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and, notwithstanding their seeming relationship, Mr. Beaton has hitherto failed to obtain a cross between them. In another house we noticed a standard of that fine old plant the Euphorbia phænícea, with a head 4 or 5 feet in diameter, and just coming into bloom. There is also a good stock of mesembryanthemums, aloes, and the common epiphyllums, in another house appropriated to this section of plants. - The day being very cold, we did not see much of the plants in the pits. These pits, and some of the houses, are heated by Rogers's conical boilers; and also a long shed in the farm-yard, with glass sashes in front, where rare specimens of single camellias, acacias, and suchlike plants are wintered, to be turned out in summer into the flower-garden, and other convenient places round the house. The subsoil here is so cold and damp, that it is found necessary to take up in the autumn such plants as Benthàmia fragífera, Gárrya elliptica, and many other half-hardy plants, which are kept in this shed conservatory all the winter.

“A large number of apple and pear trees were planted here this spring.

The pits for these were from 4 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter, and paved with common slates, their edges lapping over each other, as in common roofing. Prepared compost was filled over these slates till it was 6 or 9 inches above the common level of the garden, and the trees planted on these round hillocks, and mulched all over with a compost of rotten dung, rotten tan, and about one third of sifted coal ashes. The trees were bought at Mr. Forest's nursery, Kensington; and, though Mr. Forest is an entire stranger to Mr. Beaton, the latter thinks it but justice to say, that these fruit trees were the finest he ever saw coming out of any nursery whatever.

“ All the paths in the houses are of Welsh slate, half an inch thick, which is found far cheaper and more durable than stone pavements; besides, there is no dust from them like that from stone paths. Many of the shelves are also of this slate; but, for this purpose, the slate ought to be ribbed, in order to carry off the drainage from the bottom of the pots more effectually, and to be drilled with small holes to let through the wet from the furrows formed by the ribbing. In one division of a range of low houses are some fine pine-apple plants, which never had any bottom heat, and nothing can exceed their vigour and healthy appearance. They are plunged in old tan, and an empty pot placed, mouth upwards, under each pine pot. The water from the pine pot passes down freely into this pot, and the worms are never found to get into the pine pot. If the lower pot were placed bottom upwards, the drainage from the pine-pot would not be complete, nor the worms kept back. When bottom heat is used for pines or other plants, this is always a safe mode to guard against too strong bottom heat. Indeed, Mr. Beaton thinks that no pot should be plunged in any cold or hot medium, in or out of doors, without first taking the precaution to place an empty pot under each pot; and the only thing to be attended to is, to have the mouth of the lower pot a little narrower than the bottom of the pot to be placed over it. This plan was shown and first recommended to Mr. Beaton by Mr. Thomson, of the Horticultural Society's Garden, one of the most scientific gardeners with whom Mr. Beaton is acquainted.”

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Art. II. Notice of the Plants which grow in the open Air in the

Borromean Islands (Isola Bella and Isola Madre) in the Lago Maggiore. By Signor GIUSEPPE MANetti.

VEGETATION in these two islands is wonderful, and bespeaks the fertility of the soil and the mildness of the climate. In summer they are cooled by the breezes of the lake, and in winter the usual temperature ranges from zero to two or three degrees below it; or if it is sometimes a little lower, it is for a few minutes at twilight, and then it never falls so low as 5° Reaum. In Isola Bella, however, which is nearer the mountains than Isola Madre, the temperature falls generally a degree or two lower, according to the prevalence of wind. The soil is calcareous, containing a little clay (argilla) and mica, which gives it a shining appearance in the sun.


The trees which in the following list are marked with an asterisk


in both the islands; and those not marked, only in Isola Madre.

