صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

sors.

[ocr errors]

Soon, however, Bisset gratified the narchy. Born in 1218, a petty count of public, tired with the loquacious biography Hapsbarg, and inheriting limited possesof a Boswell, with a faithful account of a sions from his ancestors, Rhodolph spent portion of tiine, which death had not per

his youth in the court and camp of Fre. mitted any of the preceding great his- derick the Second. Taught by a valiant torians to illustrate. But it was not until father the use of arms, he had few rivals in the author of Leo the Tenth appeared as military prowess, and soon resolved upon a candidate for well-deserved fame, that aggrandizing bis dominions. After a series history awoke from its momentary slum- of wars with the neighbouring barons and bers, like the sun from the shades of night, counts, in which, if justice was not often and glowed with renewed splendour. IIe on his side, fortune always was, he sucproved that many sources remained open ceeded in encreasing bis territories and his to the researches of genius; that instruc- power, and his alliance was courted by tion, however frequently imported into monarchs; for taking part with Ottocar, our land, might still bb conveyed through king of Bohemia, against Bela, King of new channels, and meet with new admirers; Hungary, he greatly contributed to the and, by his noble example, probably en- victory won by the former over his eneiny. couraged others to unchain their native In 1915 he mapmied Gertrude Anne, daug lie activity, and seek for new subjects upon

ter of Burcard, count of Hohenburgh and which to bend its powers.

Hagenlock, whose dowry added considerThe annals of one of the most extensive | ably to his possessions in Alsace. In and celebrated empires of Europe, that of

126:3 the counties of Kvburgh, LentzGermany, were wrapped in darkness. The burgh, and Baden, fell into his hands, reigns of a few princes bad been related, it and extended his influence in Alsace, is true, but mostly on account of the con

Switzerland, and the circle of the Lower nections they had formed with other states, || Rhine. We will now let our author whose liistory was necessarily intermixed depict the conduct of his favourite with their own. Others, indeed, bad filled

hero. too conspicuous a station in the European mars and revolutions, to be passed over in

" As inactivity was neither conformable to silence; but biography alone had recorded

the spirit or circunstances of Rhodolph, bis their actions, and no general, extensive,

new territories furnished sufficient employand judicious work like the present, had, volved him in a series of long and alınost ul

ment both for negotiation and action, and inin any language, embodied the scattered interrupted hostilities. But although at this accounts of the different reigns which fol. I period of his life war seems to have been his lowed each other in Germany. Mr. Coxe favourite and constant occupation, be did not resolved to supply this deficiency in the follow the example of the turbulent barons, stores of knowledge, and the fruit of his who harrassed the peasants with incessant labours forms three large quarto volumes, depredations, and pillaged defenceless travelfull of information and interest. Ile has lers. On the contrary, he adopted a system entitled this new production of his fertile

of conduct which distinguished him with hogenius a “History of the House of Austria,”

nour in those times of misrule and confusion. but has been obliged, by the nature of his

lle delivered the highways from numerous subject, to take a review of the whole Ger- banditti, and protected the citizens and freeman empire, and of the principal actions

meu from thic tyranny of the nobles; he priu

cipally levelled his attacks against the turbuof the numerous members of which it was

lent barons, or the haughty prelates, who code composed, their undertakings, their for

cealed their ambitious designs under the sacred tunes, and the vicissitudes by which they

naine of religion. Such was his reputation, were depressed, or exalted to superior au

and such the general opinion entertained of his thority. His work might, therefore, be justice and prowess, that be gainei the coi. justly called a history of Germany from fidence of the neighbouring republics. Many the year 1218 to 1792.

chose him arbiter of their internal disquiets; The first volume opens with a most in- some confided to him the command of their teresting account of Rhodolph, of Haps- armies; and others appointed him their pres iburgh, the founder of the Austrian mo

fect and protector."

