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mination ; in other respects it is quite in the same manner as mentioned by M. Lindegaard, in the volume and page above quoted.
Horticultural Society's Garden, Dec., 1839.
The above is given exactly as translated from the Danish by M. Weilbach, a most intelligent young Danish gardener now in England for his improvement, and who came to us strongly recommended by the celebrated writer on botanical geography, Professor Schouw. - Cond.
Art. III. An effectual Mode of destroying the Aphis lanígera, or
Woolly Blight, on Apple Trees. By N. T. THERE are many methods for destroying the mealy insect, A`phis lanígera, on apple trees; some of which are troublesome, and some dirty ones. I bere send you a more simple one ; which you may perhaps think worth inserting in your Gardener's Magazine. It is the brown impure pyroligneous acid; which may be had at the manufactory of this acid at a trifling cost. I have an apple tree which was nearly destroyed by this insect : by brushing it once over with the acid, about three or four years ago, the insects immediately disappeared. A few days after, some more made their appearance, which were perhaps so protected in the cracks of the rough bark, that the acid had not reached them. Having brushed these over, they have never appeared since.
This acid may also be applied, with the same effect, for the destruction of all other insects on the stems and branches of plants; but it cannot be safely applied to those on the leaves or flowers. For the destruction of these, the mixture [chiefly tobacco water] in Vol. VI. for 1830, p. 553., may be used, which is equally efficacious, as I had long experienced before I sent you the receipt. It has been said, that tobacco water itself will answer the same purpose; but I find it will not answer by immersion, except when used hot, and it is more expensive; whereas the other, in which a small quantity of tobacco water is used, and the cost of the other ingredients is a mere trifle, may be used either hot or cold, with the same effect.
Jan. 11. 1840.
Art. IV. A Mode of destroying the White Bug in Hot-houses. By
W. ANDERSON, F.L.S., Curator of the Chelsea Botanic Garden.
I know of no better method to publish any thing of importance in gardening, than through your widely circulating Gar
dener's Magazine. You know that Mr. J. T. Mackay, of the Botanic Garden, Dublin, was seeing many gardens in Flanders last summer. In his return home he called here; and, when conversing on what he had seen, he said, he “ had not learned any thing new :" after a little, however, he said, “ One thing I noticed that was new; I had not seen the white bug, and, after several enquiries, I found that they syringed their plants with lime water.” Of course I must try the truth of this prescription; but I have been at a loss how to economise the hot lime, knowing how little of it the water carries, and to have it always fresh when wanted. I consulted with the chemical gentlemen at the Hall, where it was proposed to mix a little black sulphur with the lime before being put into the water.
Our mode of preparing it is in this way. We have a large garden-pot, or a pail, into which we put half a pint of pulverised Dorking lime, with about half an ounce of black sulphur: after being well mixed, we add four gallons of water, stir it well, then let it settle, and, when clear, we take M.Dougal's syringe, and throw it under the leaves, by syringing from the back path of the house first, then the front; and, as the lime will take another dose of water, we use this in the second hot-house. We have been using this syringing for the last three months, and there is not a bug, red spider, or thrips to be seen in either house.
It must also be observed, that although the above is good, yet it is requisite to look to such plants, or parts of plants, as the syringe never reaches; but M.Dougal's inverted syringe, used with care, will do much. We syringe twice a week with this lime water, and once or twice a week with pure water, just about four o'clock, when the fire-heat rises in the houses for the night
We expect soon to leave off this lime water, as we have subdued all our noxious insects for the present. I expect it will also be useful for the American white bug on the apple trees; and I wish that some of your readers would try it with a syringe.
Chelsea Botanic Garden, Jan. 20. 1840.
Art. V. A Method of preventing the Attacks of the Asparagus Fly.
By M. KERLL. (Translated from the German, for the Gardener's Magazine, by J. L.)
In the Transactions of the Prussian Horticultural Society (vol. ii. p. 396.) there is a notice of the asparagus fly (Tephritis aspáragi), that scourge of the asparagus bed, in which it is stated as follows: " An effective method has never yet been discovered for the destruction of the devastating larvæ of this
fly. The only one yet in practice is to cut off all the shoots of the asparagus to the end of May; but where, on account of seed-beds and newly formed beds, this method cannot be employed, the asparagus must be left to its fate."
After having struggled in vain, for the space of eight years, against the attacks of this Aly, and having also applied all sorts of offensively smelling substances with a view to the destruction of the insect, but without success, the thought struck me, that I might, perhaps, sooner attain the end in view, by operating on the insect's sense of sight. For this purpose I set apart a bed of asparagus, which had been sown five years, the two last of which it had suffered severely from the fly. In the beginning of April I stuck in the pine branches close together (which, in winter, had been used as a covering) all along both sides of the rows of asparagus. Their points met close together over the plants, at a height of from 28 in. to 36 in., and formed a thick dark foliage. I had at first but little confidence in the attempt, because I was afraid of finding, as might be supposed, an immense number of the fly under the foliage; but in this I was mistaken. The fly, on the contrary, hastened from the dark shade to broad daylight, and, as long as the plants vegetated under the foliage, no shoots were attacked by it; but as soon as the tops penetrated through the covering to the open day, they became infested by the fly. If the shoot had already begun to branch
. out, only the twig that was attacked died; the others vegetated well, and no larvæ were found in the stems. It happened, also, that some shoots burst through the sides of the covering, the tops of which, when they had only just begun to branch out, were likewise immediately attacked by the Ay, and suffered exceedingly. When I examined the passages of the larvæ, I found, to my great satisfaction, that, instead of extending as far down as the surface of the ground, they regularly terminated where the stem began to be woody.