Acàcia farnesiàna, A. acanthocarpa, A. latifolia, A. longifolia 20 ft. high, A. vèra. Acer oblóngum. Agapanthus umbellàtus, A. umb. variegatus. * Agàve americana, *A. amer. pícta. Amaryllis formosíssima. Anthyllis Bárba Jovis. Araucària brasiliana 14 ft. high, diameter of the head 10 ft.; A. Cunninghàmii 14 ft. high, head 12 ft. in diameter; A. excelsa 16 ft. high, head 10 ft. in diameter. I was delighted with the effect of these three plants; I send you a drawing of the last species. * Ar


butus Andráchne; A. glauca ?; A. procèra; A. U nedo 18 ft. high, and occupying a space 20 ft. in diameter; A. U'nedo críspus; A. U. integrifolius; A. U. latifolius. * Aristotèlia Mácqui. Azalea índica, thirty varieties. Baccharis halimifòlia. Banksia latifòlia. Bérberis empetrifolia. Búddlea globòsa, B. salviæfòlia. Callistemon cítrinus, *C. lanceolàtus, C. ruscifòlius ?, *C. salígnus álbus, C. rugulosus. Camellia japonica atrorùbens 16 ft. high, C. jap. pink 18 ft. high, C. jap. rubra máxima 12 ft. high, C. Sasánqua 16 ft. high, and various other varieties of C. japónica from 8 ft. to 12 ft. high. *Cápparis Breynia. Ceanothus azureus 14 ft. high. Cèreus flagelliformis. Ceratònia Síliqua. * C'estrum Párqui. *Cinerària platanifòlia. *Cinnamomum Camphora 50 ft. high, the stem 1 ft. in circumference. Cístus ladaníferus. Citrus Aurantium,

1 C. Limònum. Clèthra arbòrea. Coronilla valentina. Cunninghàmia sinensis 40 ft. high, head 20 ft. in diameter. Cupressus austràlis, C. passerinoides (? dísticha nùtans Arb. Brit.). Cýclamen pérsicum. Cụcas revoluta. Dáphne hýbrida, D. odorata, D. variegata, D. oleifolia. Dahlias. * Edwardsia microphylla. Elæágnus argéntea 2. Embóthrium salicifolium. Erica arbórea 12 ft. high, E. capitàta, E. mediterrànea 10 ft. high, E. multiflòra, E. polytrichifòlia 12 ft. high, E. spuria. Eucalyptus nòva spècies 16 ft. high. * Euonymus japonicus, E. jap. fol. aureis variegàtis, E. jap. fol. argénteis variegàtis. Freylínia speciosa (? Buddlea glabérrima Lois.). Gnídia símplex. *Gordònia Lasiánthus, *G.pubescens. Gor

40 tèria rìgens (Gazània rigens). Gaultheria Shallon. Hàkea pinifolia. Hallèria lùcida. Juníperus bermudiana, J. capénsis. Justícia Adhatoda. Ixia fenestrata. *Laurus nobilis (mentioned in our Volume for 1839, as being 62 ft. 10 in high, and of which fig. 40. is a portrait reduced from a drawing kindly sent us by Signor Manetti. The remains of the letter N cut on the bark of this tree by Napoleon are still seen]. L. índica, L. tomentòsa. Leonòtis Leonurus. Leptospermum ambiguum, L. speciósum, L. tomentosum. Ligústrum lucidum, L. nepalénse. Lyttæ'a geminiflòra in full flower, last year (1839) the scape was 22 ft. high. Magnòlia fuscata 10 ft. high, the space occupied by the branches is lo ft. Meni



spermum laurifdlium. Mesembryánthemum aureum, M. stellàtum. Myrica cordifolia. Nandina doméstica. Nerine undulata. Nèrium Oleander. O'lea excelsa ; *0. fragrans 14 ft. high, and the space occupied by the ramifications 12 ft. in diameter; O. sinensis, I think this is a variety of O. fragrans undulata. *Opúntia cochinillífera. * Ficus indica. Othonna cheirifòlia. * Pånax aculeàta. Petróphila pulchélla. Phórmium tènax. Pinus nepalénsis, *P. palustris (austràlis) 30 ft. high. Pittosporum Tobira 16 ft. high, the space occupied by the ramification is 16 ft. in diameter. Podocarpus nuciferus. Raphiólepis indica, R. rùbra. * Rhododendron arboreum, and thirty varieties. Rdchea falcàta. Sálvia nóbilis, ? S. pulchélla. Thèa Bohèa, T. víridis. *Viburnum sinense. Yucca aloïfòlia, Y. draconis, Y. drac. marginata. Zàmia hórrida. Besides these plants there are beautiful groves of Rhododendron pónticum and máximum, with an infinity of varieties of azaleas, andromedas, and kalmias. Dáphne collina, Clèthra alnifolia, Mahonia Aquifolium, M. fascicularis, M. rèpens. Myrtles. Ribes sanguineum, R. sang. angústum, R. sang. malvaceum, R. speciósum. A fine Laurus caroliniàna 16 ft. high. A L. Sássafras 32 ft. high, and the stem 1 ft. 3 in. in diameter, being the finest I have hitherto

