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crucifix, poured forth his petitions to the “ This succour which had so unexpectedly saviour of all, and rose with the full convic

saved their sovereign, was a corps of only five tivn of divine assistance*. Notwithstanding hundred horse, which had been detached from all tbe remonstrances of his ministers, all the Krems, by Dampierre, and secretly descendterrors of his situation; notwithstanding the ing the Danube, had entered the only gate total failure of his hopes from human relief, which, from its situation, could rot be guardand all the entreaties of the ministers of that ed by the vigilance of the enemy. Their apreligion to which be was devoted, he persisted | pearance operated like magic; their nûmbers in his resolution of encountering the vengeance were exaggerated by fear or exultation ; and of an enraged multitade, and burying himself rumours were instantly spread that further under the walls of the palace which had been | reinforcements were approaching. The nialthe seat of his ancestors.

contents shrunk away in silence, or fled from « He found full employment for all his re- the city; and those whom fear had bitherto solution; his dangers increased from day to day, | deterred, hastened to display their loyalty, from hour to hour; the walls of his palace | Six hundred students flew to arms; the exwere battered by the Bohemian cannon; he ample was followed by fifteen hundred burghers, heard on every side the cries of vengeance and additional succours poured in, and in a few exclamations, -Let us shut him up in a con- hours, all appearance of danger and discontent vent, bring up his children in the protestant | had subsided. Nor did the good fortune ofFerreligion, and put his evil counsellors to the dinand end with his deliverance; for in the sword.'

midst of his exultation news arrived that " At length the crisis of his fate arrived : || Bucquoy had defeated and dissipated the arıny sixteen protestant members of the states burst of Mansfeld, and Thurn was suddenly recalled into his apartment, and with threats and re- hy the deputies from the blockade of Vienna, proaches, clamorously demanded his permis

to secure the capital of Bohemia." sion to join the insurgents. But at this awful

The third volume, or as the author moment a sudden scund of trumpets an

entitles it, the second, having divided nounced the arrival of succours. The depu- ll the first into two parts, the one containties, thunder-struck with the alarm, hastened from the palace, and with the chiefs of their ling 543, and the other 713 pages, comparty sought safety in concealıment, or took

prises a period of 107 years, from 1685 to refuge in the camp of the besiegers.

1792, or from the birth of Charles VI. to the death of Leopold II. and contains the

reigns of Charles VI. Maria Theresa, Joseph * We bave seldom an opportunity of dis- || 1!. and Leopold II. As this part of modern covering the secret thoughts of sovereigns on great and trying occasions, we therefore gratify shall not extend our extracts further, but

history is more familiar to our readers, we the reader with an account given by Ferdinand himself to his confessor, Bartholomew Vale- conclude with a short examination into the rius, who entered his private cabinet at the merits of this work. moment when he had concluded his devotions. Industry and the most indefatigable re. “ I have reflected,” he said, “ on the dangers searches are necessary to enable an author which threaten me and my family, both at to gather fame in the fields of history; they home and abroad. With an enemy in the are necessary but not sufficient; he must suburbs; sensible that the protestants are also possess a mind unshackled and unpreplotting my ruin, 1 implored that help from judiced. Imagination, like a vain boaster, God which I cannot expect from man; I had is apt to exaggerate the virtues and martial recourse to my Saviour, and said, Lord Jesus deeds of her heroes, to place them in situaChrist, tbou redeemer of mankind, thou to

tions in which no eyes but hers hare beheld whom all hearts are opened, knowest that I

them, and to clothe them in robes which seek thy honour, not my own. If it be thy will that in this extremity I should be over

her fairy hand has woven; her dazzling come by my enemies, and be inade the sport

colours are too bright for the sober truth and contempt of the world, I will drink of the of historical pictures. Strong and acute bitter eup. Thy will be done! I had scarcely sense, capable of steering in a straight dispoken these words, before I was inspired with rection between the numerous and contranew hope, and felt a full conviction that God dictory reports which deluge the memo y would frustrate the designs of my enemies." of a prince, or a distant event ; of diving De Luca, p. 335.

