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of persons of low estate to imitate the fashion of their supe. riors is justly satirized: “ I will tell you how Sir Philip Cal. thorp purged John Drakes, the shoemaker of Norwich, in the time of Henry the Eighth, of the proud humour which our people have to be of the gentleman's cut. This knight bought on a time as much fine French tawney cloth as should make him a gown, and sent it to his taylor's to be made.John Drakes, a shoemaker of that town, coming to the said taylor's, and seeing the knight's gown-cloth lying there, and liking it well, caused the taylor to buy for him as much of the same cloth, at the like price, to the same intent; and, further, he bad him make it in the same fashion that the knight would have his made of. Not long after, the knight coming to the taylor to take measure of his gown, he perceived the like gown-cloth lying there, and asked the taylor whose it was. It belongs,' quoth the taylor, 'to John Drakes, who will have it made in the scif-same fashion that your's is made of.' 'Well,' said the knight, 'in good time be it; I will have mine as full of cuts as thy sheers can make it.' . It shall be done,' said the taylor. Whereupon, because the time drew near, he made haste to finish both their garments. John Drakes had no time to go to the taylor's till Christmas-day, for serving of his customers, when he had hoped to bave worn his gown; perceiving the same to be full of cuts, he began to swear at the taylor for making his gown after that sort. I have done nothing,' quoth the taylor, but what you bad me; for, as Sir Philip Calthrop's gown is, eren so have I made your's.' • By my hatchet,' quoth Jobn Drakes, I will never wear a gentleman's fashion again."
Previously to the year 1599, “ Master John Tyre, dwell. ing near Shoreditch church, was the first Englishınan that devised and attained the perfection of making all manner of tufted taffeties, cloth of tissue, wrought velvets, branched sattins, and all other kinde of curigus silk stufts.”
In this reign also pins were first manufactured in this country, which in time excelled all others; the profit gained by foreigners in this article only, before the invention took place, amounted to the annual sum of 60,0001.; women of the mid. dling classes of life used the points of thorns instead of pins, The making of Spanish needles was taught in England by Elias Crowse: in queen Mary's reign a negro was the only manufacturer; he kept a shop in Cheapside, but would impart the secret to no one,
JAMES I. When this monarch came to the crown, there was in the wardrobe in the Tower, a great variety of dresses belonging to our ancient kings, which, to the regret of an
tiquaries, tiquaries, were soon given inway and dispersed. “ Such a collection, "says Grang er, i must have been of much greater use to the studious in venerable antiquity than a review of the 'ragged regiment' in Westminster Abbey." *
The ordinary dress of this monarch consisted of a silk doublet, over which was a rich velvet short cloak, lined with satin; the doublet was broad at the shoulder and tapering at the waist; the sleeves were also of silk, at the wrists of which were pointed lace ruffles, turned over. The breeches were trunked, to which were fastened silk hose; the knees had puffed silk garters, and shoes and knees were ornamented with roses. The hat was round and broad, with a moderate crown, much in the modern shape, decorated with an ostrich feather. It is well known that James used to hunt in a ruff and trowsers.
Henry Vere, the gallant earl of Oxford, was the first no. bleman that appeared at court in this reign with a hat and white feather. The long love lock seems to have been first in fashion among the beaus, who sometimes stuck Mowers in their ears. William earl of Pembroke, a man far from an effeminate character, is represented with ear-rings.
Wrought night caps were in use in the reigos of Elia zabeth, James, and Charles I. Privy-counsellors and physicians wore them embroidered with gold and silk; thosc worn by the clergy were only black and white.
The beard was left in much the same state as it was found on James's accession to the throne.
The cloak, a dress of great antiquity, was more worn in this, than in any of the preceding reigns. It continued to be in fashion after the restoration of Charles II. The cloak, worn from time immemorial by the Spaniards, was in use among the Romans. Horace informis us that Lucullus had more cloaks than he ever had dishes at his table; they were said to have amounted to five thousand.
Sir Thomas Overbury, in his “ Character of a Country Gentleman,” says, the ordinary country gentleman wore yellow stockings.
The principal citizens at this period were only distin. guished from the courtiers by their magisterial habiliments, and round Hat caps; the ordinary dress was the broad velvet or felt bat, the slashed doublet, and short cloak, the ruff, and sometimes the plain collar.
* Tattered effigies of our kings, so called, formerly dressed in royal tobes, for funeral processions, after which they werç left at the Abbey, as a customary perquisite,
A fine specimen of the military costume of this age is exhibited in the whole length portrait of Sir NICHOLAS CRISPE*, engraved in Lysons's Environs of London, rol. ii. p. 409, from an original picture in the possession of the marquis of Townsend.
The best portrait of the costume of citizens of this period, is exhibited in the statue of Sir Thomas Gresham in the Royal Exchange.
Long coats were only worn by bors till they were seven or eight years of age. Bishop Fell, in his Life of Dr. Ham. mond, tells us that the latter divine, who was born in 1605, was in long coats when he was sent to Eton College.
The ladies made very little alteration in their dresses du. ring this reign, on account of the small encouragentent which they met with at court.
Enormous head dresses, highly toupeed, and loaded with diamonds, very much prevailed; the Countess of Essex, however, after her divorce, appeared at court, “ dressed as a virgin, with her hair banging to her feet.” The princess Elizabeth, with much more propriety, wore hers in the same manner, when she went to be married to the Prince Palatinet.
The ladies began to indulge a strong passion for foreign laces in the reign of James, which rather increased than abated in succeeding generations.
