so liberal in her pro- well beaten turf forms the only ground for this ductions, she bas left scarcely any incentive to favourite amusement. industry. But notwithstauding this prevailing “ On these festive vccasions, the poor laindolence, the botanical knowledge of the bourers whose presents and ingenuity have Cingalese is so great as to be a matter of sur- formed the ground-work of the entertainment, prise in their uncultivated state. The most are not forgotten. A shed is erected, and a illiterate peasant can not only tell the rames refreshment provided for them in an obscure but the qualities of the minutest plant that is corner of the garden, which solicits not the to be found within the precincts of the district | eye of public observation. A long table runs which he inhabits.
down the middle of the apartment, with “ The son in a family who possesses the benches on each side. Plantain leaves, raised greatest natural talents, is considered as the at the edges, form one continued dish, or borrepresentative of bis father, invested with the der, along the board, filled with hot rice proauthority of the first-horn, and looked up to perly seasoned.
A few lamps made of clay, by all his brethren with voluntary deference throw a glimmering light through the dark and submission.
ness of the hall. Neither plate nor spoon is “ The Cingalese are governed through the used, but every man eats with his right hand medium of their own chiefs, who act under the l in the same manuer as the elephant feeds himorders of the English servants of his Majesty. | sef with his probosis. The highest ciass of native magistrates is naked and contented inhabitants of the proknown by the name of Vodelears, who, to mark vince sit down to this plain but plentiful retheir rank, may be styied captains, although || past, which it is probable they enjoy with
About one hundred
higher relish than that which their superiors
“ The exhibition concluded with love scenes experience at a table crowded with the rich between men and women, which appeared, to productions of all the corners of the globe. In an English eye, as bordering upon indecency. general, the poor Cingalese use no other seats “ The Cingalese who profess the religion of or tables than the bountiful earth. After || Mahomet, appear to be a mixed race, the prinsupper, the same open pavilion becomes their cipal of whose progenitors had emigrated from bedchamber, and lying down promiscuously on the peniusula of India. They are a much the floor, they enjoy a sweet and undisturbed more active and industrious body of people repose.
than either the Christians or followers of “ In December, 1803, while Lord Viscount | Buddha. Among them are found merchants, Valentia was visiting Governor North, at Co- money-changers, jewellers, carpenters, taylors, lumbo, a numerous company of the British and all the useful tribes of mechanics. lo cutinhabitants entertained hiia one erening with ting precious stones, and making rings and the sight of an exbibition called by the natives other ornaments of gold, they are particularly a Cingalese play, although, from the rude ua- neat-handed and ingenious. One of their fature of the performance, it can hardl: he vourite ornaments is a ring set completely ranked among the productions of the drama- round with samples of all the stones which the tic art. The stage was a green lawn; and this island produces. open theatre was lighted with lamps support- “ The occupation of washing is performed ed on posts, and flambeaux held by men. only by men, on the banks of rivers or lakes,
“ The entertaininent commenced with the by dripping the garmients in the water and feats of a set of active tumblers, whose naked striking them against a flat stone. No
is bodies were painted all over with white crosses. used ; and the sun rapidly performs the operaThey walked on their hands, and threw them- tion of the most effectual bleaching." selves round, over head and heels, three or
We must refer to the work for an account four times successively without a pause. Two of the language, and shall only mention boys embracing one another, with bead oppos- | from it:ed to feet, tumbled round like a wheel. The young performers, singly, twisted their bodies
“The greater part of the men can read and with a quickness and tiexibility which it would write ; but these accomplishments are not be difficult to imitate in a less relaxing climate. communicated to the women. All their inTwo men, raised up on stilts, walked in among struction is received, and their knowledge exthem. Pieces of bamboo were tied round their pressed by word of mouth." legs, reaching only a little above the knee, and
Near Columbo two white children, born elevating them three feet from the ground. of black parents, were to be seen :They moved slowly, without much ease, and had nothing to support them but the equipoise
They belong to that class of the human of their own bodies.”
species denominated Albinos. Their whiteness After this there were men dancers, groups | lashes are perfectly white, and of a very fine
is pale and livid, their bair, eye-bro, s, and eyeof masks, &c.
soft texture. The iris of the eye is of a beauti“ An excellent imitation of a wild bear next ful blue, and the white extremely pure: their sprung upon the scene of action. The bead
cyes are very weak and generally closed. They and tail were perfect, and the character was
cannot see in bright sun shine. Their constiwell supported; but like all the others, it re
tution is languid, and they never stir from tlie mained too long in view ; and as the spectators door of the but in which they were born, unless wearied the effect diminisbed.