into the annals of forměr times, not in search of what is uncommon and romantic, The difficulty of writing history, inbut of what is probable; of comparing the creases, strange as it may appear, with the testimony of writers of different nations and abundance of the materials collected for different ages, and educing light from the that purpose. For an author may be overchaos of dark and confused anpals, is, or laden with matter, and find as much difought to be, the chief characteristic of anficulty in disposing is to advantage as historian. But there is still another re- / general at the head of a large army, whose quisite, deprived of which his talents must divisions become unwieldy from numbers

, wither away in a barren inactivity, and in ranging them on the field of battle. Mr. which is not the gift of nature, but the Coxe has overcome this difficulty; bis nareffect of favouring circumstances. Keration flows uninterrupted, and the order must have it in his power to make the deep of events is clear and easily followed; his researches necessary to compass his end; || descriptions are neither too long por too the sources whence abundant information episodical; bis portraits seem accurate may flow, must be opened to him, he must || copies from the characters whose actions have access to libraries "rich with the and principal features bave been laid bespoils of time, "and to manuscripts treasured fore us by the course of events; his reflec. up by curiosity, pride, or learning, and tions are few, but judicious, not calculated but too often destined to moulder away to exhaust the subject but to create new in useless obscurity. This requisite, Mr. thoughts and considerations in the mind of Coxe informs us, was put into his posses- | the reader; and his style is in general sion by the kindness and public spirit of simple, unaffected, and pure, in some iaseveral distinguished persons. His authori- stances strong and rich, but its chief defect ties, he tells us, " are printed, manuscript, | consists in a frequent repetition of the same and oral.” The printed authorities are ge- words at too inconsiderable a distance from Aerally quoted at the end of every chapter, each other. Such repetitions may someand often in every page; he gives us a list times be elegant, but when too closely of some of the manuscripts with a perusal || strewed over a page become unpleasant pot of which he was favoured; part of his oral only to the ear, but give an idea of poverty authorities he derived from the Prussian of language, a vice in an author with which minister, Count Kertsberg, and some con-|| Mr. Coxe cannot justly be accused. fidential friends of Prince Kaunitz. Deli- The utility of an undertaking insures it cacy forbids his disclosing the other per- || praise, but the care and talents with which sons to whom he is indebted for informa- it is executed win admiration and grati

. tion, but after reading his work, we are tude; to both Mr. Coxe has proved fully disposed to give him credit for that|| himself fully entitled by this original, integrity and good faith which he has al. | luable, and laborious publication. ways maintained.


ART. IV.-Journal of a Tour in Ireland, in 1806. By Sir Richard Colt lloare, Baronet.

W. Miller. 8vo. Pp. 336. 1807.

This work is ushered in with a preface, Captain Skinner; and after a rough and tediof twenty-one pages, followed by an histo- ous passage of twenty-three hours, lauded at rical introduction of a hundred and pine! the Pigeon-house; from whence a vehicle, pages. We shall begin our task by select- very appropriately called the long coach, ing a few extracts which will give the reader some idea of the present state of Ireland.

*“A most daring attack was made a short

time ago upon this coach by a large gang of “ Monday, 23 June, in the evening, 1 robbers, who ordered the passengers to dis. sailed from Holyhead, in the Union packet, Il mount, and plundered them oue by oue; the


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(holding sixteen inside passengers, and as them left in ruins since the rebellion in 1793; many outside, with all their luggage) conveyed | roads excellent and fat (eight or pine miles us to Dublin, distant about two miles from froin Dublin, on the road to Trim), lands cul. the place of landing. Passengers are allowed tivated with corn, potatoes, and pastures, but to take their parcels, &c. with them, but car- slovenly farming. riages and trunks are obliged to go to the cus- “Saw written on several houses the words tom-house, and undergo a tedious and imposing Good dry Ledvings;' by which dry is not search. The proprietor must value his car- meant in contradistinction to wet or damp, riage as he thinks reasonable; and he is but implies lodgings without board, as the same charged on that valuation, four and a half per word is applied in a higher seuse to a ball

