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thus heated, melons, pine-apples, bananas, and a variety of other tropical fruits and flowers can be grown in the summer season, as if they were in their native country; the only evils to be guarded against being high winds and hail storms.
Opposite the fountain there is an open loggia with a seat ; and on each side of this loggia is a small door, the one forming an entrance for the mistress to the poultry-yard, and the other an entrance for the master to the stables ; here are also summer water-closets. In the reserve garden, the hot-houses and pits are shown at m; and the open area for composts, manure, &c., at n; o is the gardener's kitchen; p his living-room ; and q his private garden, near which are a fuel-shed and a privy; r is the entrance to the stable court, in which, at t, there is the private entrance mentioned above, from the loggia. The stables, the two coach-houses, and a privy for the men-servants, are shown to the right and left of each. Here, also, is the fireplace to the flue in the conservative wall, and to the boiler which heats the tropical border. The poultry court is shown at s; and at u the private entrance to it from the loggia. The poultry-yard is supplied with water from the overflowing of the basin and fountain, carried to it under ground. The poultry have access to the stable court through a small opening in the wall, that can be closed at pleasure; and to the open lawn, and the kitchen court, through other similar openings. The kitchen court is shown at i; near which there is a servants' entrance from the approach. Part of the branch road leading to the stables is shown at w; part of the approach at x; and part of the sweep round the oyal at y.
The conservative wall (ff) should not be a common erection, presenting only a flat perpendicular surface and a horizontal line at top : it may have piers at regular distances, terminating in caps surmounted by vases, above the height of the wall, but arranged in form and proportion so as to harmonise with the conservatory and the house. In the case of a Gothic or Elizabethan building, these piers and their terminating ornaments should, of course, vary accordingly. Instead of piers, the face of the wall might be broken by arched recesses; and, while a more delicate kind of plant was trained against that part of the wall which formed the back of each recess, a more hardy sort might be trained against the projections between them. We have seen a wall of this sort at Genoa, on which all the recesses were covered with roses, and the piers with ivy; the effect of which was beautiful, as the roses continued in flower throughout the year. The same effect might be produced in England, by having the wall flued, and protected by matting during severe weather. Where the style was Gothic, the wall might be covered with a series of piers and intersecting arches; and, if the piers and imposts of the arches were covered with ivy, and the rest of the wall with deciduous plants, the effect, more particularly in winter, would be very striking. An excellent plan for varying such a wall is, to form the ground plan in a zigzag line, with piers at the angles; in which case, the length of each angle may be 10 ft., and the deviation from a straight line from 2 ft. to 3 ft. In going along the walk in front of such a wall, one series of angles would meet the eye; and, in returning, another series. Another plan is, to bave the wall straight, and a temporary or permanent roof projecting from it. In this case, if the roof were permanent, it ought to be composed of glazed sashes, which might be taken off in the summer season, and used for growing melons, leaving
the pillars and rafters which supported the sashes as fixtures ; and these might be covered with rapidly growing climbing plants. Such a roof ought to extend over the walk, in order that the latter may be used during rainy weather in summer ; and that, during the most severe frosts in winter, it may afford a somewhat more temperate place for taking exercise than in the open air. The most complete glazed veranda of this kind would be one where the whole of the skeleton framework, as well as the sashes, might be removed in summer, without leaving any marks to disfigure the scene, and replaced every autumn. A temporary veranda, in which the framework is to be covered with hurdles clothed with thatch, or with canvass fixed to framework or oiled paper, forms a very good protection for plants while in their dormant state; but requires to be removed much sooner in spring when they begin to grow, than a glass roof; because, when the plants begin to grow under an opaque roof, they become etiolated and blanched for want of light. In general, conservative walls should be flued, in order to give the gardener the power of assisting the ripening of the wood in autumn; and, in this case, the fireplace might be conveniently situated behind the wall, as indicated in the plan, at g, where it is placed in the corner of the stable buildings. A conservative wall may often form one of the sides of a range of office buildings; and this is the case with a part of the wall we are now describing, which forms the side wall to the stable (t) and coach-house (h).
ART. VII. Noles on Cèreus senilis and some other Mexican Plants.
In a Letter from Mr. Tate of the Botanic Garden, Sloane Street, to Mr. Beaton. Communicated by Mr. BEATON.
I beg to inform you that the first Cereus senilis I ever saw came to this country in September, 1823, also Mammillaria latispina (Echinocactus cornígera Dec.], and several other new species, which were introduced and presented to me by R. P. Staples, Esq., who was appointed consul-general of Mexico, after his first commercial trip there. I also purchased the same species of Mr. Bullock, in the following month of the same year, and it was described by Mr. Haworth in the Philosophical Magazine for 1823, from the specimens brought over by Mr. Bullock. I was extremely desirous that the Cèreus senìlis should be named after Mr. Staples, but Mr. Haworth said he could not consistently do so, as he believed it a true Cèreus; and as Humboldt had previously described it as Cèreus senìlis, he
could not alter it; but, as you have discovered it to be a true Echinocactus, you may, consistently with botanical usage, adopt the name of Echinocactus Staplèsia, and affix that of Cèreus senilis as a synonyme. Dr. Hooker, in his Botanical Miscellany, mentions that Mr. Cruikshanks discovered one in Peru, which I suppose you mean as the Brazilian species.