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

armour,

Having been invited by the burgesses hitherto withheld my homage for the tiefs of Zurich to fight their battles against which my uncle, Hartman, possessed, and which Lutold, baron de Regensberg, he collected form part of my just inheritance, but let every his own troops and those of Zurich, drew man who has two powerful enemies reconcile assistance from Alsace, summoned to his

himself to one of them; if therefore you deem standard the mountaineers of Uri, Schweitz,

it more noble, as I do, to avenge injuries offered and Underwalden, and marched against the let us make peace with the abbot. Ju truth?

to our friends than to pursue our own interests, enemy.

exclaimed Rhodolph, there is no necd of In this petty warfare he displayed as much any arbitrator; the business must be settled prowess and conduct as he afterwards showed instantly, and I will be my own mediator.' on a more conspicuous theatre. The respec

With the contidence of a great miud he monttive forces met in the vicinity of Zurich. ed his horse, and accompanied by only six Rhodolph, after drawing up his mien, led attendants, rode across the fields and bye pallis them himself to the attack with his usual ar

to Wyle, where the abbot was sitting at table dour, and broke through the foremost ranks of with a numerous body of knights and nobles. the adversary, when he was thrown from his He presented himself at the door, and requesthorse, and stunned by the violence of the fall. ed adinittance. When the porter announced His troops were driven back, and the enemy,

Rbodolph, count of Hapsburgh, the abbot surrounding him, began to strip him of his conceived it to be a mistake, or a frolic of one At this moment of danger, Muller,

of the guests; but was soon undeceived and a citizen of Zurich, a man of great strength, 1 astonished by the appearance of Rhodolph flew to his assistance, protected him with his himself, who ventured unarned and unattendshield, and raising bim froin the ground, ed, amidst a body of men assembled to make mounted him ou his own horse. Rhodolph, war against him. 'I am come,' said the gal. deriving fresh courage from the imminent | lant warrior, ( to terminate our quarrel. danger which he bad just escaped, rallied his You are my liege lord, and I am your vassal; troops, led them again to the charge, and after you are not unacquainted with the reasons a great slaughter gained a complete victory." which have hitherto prevented me from re

ceiving my fiefs at your hands. Enough of The following passage sets forth the mag- il contentio:; I am willing to refer the cause to nanimity of this noble warrior in the most arbitration, to acknowledge your rights, and favourable light:

How declare, that there shall be no war between “Rhodolph had no soover taken possession the abbot of Gallen and Rhodolph of Hapsof the inheritance of the house of Kyburglı, burgh.' The abbut, afiected by this frank and than he was summoned by the abbot to do gallaut behaviour, received him with open homage for certain ficts hield under his mo- arms, and invited him to table. During the nastery. On his neglect to comply with the repast, Rhodolph related the unfortunate tersummons, the indignant prelate led a consi- mination of the tournament at Basle, and dederable body of troops to Wyle, on the borders | scribed the fury of the people, and the arroof Tockenburgh, with a view to invade bis ter- gance of the bishop in such glowing terms as ritories, and corupel him to render homage. 1 excited the resentment of all who were preRhodolph prepared to repulse this aggression, sent. Observing the effect of his appeal, he when he received intelligence from Alsace that still further roused their feelings by exclaimthe citizens of Basle, instigated by their bishop, ling:— The duty of knighthood compels me had risen at the conclusion of a tournament to neglect all other considerations, that I may given by his cousin, the count of Luffenburgh, take vengeance on the people of Baste and and massacred several nobles of his family and their Italian bishop, for the knights and nobles party. He was roused by this act of treachery, whom they have iusulted and massacred.' The yet being involved in hostilities with two company unanimously cried out, it is the powerful barons, and menaced by the abbot of cause of the whole uobility;' and the abbot St. Gallen, he could not fly to Basle to avenge

of Gallen and his followers tendered their the murder of his relatives and friends. But assistance. he had learned to curb bis enterprising spirit, “ Rhodolph thus converted an enemy into a and to bend to his circumstances. He sum- friend, and employed against the bishop those moned his confidential followers, and thus very troops which had been assembled against addressed them :-? On one side I am drawn himself. He led these nobles, the soldiers of

interest, and on the other by the Zurich, the Swiss mountaineers, and his own earnest solicitations of my friends. I have faithful warriors to the gates of Busle, and