But here the matter does not end; for without a supper. Miserable hovels still conbesides the duty to government, I paid no tinue to hurt the feelings of the compassionate less than twelve different officers of the cus- traveller." toms, * “ We had scarcely got rid of a most im

Between Mitchelstown and Mullingar portuvate host of boatien, porters, &c. de- (forty-five miles from Dublin), our author manding loudly their fees, than we were de

remarked, sired to dismount from our vehicle, as appre- A line of most miserable hovels with bensions were entertained for the safety of smoke issuing from a hole in the thatched roof, the bridge over which we were obliged to This country hears but a ragged appearance

from the general want of trees, hedge-rows, “ Having mentioned the principal buildings and the slovenly state of its cultivation. that arrest the stranger's attention during his

“The post-horses met us at the entrance walk through Dublin, I shall say a few words

to the town, where the hostler harnessed the respecting the churches. Ofthese St. Patrick's

riding horse on the off-side, and did not percathedral, and Christ-church, are the most re- ceive his mistake till asked by us, if that was markable for their antiquity, and I may add, 'the custom of his country. only on that account; for their state is very “ See crowds of females, and many of them bad and precarious; and the approach to each otherwise well dressed, focking barefooted to of them filtly beyond measure, and through the fair; and near the town a large group perthe very worst part of the city. I Diserable forming ablutious in a pond, preparatory to cottages made of mud and thatched; many of putting on their stockings.

“ Enter the village of Brust through a most mail carrier was also fired at by the same

miserable street of thatched hovels. See a people. When this vehicle is known to carry

ruind castle and church on the left. The $0 many of the principal nobility, gentry, and same kind of uninteresting country still conmerchants from Dublin to the packet-boat, a tinues; the soil evidently richer, but the inregular horse-patrole to attend the coach from habitants more wretched in appearance than the office, could be attended with no inconve- any I have yet seen; such habitations, teeming nience to goverument, and would ensure the with a numerous population of children, pigs, property of many individuals."

and poultry, present a truly deplorable and *“ So near án alliance having taken place affecting sight to every man of feeling and between England and Ireland, it is to be hoped humanity, that this vexatious ceremony will shortly be

“From the cathedral (at Limerick) I waded dispersed with, or at least its abuses re- througb the old town, and the dirtiest streets formed."

I ever bebeld, to tbe castle.' +“When such large sums are annually ex

“ Strangers also, on coming to Killarney, pended in Dublin on less useful buildings and experience a great mortification in finding that improvements, it surely reflects no credit on the object of their aiteution is so far removed the government of a country, that the bridge from the place of their residence; and that the of communication between England has re

shores of the lake are not within the distance mained so long a time in a dangerous state."

of a moderate walk. Neither do I think that I“ Let the reader who wishes to know the

the regulations respecting boats, though at dreadful and disgraceful state of this quarter first sight vrey plausible, tend to the comfort of the city, refer to Mr. Whitelaw's admir

of the tourist. Their prices are fixed, their able“ Essay on the Population of Dublin, and Observations on the state of the poorer parts $ “ 'The prices are thus regulated, and a of that city.”

written account is fiscd up over the chimney Supplement.--Vo!. III.



number limiteil, and at the command of one At Ballyshannon, our author says:individual; whereas if a general license was

