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Ordeal, trial by, 179
Oriental Diznirs 145
Osboru, liues by, 303

Panther, tamerl, anecdotes of a, 193
Parts, Dr. Slection from. 181
Laruell, Thomas, account of, 23
Passious, face of the, 93
Parrick, kp.. selections frum, 227, 238
l'ewe, line's on, 157

the proper result of Christian
tomper, 247
Perlantry, meaning of the word, 120
l'euros, lines t.y, 63
Perfumes, on, 61
Persia. recollections of, 99
Persian wheel, 141
l'hinde plaint, itrcount o, the city of, 58
l'hotogenic drawing, 11., the Daguer-

reotyp-, il-111, 79
Piety, reinaikou, 72
Punperuel Mower, country muid and

the, 203
Pollok, lines by, 3, 131
Praver, lines on, 69
Preponderance of good over evil, 228
President of the United States, visit

to, 159
Prior. Iines by, 110

-- anecdule of, 153
Progress of improvement, 16
Proportional compasses. on, 196
Psalms, beauty and variety of the, 176
Pyramid, great, might on the, 130
Quarantine and lazarettos, I., 173-

11., 179
Questions, botanical, answers to, 120
Railroad locomotive engines, 161
Rainbow, the. 78
Raleigh Sir Walter, selection from, 53
Rapids of Niagara, ressel seat orer, 118
Regul state, 53
Relaxation, pleasures of, 91

INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.

ABBEY of St. Bertin, ruins of, 17

Kirkstall, ruins of, 48
Black, ruins of, 225

church, Tewkesbury, 73
Abdekadet, Marabout bouse of, 83
Academy, the inlant, after Sir J. Rey

nolds, 1
Algerine vessels of pottery, 88
Algiers, general view of, 33

street iu. 37

gate and fountain of Bab-el.
Onai, 40

coffee-house and school of Byr-
madrais, bear, 81

road sid. well, 82
Arabs and a kvulongli. 86
Arum, common, or cuckoo-pint, 17,6
Athens, remains of the temple of Pan.

drosus at, 209
Anbin, St., Jersey, town of, 137
Axmouth, Devon. laud.slip near, 49
Babel Ouad, gate and fountain of,

40
Bandana handkerchieť press, 92
Bauk up the United States, Philadel.

thit, 64
Banks of the Tainar, 153
Bazaar, an Orientul, 145
Blak Abbey, ruins of the, 225
Buffon's burning mirrors, 236
Bycknacre Priory, ruins of, 116

Caraccas, cow.tree of the. 228
Caryatides, portico of, 216
Caterpillar, ihe goal-moth. 184
Chartreuse, Grand, monastery of, 201

entrance to, 208
Chelms ord, Ess x, town of, 149
Cheo's, top of the pyramid of, 129
Chili, motor s hut at San Pearu No.

1.0, 133
City hall. ex York, 57
Collie doelis und sch ol of Byrma.

drais, Dear Algers, 81
Commilllim, or cucko.pint, 176
Compasses, proportional, 1:46
Conut ,rements of the tempie of Nep-

.

Torquay, Devonshire, town of, 153
Tuwusun, selection from, 31
True peace. 157
Trotti, power of, 80
Tuks in Algers, 86
Turnspils, boys emplovod as, 247
Twamly, L. A., Hutni by, 203

Vanity, efects of, 111
Volume. Fritter, account of, 109
Venice. las rocio int. 180
Visit ul Mary tie Meiicis u Charles I...

76
Voyage, comparison of life to å, 81

Religion, influence of, 77
Remorse lines on, 77
lle-ponsority of an agent, 227
Resinctiou, lines on the, 249
Retirenieut, advantages of, 193
Reynoliis, Sir Joshua, and his works,

