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A bulbous-rooted plant, with rather small dark blue flowers. It was found by Mr. Tweedie in stony places, near Rio Grande.

The seedlings grow rapidly, and will probably flower at a year and a half old.” The specimen figured flowered in the green-house at Spofforth; but Mr. Herbert thinks the species will prove very nearly hardy, and will retain its leaves, “in part at least, through the winter.” Mr. Herbert also mentions five other species of Gelasìne, viz. G. purruchucàna (two forms), grandiflòra, punctàta, nùda, and texàna ; and three species of Nemóstylis Nutt., a very nearly allied genus. He then describes three new genera: Alophia, Trifúrcia, and Beatònia, the last of which Mr. Herbert has named in honour of our excellent friend, Mr. Beaton ; observing that he saw the species he has described in flower in one of the houses of T. Harris, Esq., under the care of that gentleman's skilful gardener, Mr. D. Beaton (curante hortulano perito D. Beaton). Mr. Herbert also gives the botanical description of a new genus, Hylìne, belonging to Amaryllidacea, and of Cyrtánthus Smithianus, and Habránthus cearensis; and he concludes by reinarking that “the attention of collectors should be called to a fine Tigridia-like plant, perhaps a Rigidella, found by Andrieux near the ice-house on the summit of the mountain San Felipe, in Oaxaca.” (Bot.

Mag., Feb.) 142. I'RIS + fràgrans Lindl. fragrant *

A very distinct species, a native of the North of India, where it was found by Professor Royle. The flowers are lilac and white, and they are fragrant. The species is quite hardy, as it stood the winter of 1837-8 without protection, and it requires the same treatment as I. sibírica. (Bot. Reg., Jan.)

Amaryllidea 669. AMARY'LLIS 7989 solandræflàra.

Synonyme : Hippeastrum solandriftòrum Herb., Bot. Mag. 3771. Bromeliàceæ. 955. POURRETIA 29152 cærulea.

Synonyme : Pùya cærulea Mol., Bot. Reg. 1840, 11. 3492. ACHMEA

(134. suaveolens Kn. & West. sweet-scented so or 24 s.ap Pk Brazil 838. D l.p.s FL cab.

By some mistake, the only other species known of this genus, Æ. Merténsis, is marked in the Second Additional Supplement to Hort. Brit., p. 607., as belonging to the order Orchidàceæ; whereas it belongs to Bromeliaceæ, and was in fact originally called Bromelia Merténsis by Schultes. The present species has a flower scape about a foot long, covered with pink flowers, which smell like orris-root." It was imported by E. W. Fry, Esq., and there are plants in the Birmingham Botanic Garden. It requires a stove, and it should be grown in a compost of loam, peat, and sand. “When the plants are grown to a sufficient size, they can be forced into flower by being kept without water for some weeks, and afterwards having a regular supply, with an increased degree of heat.” (Flor. Cab., Feb.)

Art. XV. Observations on the Rotz, a Disease in Hyacinth Bulbs. (Translated from the “ Verhandlungen des Vereins,” &c., of Frankfort on the

Maine, by J. L.) The Rotz, or Rot, is a disease which causes a dreadful destruction among the hyacinths; and it is much to be lamented that we have not hitherto been able to account for its existence, nor to give a certain remedy for its prevention. A considerable time back the sum of two thousand ducats was offered for a remedy for this disease, which has thrown considerable light on


the subject, but unfortunately it has not been ultimately attended with any beneficial effects.

We, however, know this much, that the rotz generally begins in spring, when there is fine warm weather, accompanied by a north wind; because by that means the sun warms the earth during the day, and it freezes again at night, which causes a very unequal, and probably injurious, temperature to the hyacinths. This may be easily prevented where the beds are small, because they can be covered; but how is it possible to do so to the very extensive plantations of the Haarlem florists? Hedges might certainly protect them against the wind, but would not protect them long enough against variations of the atmosphere; particularly as the soil intended for hyacinths is very easily heated or cooled by the changes in the air.