“ A more dirty inn, and worse attendance, I , given to keep boats on the lake, I am convinced

never met with either abroad or at home; the that the public would be better and more rea

rooms and beds teemed with every kind of versonably served. The true enthusiast, the

min, and a dirty barefooted wench acted as our lover of nature, and the artist, would wish, femme de chambre and waiter; good humour, after having had a geueral introduction to the lakes, to revisit them at bis ease, and survey

bowever, and willingness to oblige (those contheir manifold beauties in detail; but this,

stant good qualities of the common Irish',

were not wanting on the part of our landlady; from want of small boats, he cannot do; he

but more essential comforts were necessary to cannot at his pleasure ramble down to the lakes, and take his boat and amuse himself for day's journey: Ballyshannon, however, with

restore our spirits after a long and tedious -a few hours on its enchanting banks; the

all its desagremens, is worthy a visit, for, close scheme and arrangement of each day must be

to the town, the river falling precipitately over pre-concerted, the boats bespoken, the dinner

a ridge of black rocks, forms a grand cataract ordered, &c. &c. In short, difficulties and

at the spot where it discharges its waters into expense will ultimately exhaust the patience the sea. The salmon fishery at this place is and the purse of even the most sanguine ad

very productive, and according to the late mirer of nature."

'Survey of Donegall,' when last rented, proSir Richard pursues his journey to duced annually 1083". Gs. 8d. and at this preYoughall, thirty miles from Cork.

sent time still more: the eel fishery also lets

for 325l. 1os. 6d. yearly. These fisheries are “The town of Youghall is situated under the eastern declivity of a steep bill. It con

very numerous throughout Ireland, and the

breed of salmon is considered of such high sists chiefly of one long street running north and soutlı; it is distant about a mile from the

national importance, that all weirs are ordered sea, and is a bustling cheerful town, being

to be opened, and the fishery discontinued after much resorted to during the summer months

the 12th of August, that the salmon may hare as a bathing place. The public rooms on the

a free passage up the river to deposit their Mall are pleasantly situated near the banks of the river (Blackwater). There is also a neat It appears to us unaccountable not to little theatre at the back of Campbell's hotel.”+ | find the least notice taken of the salmon

leaping up the above-mentioned cascade, of the hotel, for the information of travellers

. | darting theniselves near fourteen feet perBoats 58. per day, and as much more to the pendicularly out of the water; and allow: steersman as you please; 55. to the bugle ; | ing for the curvature, they leap at least 23. 2d. to cach boatman on the upper lake, and is. 7.d. on the lower lake, with their twenty: In 1775, this fishery was sented dinner and liquor each day."

for 600l. per annum, and at that time the *«The plan mentioned by Mr. Arthur Young | fish was sold at a penny per pound, and six in his irish tour is admirable, and I am sur- shillings per hundred weight. We are not prised it never has been adopted." This plan informed of the present prices. was first suggested by Twiss, who visited Kil- A particular account of the Giant's larney in 1775. He says in his Tour, —“Were Causeway and its basaltes, is given from an Englishman, to build a large and elegant the Rev. William Hamilton's “ Letters coninn, with stables there, such as those at many | cerning the Northern Coast of Antrim." of the watering-places in England, well provided with every necessary both for lodging

The author's Southern Itinerary is from and food, with musiciaus residing inthe house, Cork, Youghall, Mallow, Tipperary, Kil

Dublin to Trim, Limerick, Killarney, a library, a billiard-table, fishing-tackle, guns, &c. I do not know any place in Great Britain commenced the night's entertainment with the or Ireland, where a considerable fortune night popular air of God save the King.' The Gode be acquired in so short a time, or with so little afterwards ordered their own favourite airs to be risk or trouble.”

played; ainongst which the Grinder and Black+ « This playhouse was built by the landLord of the hotel , and is at the end of lsis stable antiquated female Cicerone of the morning (the

Joke, were received with great applause. My yard. I found both house and players better sexton's wife), performed the office of O,angeThan I could have expected in so small a town. girl, and the clerk that of Manager of the The orchestra consisted of two fiddlers, who Theatre."