1., 2-11, 25
Richardson, selection from, 139
Richmond Castle, Yorkshire, 20
Rubrisan, silection from, 120
Rumun architeclure, 211
Rome, morem, remarks on, 156
Rook, the, 150
Rosm ry, lines on the, 103
Royal Visils, 76
Sage, garden, culture of, 193
St. Albin, Jersey, account of, 137
St. Omers, Flaner, account of. 17. 31
Saudford, Mrs., seiection from, 183
Sarilcenic Architectur. 249
Saxe-Coburg Gotha, Duchy of, 4
Science, advantages in, 181

sirengili of, 183
Scott, Sir W., lines by, 77

selection from, 229
Second Christiau eia, architecture of

the, 230
Sedgwick, selection from, 176
Sell-knowledge. 45
Serk, island of. 106
Sharpe, selectivu (rom, 243
Shot, on the munfacture of, 193
Shuttleworth, selectiou from, 67
Sickness, thonglis ov, 143
Sidney, Sir Philip, character of. 176
Sight and hearing, chanvels through

which truth is arrived at, 206
Simpson, the mathematician, 160
Skating, on, 70
Sketch of the history of Algiers, 33
Sket:hes in America, 117, 159

iu Egypt, 130

of national history-Holland,
182

Skilled labour, importance of, 112, 119,

191, 235
Smiin, Sir T, counsels of, 175
Smoke jack, the, 247
Smoliet, lines by, 143
Smyrl's lectures, extract from. 223
Some Jenyus, selection from, 43
Socialism, remarks on. 77
Socrates, last hours of, 131
Sulituste, lines on, 4
Sorrow ihr guise of min, 100

- fleets ol, on the mind, 236
Soul. lines on the, 75, 203
Sout'i of France, sp-ies of the, 244

America, mines of Chili iu, 133

Western lailway, 163
Spitallielis in 1780 and 1810, 160
Stay-beetle, the, 141
Stauhope, selection from, 31
Sutines, ivory, of the ancients, 51
Sterne, selection from, 6
Strata, veneral arrancement of, 44
Study of the creation, on the, 28
Suoday thought, 222
Supreme Being, proofs of a, 103
Switzerlaud, lowu of Zurich in, 63
T:mar, banks of the, 153, 177
Tamel panther, anecelules of a, 198
Tamers us wild beasts, 63
Taylor. Jerrmy, selectiou from, 75
Tear, liues ou à, 21
Teherau, Persia, tuwn of, 99
Trukesbury, abbey church at, 73
Thomsun, the poel, epitaph out, 43

-- lives by. 121
Thought, a churclyut, II

a Sunday, 222
Thyme, qualities and culture of, 187
Tillotsonselection from, 6
l'imber floats of Germany and Italy, 9
Time past, present, and future, 131
Toiletie, materials for the, VIII., 27-

IX., 61
Tombstone, inscription on a, 80

Waller, lines by, 76
Ward. selection from. 229
Washington, visit to the city of, 158
Water, renarks on, 78
Wax figures. 011, 23
- arificial flowers in, 204
West, Sir B. aud his works, 170, 186
Wheel, the Persiaur, 141
Whitehall palace, notice of, 101
W clit, account of, 42
Wild beast tamers, 63
Will o'tle Wisp. 67
Wise man, the, 3
Hitler, lives hy, 248
Wol-ey, cardinal, establishment of,

101
Woman's love, faithfulness of. 159
# Woman's Mission," liups ou, 117
Works of Sir J Reyn luis, I., 2-11, 23

Sir Beujamin Wesi, I., 170-
II., 186

Yew, the common, 239
Youny, selections from, 63
Yuuth, illusions ini, 43

hopes of, 103

Zalmisapplication or, 119
Zorulin, extracts from. 11, 43. 53
Zurich, Switzerlaud, account of, 65

Fable, illustration of a. 243
Fiy-tree, fruit of the, 136
Figures from the Panathenaic frieze,

217. 233
Floating timber in Lombardy, 9

Gad fly. 221
Galvanic battery, section of a, 220

llustration of, 223
Gate aud fountain of Bab-el-Ouad, 10
Genoa, from the ramparts, 113
Geological strita, diagram illustrative

of, 55
Goat-muih caterpillar, 184
Golden age, by West, 185
Guiha, lowo of, 5
Grand Chartreuse, monastery of. 201

entrance to the, 208
Grecian hits, 125
Greenwich railway, view of, 168
Guerusey, St. Peter's port at, 105
Hall at Ockwells, Berkshire, 89,
Hotel de Ville, St Omer, 32
Huts, Greciau, 123
Hydrostatic press, 69
Infant academy, aster Sir J. Reynolds, 1
Interior graut court of the palace at