A Magnòlia cordata 40 ft. high. Quercus Sùber 24 ft. high. Cèdrus Libàni 80 ft. high, and 2 ft. diameter in the stem. A Photínia serrulata 16 ft. high, and the space occupied by the branches 18 ft. In the flower borders are cultivated beautiful species of annual and perennial plants of recent introduction, such as Schizánthus, Collèmia, Viola trícolor, V. grandiflòra, Gília, Ipomópsis élegans, Phlóx, Galárdia, Verbena, &c.; and more than 130 varieties of Chrysanthemun, all obtained by the diligence of that excellent gardener Renato Rovelli, who knows so well how to second his illustrious master, Count Vitaliano Borromeo, in the love of botany, who spares no expense to embellish and enrich his two fine estates with rare plants.

Monza, near Milan, March 19. 1840.


Art. III. Some Thoughts on the Effect of Shadows in Garden Scenery.

By R. W. F. When the broad shadows of full-foliaged trees fall upon a rising ground, the extent of the ground is apparently increased; for example, in the view of the long walk at Windsor, as given in Heath's Picturesque Annual for 1840.

It has always appeared to me when looking up an avenue, even one which only slightly rose to the entrance of the house, that the distance between the spot on which I was standing and the entrance seemed to be increased by the shadows of the trees which fell athwart the road or path. To those who have been in forests, or have seen accurate delineations of them from nature, the alternations of light and shade in irregular masses is, I think, well known to augment to the eye (for I think it after all a deception) the actual distance of objects situated on the horizon. This appears well known to artists, who certainly employ a breadth of light or shade in their paintings which imparts the appearance of extent to the view portrayed; or at least mainly contributes to the production of such an effect. At the same time, detached shadows render the picture “spotty," and less extensive.

I shal, however, probably be told that a continuous line gives a greater idea of length, than one which is broken by any object or objects as shadows; and that a lady who wears a gown with a striped pattern lengthwise will look taller than if the pattern were made to go crosswise or round the person. But I believe

I that the eye rests upon each shadow, lingers upon each in going round it or tracing its outline, and consequently does not so soon reach the horizon; the idea of extent being created by the time occupied by the eye in going over the whole.

What I state is, I think, most applicable to length: so, in a glen, for instance, dark masses of shade alternating with the rich glow of a sunset give, I cannot help thinking, a greater extent of scenery, as it were, to the eye. Remove the bounding objects, the hills, and I think this effect will be materially diminished. I think also that this appearance of increase of surface is somewhat more evident in positions where the eye has to be elevated a little to gain the horizon. Need I allude to a similar effect produced on scenery by the lengthening shades of evening :Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbræ."

VIRGIL. Ec. 1, ver. 84. The lofty mountains throw a larger shade. Watford, March, 1840.


Art. IV. On the Preference for Scotch Gardeners. By J. Wighton,

Gardener to the Earl of Stafford, Cossey Hall. Scorch gardeners are often preferred in England, as if they had a better knowledge of their profession than English gardeners. As gardening is certainly as well understood in Enggland as it is in Scotland, it may be worth while to enquire into the cause of this preference; and also the reason why so few young men in England, after serving a regular apprenticeship as gardeners, ever arrive at the head of their profession. They remain only a step above a common labourer, and seldom remove from the place of their birth; while most young men who


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