D%

by my own

soon forced the citizens to promise satisfac- enemy, whose homage he received, and to tion, and deliver hostages. He next turned

whom he granted the investiture of Bohis arms against the bishop himselt; who consi

hemia and Moravia. But the wound which dering the Rhine as an effectual bas rier against

Ottocar's ambitious spirit had received, was the incursions of his adversary, derided his

not completely healed, and as soon as le efforts. But Rhodolph, passing this broad and rapid river by a portable bridge of boats,

was able to procure fresh allies, and thus

increase his force, he burst into Austria, an invention which he seems to have first revived since the time of the ancients, wrested

and carried several places by force of arms. from him all his territories beyond the walls

Rhodolph lost no time in collecting his of Basle, put to flight or exterminated his armies, and the weak succours which his peasants, burned his bouses and villages, and allies could afford him, and marched to laid waste his forests and corn fields. In meet the invader. He took up a position at this deplorable situation the bishop sued for | Weidendorf, after having crossed the Daand obtained a truce of twenty-four days; dur- || nube, and soon beheld Ottocar occupring ing which time the difference was to be settled || Jedensberg, at a short distance from tbe by arbitration, or the war to be rencwed.

place of his encampment. “Rhodolph was encamped before the walls of Basle, waiting for the expiration of the

“ While the two armies continued in this truce. Having retired to his tent, he was

situation, some traitors repaired to the camp awakened at midnight by his nephew, Frederic of Rhodolph, and proposed to assassinate of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, with Ottocar ; but Rhodolph, with his characthe intelligence that he was unanimously cho

teristic magnanimity, rejected this offer, apsen King of the Romans, by the Electors of prised Ottocar of the danger with which Germany. In the first moment of surprise,

he was threatened, and made overtures of reRhodolph could not give credit to this linex

conciliation. The King of Bohemia, confi

. pected intelligence, and even expressed his dent in the superiority of his force, deemed indignatiou against the burgrave for attempt

the intelligence a fabrication, and the proing to deceive and insult him. Convinced, posals of Rhodolph a proof of weakness, and however, by his solemn protestations, and by disdainfully refused to listen to any negotialetters froin the electors, he recovered from

tion. his surprise, and joyfully accepted the prof. “ Fiuding all hopes of accommodation frusfered dignity. The news of his election being trated, Rhodolph prepared for a conflict, in quickly disseminated, the citizens of Basle which, like Cæsar, he was not to fight for opened their gates, notwithstanding the re- victory alone, but for life. At the dawn of day inonstrances of the bishop. “We have taken his army was drawn up, crossed the rivulet arms,'they said, “against Rhodolph, count of which gives name to Weidendorf, and apHapsburgh, and not against the King of the proached the camp of Ottocar. He ordered Romans. The bishop acceded to terms of his troops to advance in a crescent, and attack peace, the prisoners on both sides were re- at the same time both Aanks and the front of leased, and Rhodolph's followers admitted in the enemy; and turning to his soldiers, extriumph. The new sovereign was received horting them to avenge the violatiou of the anidst general acclainations; and the citizens most solenın compacts, and the insulted matook the oath of fidelity, and presented him jesty of the empire; and by the efforts of that with a considerable largess towards defraying day, to put an end to the tyranny, the horrors, the expences of his corouation. The bishop, and the massacres to which they had been so chagrined at the success and elevation of his long exposed. He had scarcely finished before rival, struck his forehead with vexation, and the troops rushed to the charge, and a bloudy prufanely exclaimed:- Sit fast, great God, conflict ensued, in which both parties fought or Rbodolpb will occupy thy throne.”

with all the fury that the presence and exer. Afier describing the events that followed

tions of their sovereigns, or the the election of Riodolph, ourauthor gives spire. At length the imperial troops gained

the cause in which they were engaged could inan interesting account of his first war with Ottocar, King of Bohemia, his rival to the victory the life of him on whom all depended

the advantage, but in the very moment of Roman crown, who was then in possession was exposed to the most imminent danger. of Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola.