Medeya, 85
Jersey, town of St. Anbin, 137
Jupiter, statue of, by Phidias, 52

Miner's hut at San Pedro 'Nolasco,

Chili, 133
Monastery of Grand Chartreuse, 201

entrance to, 208
Monk walking the streets of Rome, 157
Monument to Wiclif, Lutterworth

church, 41
Moors, custume of the, 84
Mosque at Medeya, 81
Muscipula, after Sir J. Reynolds, 25
Neptune, temple of, Corinth, remains

ol, 121
New York, city hall at, 57
Nineveh, supposed site of, 13
Ockhampton castle, 241
Ockweils, Berkshire, liall at, 89
Omr, St, ruins of the abbey of St.
Bertin a', 17

Hotel de Ville, at, 32
Oriental bazuar, 143

Road-side well, Algiers, 82
Rome, muah walking the streets of

157
Ronan peasant and family, 156
Ruins of the Abuey of si. Bertia, at
St. Omer, 17

Kirkstall Abbey, 48
· Byckuacre Priory, 116

the Black Abboy, 225
St. Aubin, Jersey, 137
St. Bertin, ruins of the abbey of, 17
St. Peter's port, Guernsey, 103
San Pedro Kolasco, Chiti, mioer's hat

at. 133
Smoke-jacks. illustrations of, 243
Stag-beetle, 141
Statue of Juviter, by the great sculp

tor Phidias, 52
Strata, diagram illustrative of, 55
Street iu Algiers, 37
Tamar, banks of the, 153

Weir headl, 177
Temple or Neptune at Corinth, re.
mains of. 121

Theseus, 128

Paudrosus, at Athens, re.
mains of, 209
Tewkesbury, abbey church at, 73
Thesi'lls, temple of, 128
Timber, Noaring, in Lombardy, 9
Top of the pyramid of Cheops, 129
Torquay, towu of, 193
Tree, the cow, of the Caraccas, 229
United States bank, Phila:lelphia, 64
Venrlome, entrance into, 109
Voltaie battery serior of n. 2:20

illustratiou of. 223
Wrir.beail, river Tamar. 177
Woli, ronisieie, Algiers. 81
West's picture. " Sisir line Children

L' Cum auto me, and forbid them
Hot," 169

Golilaage, 193
Whitehall palace :u the time of Charles

1:01
Wiciil, munnment to, in Llitterworth

church 41

Kirkstall abbey, ruins of, 48

title itt, 121
Cow.tier uf the Caraccps, 229

Palace at Medesa, exterior of, 81

interior grand court of, 85
at Whitehall, in the time of

Charles I., 101
Panathenaic fricze, Elgin marbles,

217, 233
Paodrosus, temple of, Athens, remains

of, 209
Parker's burning.glass, 245
Patent shot-tower, section of, 200
Peasant, Rumau, and family, 156
Persian wheel, 141
Peter's, St., port, Guernsey, 105
Phisins, statue or Jupiter by. 52
Philadelphia, Voited States, bank at,

64
Port cu of Caryntiles, 216
l'ottery, Algesire, 89
l'ress, the horizostatic, 69

- Bandani huikerchief, 92
l'roportional compasses. 109
Pyramid uľ Cheops, top uf, 129
Railroad locomotive engine, 164
Railwind, London and Birmingham,
entrance 10, 161

Grenwich, view of the, 168
Ramparts of Geno, 113
liening of the lemple of Neptune at
Cruth. 121

Papdrosus
at Atheus, 209
Richmoud castle, Yorkshire, 21

Laburnum, the, 232
Land-slip Dear Axmouth, Deron, 49
Litzaretto at Marse lles, 180
Leipsic, town 01, 97
Locomotive ringine, railrarl, 164
Lumbiniy, Avatug limwr in 9
Loudon and Birmingham railway,

entrance to, Ernstull squire, 161
Lutterworth church, mouumeut lo

Wichit in, 41

Daimonth, riei of, 189
Devousluire, tuw'n ui Torquay in, 193
Elgin marbles. blucks from, 217, 219,

233
£xurior of the palace at Medu ya, 81

Marnlont house of Abdekaret, 88
Marseilles, lazırel'o al, 130
Merleva, mosque ut. 81

PXiriiur of the palace at, 81
towu ul, 84

interiur grand court of the
polacrat, 83
Military drilling, positious of the feet

iu, 56

Yew, the common, 240

Zurich, Switzerlaud, 63

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SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS

generally having been found to bring their incipient AND HIS WORKS.