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dare, and back to Dublin ; and the except a stately hollow pillar, without a Nortbern Tour, to Trim, Cavan, En-1) stair-case, so that when I entered within, niskillen, Ballyshannon, Donegal, Cole- and looked upward, I could scarce forbear raine, Giant's Causeway, Antrim, Belfast, imagining myself at the bottom of a deep Hillsborough, Newry, Dundalk, Navan, | draw-well.” and Dublin, about 1100 English miles, The same author in describing the other and his stay in Ireland was ten weeks. round tower at Brechin, says, upon

In the Preface to this book the author | it are evidences sufficient to demonstrate says,

that it was a Christian work, for over the The spirit and even the power of foreign top of the door is the figure of our Saviour travel is checked; we can no longer trace on

on the cross. This is no demonstration at the spot, those classical scenes described to us all; any stone may be interpolated in a by the ancient pocts and historians, and which building, with inscriptions or bacso-reiu our younger days of study, we even read lievos at pleasure: on the Trajan column with enthusiasm ; we can no longer in safety at Rome, a statue of St. Peter, and on ascend the steps of the capitol, nor wander the Antonine column, in the same city, peacefully along the luxuriant shores of Baix another of St. Paul, were placed by Sixtus or Misenum ; even tbe frozen regions of Mont

V. and these Saints have hitherto preBlanc are juterdicted to us by the ferocious served their pedestals from mutilation, but decrees of a Corsican despot.”

nevertheless do not demonstrate that the We shall conclude our account of this columns are of Christian workmanship. work with some extracts from the general After having recapitulated the religious remarks which are contained in the last buildings, of which a minute detail had been sixty-two pages of the volume.

given during the progress of the tour, Sir “ Though the suhterraneous temple cannot

Richard says, be said to be exclusively peculiar to this “ But I should ill perform the duty I owe to country, yet the sister kingdoin cannot boast

my own feelings as a man of humanity, and as of any one either so large, or in such perfect

a citizen of that community which has so lately preservation, as the one at New Grange, near

united each nation under the general appellaSlace, which I have described in my jour- tiou of Briton, were I to quit this subject with. nal, and which is one of the most curious

out noticing more strongly than I have hitherto monuments of antiquity remaining within the limits of the united kingdom.”

done during my journal, the disgraceful state

in which several of the cemeteries are suffered Fifty-eight round towers are enumerat- to remain. ed, from the best accounts which could be “ From the earliest ages, and even by tle collected from the various authors who most savage nations, the greatest respect has have recorded them.

ever been paid to the bones and ashes of the “If Iam allowed to hazard a conjecture about

deceased; but in Ireland, their sad relics, after

a short aborle in the clay-cold mansion, are these singular buildings, I should suppose again restored to light, and the Hoors of the them to have been erected about the ninth

once hallowed abbey become white with their century. They seem, however, to have been

thickly mouldering fragments. * peculiar to Ireland, as there are none in England or Wales, and only two in Scotland ; these are situated at Abernethy, in the county of

*“The ruined abbies of Lislaghtin, Ardfert, Murray; and at Brechin, in the county of | Mucrus, and Buttevant, have come inmediAngus; each on the eastern coast of Scotland, || ately under my own observation; and doubtless and far remote from Ireland.”

many others in Ireland present the same dis

gusting appearance. The round towers in Scotland are on an

“ Įn a note on Mucrus (Journal), I presented average a hundred feet in height, sixteen

to my readers Sir John Carr's warning to those in diameter, and the thickness of the walls strangers whose curiosity might lead them to is three feet and a half'; thus the inside is examine the interior of this ruined abbey; and only nine feet in diameter. Mr. Gordon that I may endeavour to impress the reverend in his “ Stenerarium Septentrionalis" de- prelates to whom I have addressed myself with scribes the towers in Scotland, and says, an idea of the disgraceful aud revolting state “ At Abernethy I could discover nothing in which its cemetery is suflered to remain,

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