When the asparagus, therefore, has attained the height of 12 or 18 inches, and the stem become woody, it will no longer suffer any material injury from the fly: at least, I found it so from my own experience; also, that seedlings suffer little from the fly the first year or two, as the shoots then consist of little else than cellular tissue.
The fly seems to dislike shade and moisture. I never could find any during wet weather, and when the sky was cloudy they were very seldom seen. It is, therefore, very possible, that the fly might be warded off by planting some kind of early-growing vegetables between the rows of asparagus, as a shade; such as artichokes or early peas. Unfortunately, I have no longer an opportunity of making more experiments, and, therefore, sincerely pe that others will do so, and communicate the results to the
public: and I have now only to add, with respect to the abovementioned notice of this fly, that the search for it need not be limited, as there stated, to the month of May, as I have continually found it throughout the month of June; and in the preceding year it continued to be very numerous and destructive to the middle of July. I did not find that it lays its eggs in the earth, as stated in the above notice, but on the shoots of the plant itself, on which they may be distinctly seen ; and the wound on the shoot effected by the ovipositor causes it to die completely off.
ART. VI. An Account of the Tea Plantation of Henry Veitch, Esq.,
in the Island of Madeira. ' Communicated by Mr. Veitch. Dr. LIPPOLD, as you requested, has visited my plantation of tea, and will, I conceive, report to you that he never saw a plantation of any kind in a more thriving condition. The plants are both beautiful and luxuriant, and he saw them covered with flowers, and with the ripe seeds not yet fallen and new ones formed. He took samples of all, which he will, no doubt, preserve with his usual ability, and forward them to you. I have four different qualities of plants: the green, the black or bohea, the gunpowder, and the sasanqua; but I have not been able to prepare tea from the last. The leaf is too fleshy and brittle, and I have not succeeded in destroying its herbaceous taste, by any process that I have as yet tried. Of the other kinds, the green tea is the most robust; some of the old plants being from 7 ft. to 8 ft. high, and from 4 yards to 5 yards in circumference. The black is next in height, but it has scarcely half the spread of the former; while the gunpowder is by far the smallest, only growing from 4 ft. to 5 ft. high, and its leaves are not half the size of the others. The sasanqua is a very wide-spreading, plant, but its branches are unable to support themselves, and might be trained along walls to a great extent; it has handsome double white flowers, while those of the other kinds have single flowers.
The plantation is situated at my country residence in the mountains of this island, called the Jardin da Serra, or garden of the hills, in a sheltered valley, about 3000 ft. above the level of the sea, where snow sometimes falls, but lies for a very short time, and where there are frequent hoar or white frosts, but never ice. It is considerably above the cultivated vine-grounds, and where grapes will not grow; though the luxuriance of geraniums, fuchsias, hydrangeas, and many other green-house and even some tropical plants, is surprising. The plantations are on terraces, on the side of a hill; and the edges of the walls bave hedges of gooseberries and currants. This proves that the tea plants are
of a much hardier growth than has hitherto been conceived; and they even succeed as an underwood, for some of the plants which are placed under the shade of chestnut trees are quite as healthy as the others.
The green-tea plant produces abundance of seeds, but the bohea flowers later, and its seed does not, consequently, set so well; the gunpowder, however, gives flowers almost all the year round, and is seldom to be seen without flowers and seeds in all their stages of ripeness; the sasanqua, from its double flowers, rarely produces seed.
My plantation was begun in 1827, and I received the few plants, viz. 16 in number, with which I commenced it, partly from Messrs. Loddiges of Hackney, and partly from China direct. I have now about 500 full-grown plants, and about as many more ready to plant out, with the means of multiplying them by seed and layers to any extent; but, unless I can succeed better in the manufacture of the leaves, and at far less expense than I do at present, it will never turn out a profitable speculation to me, though it may likely prove an advantageous one in future for the island, when practice and experience may have produced greater expertness, and furnished a more perfect knowledge of the preparation ; for though I can make excellent tea by merely drying the leaves, yet to roll them up is both so tedious and difficult, without the destruction of at least two thirds of the quantity, by being broken and reduced nearly to dust, that it costs me more than the price of a pound of tea to prepare one, reckoning the leaves worth nothing. It is evident, therefore, that though I have obtained almost every information that books can teach me on the subject of preparation, much real information and practical knowledge are still wanting.
As I have proved that the tea plant is exactly suited to the climate of the mountains of this island, and is a much bardier plant than has hitherto been imagined (so much so, indeed, that it will not succeed in my garden in Funchal), I should be glad if, through your Magazine, I could obtain information from
any person who has seen the thorough process of drying in China, for no other information could be of the least use to me; being convinced, notwithstanding the variety or different species of plants, that it is the mode of manufacture that produces the different qualities of tea that come to our market, and that, consequently, all kinds might be produced from the same plant, notwithstanding that in different districts (as in the case of cheese in England) are produced peculiar qualities. I have little doubt, however, that if I had hitherto had leisure to give more attention to the preparation, I should ere this have arrived at greater perfection in rolling up the leaves; for it is only since my retirement from my official duties of Her Majesty's agent and consul