professors into niuch trouble, for neglecting, in the I.

judgment of their older and wiser friends, better and Among the distinguished characters of the last cen- more substantial interests. Some of the most distury, who exercised great influence upon the profes- tinguished poets have been in early life educated with sion or vocation to which their abilities led them, we a view to the law : Reynolds was destined to the pracmay class Sir Joshua REYNOLDS. It is sufficient tice of physic. But having a natural tendency to for the term of a man's life and the natural powers limning, he could not nor did he attempt to restrain of his mind, that, in whatever direction his capacity the impulses of nature. Hence he was deficient in may develope itself, he should continue, in order to the routine of scholastic learning ; but, though he excel, to cultivate the object to which his capacity believed that genius and capacity were identical, and tends, so as to make such object individual, and his that he possessed these in reference to the arts, he

Painting is, and has been, from the early days did not fall into the seductive fallacy, which someof the world, one of the great arts of life ; and to times leads genius astray, namely, that fits of inspirathat department of it, which is occupied in the deli- tion beget skill, and thereby relieve the possessor neation of portraits, Reynolds was throughout his from earnest and assiduous toil. life most chiefly and successfully devoted.

From his earliest years, therefore, till he was about The legends of antiquity tell us that portrait- nineteen years of age, his time was chiefly taken up painting took its rise in very old times in the city of in copying such pictures and prints as came within his Corinth, in Greece, from the circumstance of a young reach; in taking likenesses of his friends and relawoman tracing the profile of her lover by his shadow tions; and in perusing all such books as fell in bis cast upon the wall by a lamp. This was to serve as way, which treated of painting and perspective. Some a memento during a separation, which the dread con- of his performances at length struck the attention cerns of war were about to inflict upon them :-and of his father, who, thereupon, by the advice of his in this dwells one of the great charms and incentives friends, sent Joshua to London, where he began his to this species of painting,—à charm which incites professional studies under Hudson, the most celeand enchains the mind with the desire to possess, in brated portrait-painter of the day, on the 18th of spite of time, of absence, space, and death, such a October, 1741, which day is the festival of St. Luke, means of calling up the features, looks, and expression the reputed patron of painters. of those whom we have loved and lost on earth, that In the practice of portrait-painting, it has been they may seem to be constantly with us in this world, wisely and acutely observed by those who are com. as we trust they will be eternally in the next. What-petent judges of the merit of it, that it is not sufficient ever may be the merits and excellencies of all other to satisfy the judgment, to give merely an exact and species of painting, whether they be of a mental or mathematical likeness of an individual, if there be not mechanical kind, they cannot in this one quality com- imparted to the picture an expression which shall pete with the tracing of portraits ; for the latter arouse in the beholder's mind such an idea of vital ministers to the best and holiest of human propensi- warmth, as we should entertain if we actually beheld the ties, and excellence in this ministration is naturally living prototype of the portrait. In this, we are told and deservedly rewarded. That the painting of por- Hudson, the preceptor of Reynolds, was essentially detraits is, and has been, liberally rewarded, as condu- ficient ; though otherwise a distinguished and accurate cing to gratify pride and vanity, cannot be denied : maker of portraits : whereas, Reynolds, by connecting but we do not refuse the good because sullied with the latter excellence with the former, rose, on this evil; and we do not refuse due bonuur to Sir Joshua, ground, to the very top of his profession. He remained though, as Northcote remarks, he thought it his with Hudson about three years, and then returned into duty "to discover only the perfections of those whom Devonshire; the separation having probably taken he represented.”

place, in consequence of Reynolds pursuing a style The general tenor of the foregoing sentiments has of painting very much out of the ordinary beat. The becn long ago confirmed by the pen of Johnson, who event, which led to their parting was Reynolds's speaks of this department of the art as being “em- painting the portrait of an old servant-woman of ployed in diffusing friendship, in renewing tenderness, Hudson's. This picture astonished his master, and in quickening the affections of the absent, and con- obtained unbounded applause in the Gallery, . tinuing the presence of the dead." The exercise of Having acquired the friendship and patronage of of this art, he goes on to observe, every man

several distinguished persons, Reynolds soon after desires “ for the sake of those whom he loves, and returned to London, and lived for a while in St. by whom he hopes to be remembered. This use of Martin's Lane, which was then the favourite residence the art is a natural and reasonable consequence of of artists, and where something like an Academy was affection : and though, like all other human actions, established. it is often complicated with pride, yet even such pride As most of those, which are esteemed to be the is more laudable than that by which palaces are best productions of the best painters of the middle covered with pictures, that, however excellent, neither ages, are congregated at Rome; and as Rome has, in imply the owner's virtue, nor excite it.”