The ruff and fartbingale still continued to be worn; yellow starch for ruffi, first invented by the French, and adapted to the sallow complexions of that people, was introduced by Mrs. Turner, a physician's widow, who had a principal hand in poisoning Sir Thomas (verbury. This vain and infamous woman, who went to be hanged in a ruff of that colour, helped to support the fashion as long as she was able. It began to decline upon her execution. I,
From the reign of Edward VI. to that of Elizabeth, it is recorded, that “dukes' daughters wore gowns of satin of Bridges (Bruges), upon solemn days; cushions, and window pillows of velvet, and damask, &c. were only used in the houses of the chief princes and peers of the land; but in the latter end of this reign, those ornaments of estate, and other princely furniture, were very plentiful in the houses of citižens, and ihose of lower rank."
The knowledge of, and wearing lawn and cambric were introduced into England about the year 1562, and then only
* An ample account of this loyal and active citizen is given in vol. iii. p. 187, et seq.
+ Weldon's Court and Character of James. Granger. Ibrida
worn by the queen; there were norte who could tell how to starch them, till a Dutchwoman, the wife of Guyliam Boonen, introduced starching; which was improved two years afterwards by Mrs. Dinghen, daughter of a Flemish knight, who had sought protection in this country from the persecution of the duke of Alva. She professed herself a starcher; and some of the principal English ladies observing the neatness of the Dutch, panticalarly in the whiteness of their linen, sent for Mrs. Dinghen, avd caused her to make them ruffs of lawn starched. The Jawn was considered at this time a manufaçture so strange, that it became a general scoff; the people declaring that presently they would make ruffs of spiders' webs." The prices which this lady had for teaching to starch was 5l, and for-shewing how to boil it 20 shillings. Before this period ruffs were made of Holland cloth. *
A peculiar office was attached to the court of James's queen, Anne of Denmark. The lady of Sir Robert Carey, afterwards earl of Monmouth, was mistress of the sweet coffers, answerable at present to mistress of the robes. - CHARLES I. wore a falling band, a short green doublet, the arm-parts, towards the shoulder wide and slashed; zig zag turned up ruffles; very long green breeches (like a Dutchman) tied far below knee, witla long yellow ribbands, red stockings, great shoe roses, and a short red cloak lined with blue, with the star of the order of the Garter on the shouldert.
Thougb the large fantastic ruff maintained its power for a considerable time after the commencement of this reign I, the arrival of Vandyke produced a rery material change; the elegant pointed falling collars of lace were adopted by both sexes, and continued till the gloomy period of the civil wars. The conic hats took place of the broad ones of the last reign;
* The Dutch merchants, who only at that time sold lawn and cam. bric, cut and retailed those commodities by ells, yards, and in smaller quantities, for not one shopkeeper in forty durst venture at the purchase of a whole piece. At that iime there was not so much lawn or cambric in all the merchants' houses in Loudon, as afterwards could be obtained in a single shop; a few years, however, produced a wonderful change ; the nobility had suffs, a quarter of a yard deep and twelve lengths in a ruff. This was called in London the French fashion;" but when the English visited Paris, it was considered such an extraordinary innovation, that the Parisians called it “ The English monster." Howie's Continuasiex of Stow's Chronicle, p. 869. + Peck's Desiderata Curiosa.
A medal of Charles I. in page 104 of Evelyn's “ Numismata," sepresents him with a ruff; another, p. 108, with a calling band. The , author observes that the bishops and the judges were the last that lay the
ruff aside. Granger. • Vol. IV, No. 101.
the brims, however, were of a reasonable breadth. The hair was worn low on the forehead, and generally unparted; some wore it very long, others of a moderate length. The king, and consequently many others, wore a love lock on the left side, which was considerably longer than the rest of the hair. The unseemliness of this fashion, occasioned Mr. Prynne to write a book in quarto Against Love Locks.
The beard'dwindled very gradually under the two Charles', till it was reduced to a slender pair of whiskers. It became quite extinct in the reign of James II, as if its fatality had * been connected with that of the house of Stuart *.
Slashed doublets, doublets with slit sleeves, and cloaks were much in fashion. Trunk breeches, one of the most monstrous singularities of dress in this or any other age, were worn in the reigns of James and Charles I.
The points or tags which formerly used to be seen hanging about the waist, dangled at the knees of the beaus of this period. Little Aimsy Spanish leather boots, and spurs were much worn by gentlemen of fashion. It was usual for the beaus in England and France to call for their boots, and some think their spurs too, when they were going to a ball, as they very rarely wore the one without the other.
“ The dress of religion gave the highest offence to some gloomy zealots in this reign, who were determined to strip her of her white robe +, to ravish the ring from her finger, to despoil her of every ornament, and cloath her only in black." • The costume of queen HeNRFETTA MARFA was very grace.
ful and costly; she dressed like a sovereign, without forgetting the due attention to propriety. The ponderous head. tire diminished to beautiful ringlets, ornamented with rich jewellery, and braided behind. Her bosom and shoukier> were set off by a rich Vandyke point handkerchief, whilas
+ The surplice, which was in derision called “a rag of popera," gave great offence to many women of nice modesty and render conscience, who thouglıt it highly indecent that a man should wear“ a shirt upor his cloaths.” The devoul women in these days seem to have regarded this vestment with different eyes from those of an honesr country girl Christ Church in Oxford, who, upon seeing the students returning from prayers in their surplices, “ blessed hersell," and in my hearing, sari Mr. Granger, said with an extatic emphasis, “thal they looked like 9 many angels in white.” The matrimonial ring and the square cap were by the puritans held in equal detestation with the surplice, the liturgy, and church music. The device on the standard of colonel Cook, apare liamentarian of Gloucester, was a man in armour, cutting off the corner of a square cap with a sword. His motto was-Mute quaarator , alluding to the well known appellation of the puritan party