“ Several knights of superior strength and 'These provinces were conquered by Rho- courage, animated by the rewards and promise dolph, and ceded to șim by his vanquished of Ottocar, kad confederated either to kill en

magnitude of

take the King of the Romans. They rushed until he was un horsed, and mortally wounded forward to the place where Rhodolph, riding hy some of our soldiers. Then that maynaniamong the foreinost ranks, was encouraging mous monarch lost his life at the same time and leading his troops ; and Herbot, of Fullen- | with the victory, and was overthrown, not by stein, a Polish knight, giving spars to his our power and strength, but by the right hand horse made the first charge. Rhodolph ac- of the Most High. customed to this species of combat, eluded Successful in all the wars he undertook, the stroke, and piercing his antagonist Rhodolph did not abuse the power he had under his beaver, threw him dead to the acquired. His most ardent wish was to secure · ground. The rest followed the example of the the imperial crown to his only surviving son . Polish warrior, but were all slain, except | Albert. For this view he summoned the diet Valens, a Thuringian knight, of gigantic of Frankfort, but the Electors declined comstature and strength, who reaching the person plying with his request, and referred th nomiof Rhodolph, pierced his horse in the shoulder, 1 nation to a future diet. In order to dispel the and threw him wounded to the ground. The grief which he feit at their refusal, he visited helmet of the king was beaten off by the his hereditary dominions, and then prepared shock, and being unable to rise under the

to proceed into Austria and see his son, but weight of his armour, he covered his head with

his strength was exhausted. Seventy-three his shield, till he was rescued by Berchtold years weighed down bis head, and he replied Capiller, the commander of the corps of re- to the physicians who exhorted him to remain serve, who cutting his way through the enemy, tranquil, “Let me go to Spire, and see the flew to his assistance. Rhodolph mounted | Kings my predecessors.' He accordingly another horse, and leading the corps of re- descended the Rhine, but had not sufficient serve, renewed the charge with fresh courage; strenth to proceed beyond Germesheim. He and his troops, animated by his presence and prepared for his end with marks of the most exertions, completed the victory.

ardent devotion, and died on the 15th of July, « Ottocar himself fought with no less in the seventy third year of his age, 1991, and intrepidity than his great competitor. On in the nineteenth of his glorious reign. His the total rout of bis troops, he disuained to

body was conveyed to Spire, and interred with quit the field; and after performing incredible those of the former Emperors. feats of valour, was overpowered by numbers, “ Rhodolph was above the ordinary stature, dismounted, and taken prisoner. He was in- being nearly seven feet in height, but ex. stantly stripped of his arınour and killed by tremely slender; his head was small and almost some Anstrian and Styrian nobles, whose bald, his complexion pale, his nose large and relations he had put to death. The discom- aquiline. His natural aspect was grave and com. fited remains of his army, pursued by the posed; but he no sooner began to speak than victors, were either taken prisoners, cut to his countenance brightened into animation. pieces, or drowned in their attempt to pass the His manners were so captivating, and he marsh, and above fourteen thousand perished

possessed the art of persuasion in so eminent in this decisive engagement.

a degree, that, to use the expression of Dor“ Rhodolph continued on the field till the navius, one of his panegyrists, he fascinated enemy were totally routed and dispersed. He

persons of all ranks, as if with a love poendeavoured to restrain the carnage, and sent tion.' He was plain, unaffected, and simple messengers to save the life of Ottocar, but his in his dress; and was accustomed to say that orders arrived too late; and when he received he considered the majesty of a sovereign as an account of his death, he generously lament- | consisting rather in princely virtues than in ed his fate. He did aruple justice to the valour magnificence of apparel. and spirit of Ottocar; in his letter to the “ In an age of superstition, the picty of Pope, after having described the contest, and Rhodolph was pure and ardent; and he was the resolution displayed by both parties, either | panctual and devont in attending the services to conquer or die, he adds : 'At length our of the church. He esteemed and honoured troops prevailing, drove the Bohemians into the humble minister of religion, but chastised the neighbouring river, and almost all were the insolence of the baughty prelates, who either cut to pieces, drowned, or taken pri- forgot the meekness of the gospel in the soners. Ottocar, however, after seeing his splendor and exercise of temporal dominion. arıny discomtited, and limself left alone, still | Although he recovered estates and advocacies would not submit to our conquering standards, which the hierarchy bad usurped from the but fighting with the strength and spirit of a empire, and resisted all claims of exemption giaut, defended himself with wonderful courage from the public charges, whicb religious establishments arrogated to themselves, yet he not only by subjugating the Austrian domisupported the dignity and privileges of the nions, but hy carrying his arms into the beart. sacerdotal order, and enforced by his own of Germany. To avert or suspend the proexample, respect and deference for every mem- gress of the enemy, Ferdinand sent embassadors ber of the church."