This disease is also prevalent when the bulbs are put in too stiff a soil, and thereby grow too strong; but of this, and the means to prevent it, we have already spoken.

This disease also appears, and makes great devastation, while the bulbs lie in the Käuil. Certainly a great deal depends upon circumstances; and as we know that hyacinths are very liable to such attacks, they should be very delicately handled, which is not always the case. They must not be let fall

, or get any bruises, as either would injure them very materially. No kind of litter, such, for instance, as their own leaves, &c., should be suffered to be near them; and they must be so laid in the Käuil, that one may not touch the other, so that the strength of any of them may not be diminished. They must not be allowed to be wetted by rain, or burnt by the rays of the sun. If the weather is too wet or variable, they must be taken out of the Käuil sooner than usual. These, and all other particulars, depend upon circumstances; and the more these are studied, the nearer will the object in view be obtained.

This is such a contagious disease, that if one bulb in a bed be attacked by it, and suffered to remain, it contaminates those of the third or fourth year; therefore the rule is, to plant hyacinths, at most, only every four years on the same bed, or to take out the old earth and to fill it with



intend to plant the bed again.

The white rotz is quite as dangerous as the black rotz, although the latter is more prevalent, and all bulbs so attacked must be thrown away; but it is often the case that a very valuable bulb is but slightly attacked, and when that is the case, a simple remedy can be applied, viz., that of laying it in a place where snails abound, which are soon allured to it, and completely eat out all the diseased part, and leave the part that is healthy. The bulbs should then be set in the sun, where they will, in all probability, be cured of their disease. Some kinds

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of hyacinths, scillas, ornithogalums, and narcissi are sometimes attacked by the rotz.

A trial has been made of strewing saltpetre in the ground, so as to prevent the rotz, but the result was very unsuccessful, and the disease was found to be increased, instead of diminished.

Art. XVI. On Hyacinths, the Flowers of which appear expanded in .

Water. By A. B. Of late years, it has been common in the London seed shops, to observe hyacinth glasses with the plants inverted, the flower appearing expanded in the water, where the roots usually are, and the bulb and roots being contained in a small pot of soil, turned upside down, and resting on the orifice of the glass. This is not shown with much effect in water glasses of the ordinary size, but when glasses are made twice or thrice the usual size, the effect is more striking; though it is merely the same thing on a larger scale. Sometimes a glass appears with one inverted plant, with its flowers fully expanded in water, and another plant directly over it, growing erect, with its flowers fully expanded in the open air ; the bulbs and roots of both plants being in the same pot, or in two pots, placed bottom to bottom.

By what means are the blossoms made to expand in water ? They are made to expand first in air, in one of two ways : first, by the common mode of growing hyacinths in pots, and when the flower is expanded, introducing it into the glass, and filling it

with water ; and secondly, by inverting the pot over the top of the glass, and tying it in that position after the bulb is planted, so that the plant may grow into the glass, in which, of course, there is no water, and after the blossom has expanded there, introducing the water. A necessary precaution, according to this last mode, is to keep the glass, and of course the bulb, and the pot in which it grows, in a horizontal position, near the light, and to turn them as often as the hyacinth appears to be growing to one side.

With respect to the mode of growing hyacinths in water glasses, it is commonly thought to be necessary to change the water whenever it appears to become muddy, but, though this is frequently done in England, it is as frequently omitted in Holland, and the Dutch florists (we refer to Mr. Corsten and Mr. Lockhart, in London) say that they perceive no disadvantages from the practice.

London, February, 1840.


ART. XVII. On the Cultivation of the Carnation at Forres Nurseries.

By John GRIGOR. During the last eight or ten years the cultivation of the carnation in our nurseries at Forres, North Britain, has been extensive and successful. We therefore trust that a few remarks on our treatment of this most beautiful flower will not be destitute of interest to English growers, since our mode of culture is neither that which is generally practised in the South, nor that which many would consider well adapted to the North of Scotland. Previously to the year 1830, our stock of carnations consisted chiefly of the named sorts then known in the vicinity of London, whence we received them, and our treatment then was similar to that bestowed on the plant in that quarter, the soil being a composition of loam, vegetable mould, road sand, &c.