consequence, been held to be the finishing academy of The subject of this paper was born at Plympton, artists ; it was only a natural desire in Reynolds in Devonshire, in 1723, and was one of a large about this time to visit the city of the Seven Hills. family. His father was a clergyman and master of In the year 1749, after voyaging about with Commothe grammar school of the place. He has been dore Keppel up the Mediterranean, he landed at accused of neglecting the education of his son ; but Leghorn, and proceeded direct to Rome. if young Reynolds' attention was not driven to the It is a most interesting and astonishing circumacquirement of literature in the ordinary course, it stance in the history and profession of painting, that was owing to his strong natural predilection for Reynolds, and many other distinguished painters, sketching, principally, the

human features. His con- when at Rome for the purpose of viewing, studying, sequent neglect of the pursuits, which education im- and imbibing the principles of the great masters, poses on the young, was a source of much rebuke should have felt but little impression from them at from his sire:-poetry, painting, and the fine arts, the early contemplation of their performances. To

1

.

29 6553

describe the feelings of Sir Joshua, as he has inge

THE CALENDAR. nuously developed them, would be to pourtray the

1. Golden Number feelings of many other professed admirers of the fine

17 2. Epact

26 arts, leaving their ingenuousness out of the question.

3. Solar Cycle The keeper of the Vatican told Reynolds that many

1840. 4. Sunday Letters .

E & D visitors at Rome, who went to see the paintings, and

5. Roman Indiction

13 Raphael's in particular, would ask, when they had

6. Number of Direction seen the whole collection, where the performances

7. Julian Period of Raphael were to be found and would not be the following article is supplementary to an article lieve, that they had already passed through the rooms where they were kept. When Reynolds found that entitled, “What is AN ALMANAC?" p. 150, Vol. XV., others, even the greatest of painters, had stood in the of this work. The terms used at the head of this like case with himself , in not all at once admiring paper, are usually denominated the ChronoLOGICAL

AND COMMON Notes of the Almanac or Calendar, and appreciating the merits of Raphael, he felt comforted; and solaced himself with the just and wise re

The Calendar is an adjustment of time, accord

The term flection, that he himself was then in the midst of ing to rule, for the use of society.

" Calendar" is derived from an old classic word works executed upon principles, with which he was at first totally unacquainted; that he had come from a implying to call, from the circumstance of the country where the arts were then in a low state; Pontifex Maximus, the head of the ancient Roman that the name of Raphael, and his admirable paintings, priests, proclaiming, on the first day of the month, did not owe their reputation to the ignorance and the date of the appearance of the new moon, and the prejudice of mankind: consequently that he himself festivals to be observed throughout the month. had come to the Roman School, not to congratulate

In the early stages of society, the progress of time himself on his own acquirements, but to relearn the

was estimated by the courses of the sun and moon; principles of his art. In a short time, he tells us, a

the former marking out years, seasons, and days ; new taste and perception dawned upon him; that,

and the latter, months and weeks. instead of admiring stiff and extravagant attitudes, he

But, as we observed in the former paper, of the began to feel the sober dignity and majestic simplicity several divisions of time, it has been most difficult to of the illustrious Italian to be more congenial with determine with accuracy, the month and the year ;

since the revolution of neither the sun nor the moon the feelings of his own soul. Before he left Rome, therefore, he became one of the daily worshippers of is completed in an exact number of days. To re

concile the revolutions of the sun and moon, with these models of excellence in the art. On the other hand, he remarks, that many visitors at Rome, who

the common account of time, and to make them had no taste or feeling for the art, made pretensions

agree with each other, was the objeet held in view to instantaneous raptures at the sight of Raphael's upon reforming the Calendar on the following re

markable occasions : works. The whole character and conduct of Reynolds in

i. Julius Cæsar, being convinced by the Greek life was marked by urbanity and courtliness. His

astronomer, Sosigenes, that the year then employed behaviour, when thrown into the way of pretenders

was too short, and that it could never be properly to the art of painting, is happily sketched by Gold-settled but by referring it to the apparent) annual smith at the conclusion of his “Retaliation. The

revolution of the sun, and finding that about ninety deafness of Sir Joshua, there alluded to, was brought

days had been lost by the old reckoning, made the on by a dangerous illness, which he suffered at

first Julian year to consist of 444 days, which was in Rome.