to Solyman, with rich presents and proposals Having given longer extracts than we

of peace. This measure, instead of conciliatintended

from the first part of this ing, increased the presumption of the Sultau ; work, the history of the founder of the bassadors to follow his camp, and attend his

he arrogantly commanded the Austrian emillustrious house of Austria, we shall be further pleasure. After embarking his artillery compelled to leave untouched many in

on the Danube, in a fotilla of 3000 vessels, be. teresting passages, wbich seem equally de- crossed the Save, and leaving the Danube on serving of notice. But unsatisfied, like the right, led his numerous hordes through the generality of men, with admiring the the western provinces, as if to penetrate over elevation and outward magnificence of a the mountains into Styria. He found po obsuperb edifice, we have examined its foun. stacles till he approached the frontiers of dations and the means through which it Styria, when his progress was checked before was erected.

the petty and obscure town of Guntz, which The first volume embraces a period of has obtained an unfading name by its resistance three hundred and forty years, from 1218

on this memorable occasion. The place was to 1558, from the birth of Rhodolph, King hundred troops, but it was commanded by

baldly fortified, and provided with only eight of the Romans, to the abdication and death 'Nicholas Turissitz, aud defended by an intreof Charles V. The irruption of the Turks pid garrison, whose memory deserves the apinto Servia, in 1439, under the command plause of christendom, for their unexampled reof Amurath II. supplied our author with sistance against the whole Turkish army. The an opportunity of giving an account of the town was assailed on every side by this stuTurkish nation, which he has not neglected. (pendous multitude. After in vain attempting His sketch of the rise of that people, the to undermine the walls, they planted their conquests, defeat, and captivity of Bajazet, artillery on the neighbouring hills, and even by the Mongol Tamerlane, is rapid, faith- on mounds of earth, which were raised above ful and interesting. The 20th chapter pre- the highest buildings of the place. Breach sents a general picture of Europe in the after breach was effected, and assault after year 1493, the relative strength of the

assault was made, but all these efforts were states of which it was composed, and re

baffed by the skill, the vigilance, and the heroie cords the invention of gunpowder, and | bravery of the governor, aided by the intrepithe art of printing, with the changes which dity of his garrison. He equally resisted they occasioned in the art of war and the

hribes, promises, and threats; and after a siege system of European policy, and by the

of twenty-eight days, the Sultan was comimportance of the matter which it contains, suffer him to continue in possession of a

pelled to accept a feigned submission, and and the manner in which it is treated, de

fortress which he had so gallantly defended." serves peculiar attention. The second volume embraces a period of

The situation of Ferdinand II. when two hundred and eight years, from 1503 to besieged in Vienna by the protestant insur1711, from the birth of Ferdinand, founder gents in 1719, and his astonishing escape, of the German branch of the house of

are too remarkable to be passed over in Austria, to the deposition of Joseph I. | silence. The second invasion of Austria by Soly- “ Ferdinand was sensible that the surrender man, in 1372, with an army composed of of Vienna would occasion the loss of Austria, several hundred thousand men, and the and with it the loss of the imperial crown. noble resistance of the sınall, obscure, and | He therefore sent his family into the Tyrol

, weakly fortified town of Guntz, forms one

and prepared to maintain his capital, and meet of the most interesting events contained in his impending fate with a firmness from which this volume.

it is impossible to withhold our admiration.

The Jesuits had implanted their maxims in the “ Solyman, galled at his recent disgrace be heart of a hero, and he found a support in fore Vienna, spent two years in making prepa- that religious fervour with which he was anitions, and resolved to avenge his failure, mated. He tbrew himself at the foot of the

« السابقةمتابعة »