The plants were generally grown in pots. With the exception of a few kinds of least value, the whole assumed an enfeebled and victimised appearance, were difficult to propagate even by laying, and apt to die during winter. With all our care and desire for the plant, we were unable to make its cultivation either ornamental or profitable. About the period referred to we received from a friend in France a parcel of 200 carnation seeds grown from select flowers; these were sown in the open ground in the month of May and produced about 160 plants, which were transplanted into beds in August following, and twelve months thereafter were in full bloom; about nine tenths of them were double, and a fourth part of the whole consisted of valuable Alakes, bizarres, and picotees, equal to many named flowers, and far healthier than any carnations of equal quality we had

We have since had frequent supplies of seeds of like quality from France and Germany, &c. In growing seeds in this country we have uniformly found that the earliest blooms of a seedling double carnation, the first year that it flowers, will more readily produce seed than the flowers of after years. From the first blossoms of fine seedlings we have, in seasons not the most favourable, obtained well-ripened and valuable seeds, but we have never been able to gather seeds again from the same plant nor from its produce of layers. Seeds grown on bizarres and flakes frequently produce picotees. Our stock of stools, from which we propagate the various kinds of this plant, occupies about half an acre of ground, situated in an open and airy exposure without the shelter of walls, and the plants receive no covering at any season. The soil is strong, dark-coloured, and clayey, with a subsoil of blue clay, at the depth of 18 in. Water rises to within 2 ft. of the surface. The ground is therefore of that description generally termed “ damp," and the weeds which it is most subject to produce are Móntia fontàna and Cardamine

1840. MARCH.

ever seen.


hirsùta, which indicate a soil cool and moist. Last winter, 1838–39, was said to be more injurious than usual to carnations in England and on the Continent; yet our stools, about 1500 in number, continued to present all that perennial verdure and Juxuriance which mark the plants of a suitable soil and situation. The ground of the nurseries being very diversified, plants of the carnation have been tried on various qualities, such as dry, sandy, and mossy, but with little success. That which was found to destroy plants in the shortest time was a rich sandy soil, which had received much manure a year previous to its being cropped with carnations. In such, the plants grew well for one year only, and no description of manure is now employed. Some of the finest of the original seedling plants continue in vigour where they were transplanted, without manure, into newly trenched ground eight years since; and, in all appearance, will continue to flower in health for many years to come, without any treatment further than being tied up, and having their supernumerary flower stems cut off.

The laying of the plants takes place in the beginning of August, when a small quantity of river sand is mixed with the soil under the layers of a few kinds that are slowest to root. It may here be remarked, that the flowering of plants is in some measure interrupted and weakened by their being laid. The young plants are removed in October, and may be planted out any time in open weather previous to the beginning of May, having all rotten stumps and decayed substances cleanly removed. Perhaps there is no plant which, after having become sickly, is more difficult to get reestablished in health than the carnation; and, to sum up our experience in its growth and management, we attribute the luxuriance of the plants under our care to the circumstance of their having been recently propagated from healthy seedlings, cultivated in a soil peculiarly suitable, and never enfeebled by that which is not congenial to their growth.

Forres Nurseries, Dec. 1839.

ART. XVIII. On the Culture of the Chrysanthemum.

By John THACKERAY. I TAKE the liberty of making a few observations on the cultivation of that beautiful and late-flowering plant the chrysanthemum, for I feel assured that


indeed have ever witnessed the magnificence and grandeur that it is capable of attaining. In consequence of its blooming at so late a season, it is quite impossible to do justice to the plant, without the aid of glass to protect the blossoms from snow, rain, wind, &c. In spring, I get my young plants from cuttings, or by dividing the

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