when carried in their mother's arms. Tlic “ But the prettiest part of the entertainment | father and mother are both Cingalese of the was a circular dance by twelve children, about ten years of age. They danced opposite to one
poorer sort, apparently healthy, and have a
son younger than either of the Albinos, peranother, two and two, all courtesied at one
fectly black, and as stout and robust as any of ' time, down to the ground, shook their whole
his countrymen." bodies with their hands fixed in their sides, and kept time to the music with two little clat
The Albinos of England which we have tering sticks in each hand (like castaniets). Go- seen, were all of a fair and healthy coming swiftly round, being neatly dressed, of one plexion; the iris of their eyes red like size, and perfect in the performance, this blood; 'in the whiteness of their hair, the youthful dance produced a very pleasing effect, | feebleness of their sight, their languid con. and brought to remembrance the pictures of stitution and other particulars they appearthe fleeting hours.
ed to resemble those which have just been
described. Now fellow a few pages of made in the flap of the ear to extend to au judicieus extracts from the old history writ. extraordinary size, so that a man's hand may ten by captain Robert Knox, in 1681, and pass through it, the lower parts being stretchwhich exbibit a faithful picture of Candy et till they touch the shoulder. The earrings in its present state. These are contained measure eleven inches in circunference, and at intervals in about twenty-five pages in
in each there is often set a single precious this volume, and to them we reter, and stone, most conmonly a ruby. Persons of the shail continue our quotations from the ori- higher ranks occasionally wear white sleeved gial work, selecting such parts of the waistcoats, with small gold buttons. The
louer orders are often destitute of turbans. de criptions as we deem most interesting. « The dress of the women consists of a single
“ The Candians having been originally one piece of muslin, folded round the waist, hang. people with the Cingalese, do not ditier from ing down instead of a petticoat, and thruwa
tkomu more than the inhabitants of the morn- over one shoulder to conceal the breasts. tains of any other country differ from those These ladies who put it on with taste, leave of the plains or sea-coasts. Their manners are one leg nearly up to the knec, as well as one lezs polisbed, and the constant wearing of their shoulder bare, and let the garment fall upon bearils adds to the natural ferocity of their the other leg down to the auk'e. The fashion appearance. Their dress shall be described is graceful and beconring. Nothing is worn hereafter; it is evident that no part of their on the head; the hair is neatly counbed, anattire is borrowed from that of Europeans. ointed with oil, and turned up before and be Indian costume has been copied in England ; | bind. Small earrings are worn in the higher but the fashion of India never changes. The as well as lower parts of the ear; but few of dress of the iuhabitants there is the same at the women have the apertures extended to 60 this <iy as it was as far back as history great a size as the men.
The higher classes reaches.
wear a profusion of gold bracelets, necklaces, “The Candians are confined to the centre of and rings on their ankles, toes, and fingers; the island; and no part of their territory is some wear similar ornaments on the nose. les ::an six miles distant from the sea-shore. Children are not clothed till they are five or
slu lebvruary 1802, au ambassador froin six years old; and the boys are left Jonger (301y, attended by two other mobles of the naked than the girls. But the latter have a Cout, arrived at Columbo. They were con- modesty-piece of silver, of the shape of a fisduccii in the Government-house from their leaf, fastened round the waist witb a silver beulejr., in three Duich carriages borrowed for cord; and the foriner are decorated with a the occasion. They insisted that the chariot lingam, resembling a child's whistle, with two deers should be kept open, that they might not bells. par like prisoners in a place of confine- “ A considerable number of this race profess uut; and it was with much difficulty they the Mahometan religion, and are generally disxicter persuaded to allow the coachman to sit tinguished by the name of Moors, or Lubbies
. on the boxes in a more elevated situation than One street in the extensive village beyond the themselves. The ambassador delivered a lougouter-town of Columbo is entirely inhabited by Message fiom luis Sovereigu to the Governor, this class of people. They are pediars, jewellers, sluding in an erect posture, without any tailors, fishermen and sailors. Many of them 'action, and singing in a monotonous tone, like speak Cingalese and Portuguese, as well as a schoolboy repeating a task in a language Malabar. Their women are scarcely ever atklich s does not understand.