consequence called the “

year of confusion." This

year was thus made to terminate at the proper To coxcombs averse, yet most civilly steering ;

The following years, with the months, were When they judged without skill, he was still hard of

then adjusted nearly as they are at present ; and, as hearing: When they talked of their Raphaels, Corregios, and stuff,

the year was from that time made to consist of 3654 He shifted his trumpet, and only took snuff.

days, a day was inserted every fourth year, between

the 6th and 5th of the Calends of March, (which The reader will gain some idea of the taste and

days answer to the 24th and 25th of February); so genius of Sir Joshua Reynolds, from the frontispiece that, the 6th day of the Calends of March being reto the present number, "The Infant Academy” is a peated, there were accounted to be two sixth-days of happy example of our artist's power in grouping and the Calends of March, and the day thus inserted was designing children, and in pourtraying the innocence named bissextus dies, or the double-sixth day; whence of youth and childhood. By the will of Sir Joshua,

we call Leap-year, in which this addition is made, the second choice was given to Lord Palmerston, of

Bissertile. any picture of his (Sir Joshua's) own painting; and

ii. But, as the year does not consist of quite 3651 his lordship chose “The Infant Academy," which has

days, it was found, in the sixteenth century after the been made known to the world through the engraving birth of Christ, that the course of the civil year was by Hayward.

ten days in advance of the course of the sun. The calendar was, therefore, again corrected by Pope

Gregory the Thirteenth, A. D. 1582. This, which is The wise man, says the Bible, walks with God;

called the new style, was adopted in England, A. D. Surveys, far on, the endless line of life;

1752, as noticed in our former paper. Values his soul, thinks of eternity,

lations assumed in this second reformation of the Both worlds considers, and provides for both: With reason's eye his passions guards; abstains

Calendar, are such as, reckoning from the sixteenth From evil; lives on hope, on hope, the fruit

century, will make the civil year and the course of Of faith; looks upward, purifies his soul,

the sun to differ after the lapse of 4000 years, only Expands his wings, and mounts into the sky;

to the amount of one day ! Passes the Sun, and gains his Father's house,

The Notes given at the head of this article, were And drinks with angels from the fount of bliss. Pollok's Course of Time.

the elements employed in the correction of the Calendar; and these we proceed briefly to explain.

11

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1. The Golden Number is the number which any THE DUCHY OF SAXE-COBURG--GOTHA. given year holds in the Lunar Cycle, which is a period Coburg is a country which has been as yet little of nineteen years, at the lapse of which the new

visited by travellers, because it does not lie in the moons take place on the same days of the same

course of the great roads; but the fine scenery,

the months respectively as at the commencement of the unsophisticated and original old German tone of cycle. Therefore, while the sun performs its annual

manners, the economical mode of living, and the course nineteen times, those of the moon amount to celebrity of its reigning family, will probably gradu235. The importance of this discovery in the regu- ally attract many strangers. lation of time was held to be so great, that the rule

The ducal house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is of the for ascertaining the number of the year in the Lunar Lutheran religion. The reigning duke is Ernest, Cycle was inscribed in letters of gold on a tablet, set up born January 2, 1784, who succeeded to the throne, in the market-place of Athens, in Greece. Hence, the December 9, 1806. He was married, first to Louisa, term GOLDEN number. The rule is given in the

princess of Saxe-Gotha, from whom he was separated Calendar which prefaces the Church service.

in 1826, and who died in 1832, and secondly, in 1832, 2. The Epact is the number of days over and

to Maria, daughter of the late Duke Alexander of above all the complete courses of the moon, for any

Würtemberg. He has two sons, Ernest, the heir apnumber of years, in any part of the Lunar Cycle. parent, born June 21, 1818, and Albert *, born the Hence, it is the moon's age at the beginning of any

succecding year. Of his two sisters, Julia, married year; that is, the number of days which have elapsed

to Prince Constantine of Russia, from whom she was since the last new moon in the preceding year.