lowed to be seen by strangers ; " The Malabars, who occupy one half of the
are exhibited at a marriage ceremony, they are Oss!, and form one half of the subjects of the stationed in an inner chamber, and closely British government in Ceylon, difier greatly veiled. When a man has occasion to transport fiam the Cingalese. They are stouter, more
his wife from one place to another, if he canortive and enterprising, but less innocent and
not afford the expense of a palanquin, he places moir faudulent. Their clothing is entirely her cross-legged upon a bullock, so completely Composed of white calico aud muslin. The covered from head to foot with a white sheet, dress of the men is a piece of either of these
that not a particle of her skin can be discerükinds of cloth wrapped round the loins, and ed, nor can she see which way she is going; parli dawn to the ankles, a light turban
the husband walks by her side." ticulously round the head, and large bunches In 1800, the author set out on his tour of curings.
They encourage the aperture round the island. From the account of it,
even when they
we shall give the following detached parti- “ Bach palanquin is generally attended by culars, premising that our limits will not thirteen bearers. Only four carry at a time; allow us to enlarge on them as much as we they are relieved every quarter of an hour, and wish, and as the work merits.
shift the pole from the shoulder of one to that
of another without stopping. The thirteenth A stupendous mountain of stone is de
man acts as cook to the set, and carries as his scribed as being one entire rock of a smooth
burden, all the culinary matters." surface, risiug in form of a cube, on two sides completely perpendicular.
At a ball at Jaffuapatam, given by an “We ascended its highest summit on the English officer to the principal European most gently rising side, by a winding Aight of
inhabitants, twenty young ladie, made their stairs, formed of five hundred and forty-five appearance, who were born in Ceylon of steps of hewn stones. These steps must have
Dutch parents. been a work of prodigious labour, and are said
On many pa' ts of the coast are quantito have been constructed fifteen hundred years
ties of sand of a strong shining black, reago, long before any European conquerors ap- sembling filings of steel. It does not seem peared in the island.”-For the particulars of to be applied to any other purpose than the prospect, the book is referred to.
thrown on paper after writing on it with Hanging birds' nests are next described ; il ink. and many picturesque descriptions of the
The first volume concludes with an excountry are given. We are then presented cellent description of the cocoa tree: the with a very particular account of an ele other palms, the two bread. fruit trees, the phant hunt (in 34 pages), which will not banyan, talipot, the cotton-tree, the tamaadmit of being mutilated by extracts, and rind, the cashew, and other trees and shrubs which is accompanied by a pleasant and are also well describe). The great bamboo accurate view of an elephant snare. reed shoots up in stools of a considerable
In the third volume of the Asiatic Re-number from the same bottom; and the searches, published in 1789, is a long and canes, which are nearly as thick as a man's very particular account of the method of thigh, grow to the height of from fifty to catching wild elephants, by John Corse, eighty feet. The leaves are small, narrow, Esq. In the first part of the Philosophical and pointed, and spring from the knots. Transactions for 1799, is another paper, || The whole is tapering, and waves gracefully which contains much curious information in the wind. The pith of the young shoots on the manners, habits, and natural history | makes a good pichle. of the elephants, by the same gentleman. A very particular account of the cinOur author says:
namon is given at large, fiom which it ap“ The elephants of Ceylon are from ten to
pears that the quantity of cinnamon sent eleven feet in height, and are divided into three yearly to England amounts to fourthousand elasses. The tirst of these is distinguished by bales, each of ninety-two pounds weight, long tusks standing upwards, and besides being for which the East India Company pay to the most elegant in appearance, is likewise re- government the stipulated price of sixty markable for a superior degree of intelligence. | thousand pounds steriing, and carry it home The second is provided with shorter tusks, at their own expence. descending perpendicularly; and the third, The second volume begins with the acthe most numerous, is entirely destitute of
count of an excursion by sea and land, to those appendages.
the island of Ramisseram, about three and “Of the seventy elephants at first captured, twenty miles from the north-west coast of only four had long tusks.
"The udder of the female is placed between Ceylon, and five or six miles from the opthe fore-legs, and consists of two dugs hang- posite coast of Coro.nandel. ing down, one on each side of the breast, like “ This island is entirely dedicated to the inverted cones. The milk has the flavour of a purposes of religion, and aitords a genuine filbert. A foot of one of the elephants was display of Indian hospitaity; no plough is roasted and appeared at the governor's table. || allowed to break the suil; and no animal, When salted and kept in vinegar for a month either wild or tame, is permitted to be killed it becomes tender, scarcely distinguishable on it. Black cattle abound here, and appear from hung beef.
in groups lying in the streets. They furnish