divorced in 1820, is dead; the other is Victoria, 3. The Solar Cycle is a period of twenty-eight | duchess of Kent, born August 17, 1786 : be has also years, which, owing to leap-year, must necessarily

two brothers, Ferdinand, born 1785, and Leopold, pass round before the days of the month can return king of the Belgians, born 1790. The former has respectively to the same days of the week as at the

three sons and one daughter; the eldest sou, Ferdicommencement of the cycle.

nand, is married to Donna Maria, queen of Portugal. 4. The Dominical or Sunday LETTER is one of

The following is a view of the provinces of the the first seven letters of the alphabet ; which letters duchy and of their population :are used to denote respectively the days of the week,

Area in Geo. Populaand one of which letters must of course fall to the Sunday throughout the year. But, owing to leap- Principality}

38,000 4... 4 ... 271 ... 5,700

of Coburg) year, their order is every fourth year disturbed ; so

Principality that the Solar Cycle must pass round before the let

92,231 5 ... 6 158 18,250

of Gotha ters can fall respectively to the same days of the

37.60 130,231 9

429 ... 23,960 week. The present being leap-year, there are two Sunday letters; the left-hand letter is used till the

According to the latest census, the entire population end of February, and the other till the end of the

amounts to 131,861. year.

The principal towns are, Gotha (13,006 inhabit5. ROMAN INDICTION was period of fifteen ants), and Coburg (9067). With the exception of years appointed by the Emperor Constantine, A.D.

the Jews, all the inhabitants are Germans, and all 312, for the payment of certain taxes from the sub

are Lutherans, except 2000 Catholics and 1000 Jews. jects of the empire. 6. The Number of Direction. It having been classical schools, one academical gymnasium, two

In this duchy, there are three gymnasiums and decided by an assembly of Christian bishops at the

seminaries for schoolmasters, one ladies' school (at Council of Nice, in Asia, A. D. 325, that Easter Day Coburg), thirty-five town schools, and 300 village is always "the first Sunday after the Full Moon which schools.

The revenue is 1,100,000 florins. The happens upon, or next after, the 21st of March,” it public debt amounts to 3,000,000 forins.

The confollows that Easter Day cannot take place earlier than tingent to the army of the confederacy is 1366 men. the 22nd of March, or later than the 25th of April ;

The government is a constitutional monarchy: the so that from one date to the other (both inclusive) representatives form one chamber only. Gotha, howare thirty-five days. The number of direction is that

ever, has still its old diet (three classes in one chamday of the thirty-five, on which Easter-Sunday falls.

ber). The qualification to vote for a deputy of the 7. The JuliAN PERIOD consists of 7980 years;

nobles is constituted by the possession of a seignorial which is produced by the multiplication into each other of the Solar Cycle, the Lunar Cycle, and the citizen is entitled to vote who has never been a bank

estate (Rittergut). For the deputies of towns, every Roman Indiction (28 x 19 x 15 =7680). This period is reckoned from 709 years before the creation rupt, and who has not been punished for transgres

sion of the laws. of the world, when the three cycles are supposed to

In the villages, the householders form the constitucommence together; which circumstance cannot take

ency. The deputies must be of the Christian reliplace again until the lapse of the entire period, A. D.

gion, citizens of the state, thirty years of age, and 3267.

men of unblemished reputation. Those of the towns The Roman Indiction and the Julian Period are not and villages must have either an estate free from innow of practical use in the Calendar ; but the other cumbrances, worth 5000 florins, or an annual income observations will serve to assist those who wish to of 400 forins. Officers of the government appointed understand the Calendar, which is prefixed to the for the purpose, superintend the election of the Church service, in the Prayer-book.

knights and of the citizens : in the villages, the elec

tions are superintended by the ordinary officials. Blest Solitude! when life's gay hours are past,

The ministry is composed of one minister of stalc, Howe'er we range, in thee we fix at last.

and of three privy-councillors. Tossed through tempestuous seas, the voyage over,

The highest court of justice is the supreme court Pale, we look back, and bless thy friendly shore;

of appeal; the lower courts are the colleges of justice Our own strict judges, our past lives we scan, And ask if virtuc has enlarged the span :

at Coburg and Gotha; and finally, throughout the If bright the prospect, we the grave defy,

* The husband-clect of our gracious sovereign Queen Victoria. Trust future ages, and contented die,

Eo. Sat. Mug:

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