When Mr. Staples left Mexico for England, wishing to carry into effect my request of importing the hand plant (Cheirostèmon platanoides H. et B.], he obtained several living plants, and planted them in a tub. Two days previous to his departure, he sent off a muleteer with a box of Cácti slung on one side, and the tub of hand plants on the other. The fel. low, finding that one side of his load was considerably heavier than the other, emptied the major part of the earth, so as completely to destroy the young plants. You may perceive it was well the Cácti were not the heaviest, otherwise he would have taken them out, to do justice to his beast. On the arrival of Mr. Staples at Xalapa, he found all his hand plants dead. However, as it happened, I brought the first hand plant to this country from Mons. Cels of Paris, in the autumn of 1832, and had it in the market twelve months before Mr. Staples left Mexico.
Late in the evening, Mr. Staples, walking out in the suburbs of Xalapa, discovered the plant which has since borne his name, Petrèa Staplesiæ; and he was so delighted with it, that he instantly dug up some young plants with the point of a sword, and made several dried specimens of its racemes of flowers upwards of 3 ft. long, which are now in the herbarium of Mr. Lambert. He (Mr Staples) also found the Solándra guttàta of the Botanical Register at the same place, full in flower, and imported it with the Petrea.
Although Humboldt had the credit of first describing most of the plants above mentioned, and enriched various herbariums with fine specimens of each, the British public and Europe owe their early introduction in a living state to the generous disposition of Mr. Staples, who must have expended a considerable sum in transporting them from Mexico to England.
Botanic Garden, Sloane Street, Sept. 16. 1839.
Art. VIII. Practical Observations on the Cultivation of the Hya.
cinth in Haarlem. (Translated from the “ Verhandlungen des Vereins,” &c., of Frankfort on
the Maine. By J. L.) The hyacinth likes a very sandy, well-prepared, fine, and light soil, without any appearance of stones or gravel, and which consequently looks exactly as if it had been passed through a fine sieve. All kinds of loam or stiff soil which bind so closely together that, when dry, the wind cannot separate the particles as it does sand, must be avoided. No kind of red, bluish, or blackish soil will produce perfect hyacinths ; but one is considered particularly good, which is light grey, and which resembles fine, very sandy, and light garden mould. This sand, which is very light of itself, is made still lighter by the addition of the thin sand of the Dutch downs (Dünensande), which is of a pale yellow colour, very fine, and contains neither stones nor gravel; and, as this sand constitutes the principal part of the mixture of soil, if nature denies us a supply of it at home, we must search for it in other places, or try to prepare one like it. Various soils have been used for this purpose, but the preference is given to a pale yellow river sand, to which is added a third of leaf mould. The bed is then prepared by putting into it a layer of cow-dung 1 in. thick, 5 or 6 inches under the bulbs, and filling it in with the prepared soil. This cow-dung must be quite pure, and not mixed with straw, or any other substance. The soil, in consequence of the annual dunging, becomes by
, degrees too rich; in which case, the best way is, to take out some of the soil, and put in fresh sand. In Holland, however, they do not take out any soil, but only add sand, because by raising the bed, the danger of the water in the soil is avoided. In that country they have much to contend with in keeping the water from the soil; which circumstance must naturally occasion a great variation in the art of cultivating the hyacinth in drier soils. For example, in Holland, they dig the soil 5 or 6 feet deep, which would be unnecessary were it not that by this means the soil, which was stiff and sour from the water, becomes drier and lighter, and therefore better adapted for the escape of the injurious water and for evaporation. In countries where no such accumulation of water is to be feared, the soil need only be dug to the depth of 4 ft. or even 3 ft.
Ås the cultivation of the hyacinth has not made such advances in any part of the world as in Holland, by describing the soil, climate, and treatment of it in that country, it will enable those in other climates, with a use of their own understandings, to practise the art.
In preparing the soil, particular attention must be paid to two rules :- 1. That, for the space of four years previously to planting, no horse-dung, nor any dung of a heating quality, must be mixed with the soil. 2. That no hyacinths must be grown in it oftener than once every four years. The latter rule must be particularly attended to; because, if planted a year earlier, the decayed remains of the old bulbs would communicate the
rot or other diseases to the newly planted bulbs. This being understood, a bed is planted the first year with hyacinths, the second with tulips, the third with narcissus, &c.; and it would be desirable if something similar were planted even the fourth year. The bed, however, is generally prepared for hyacinths this year as follows:- Between December and February the ground is dug 5 or 6 feet deep; and, when too much water is apprehended, a drain is dug all round the bed, and filled with wood or stones, and then covered up. In March every square yard is manured with four handbarrowfuls of pure cow-dung (without straw), dug in a foot deep. During the summer, vegetables or annuals are grown on the bed, which do not exhaust the soil too much. The following autumn (therefore the fifth), the soil is dug 11 or 2 feet deep; and the manure, which was put in in spring, must be well mixed and worked in, that it may lie nearly a foot deep in the earth. When such a drain is not made, a trench is used, 2 ft. wide and it ft. broad, and left open, so that the water collected in it may be taken out.
When the above operation is performed, the bulbs must be prepared for planting in the beginning of October. This preparation consists in examining whether the bulbs are perfectly healthy; because, if they are unhealthy, they not only will not flower, but will infect those near them. It is necessary, therefore, in the first place to be acquainted with the diseases they are liable to, which are: - Ist, the white rotz; 2d, the black rotz; 3d, the rot; 4th, mould; 5th, consumption or wasting; 6th, shrinking; and 7th, excess of offsets (Durchwachs).
1st. The white rotz is known by a resin which generally oozes from the upper part of the bulb, and also from the side, and which, about this time of the year (October), is of a hard consistency, not unlike the resin that flows from trees. The white rotz also assumes the appearance of a white slimy substance, and has a very unpleasant smell, which is particularly evident when the bulb is cut open; and bulbs in this state should be thrown away without hesitation. The danger attending this disease will be treated of in another place.
2d. The black rotz is more difficult to know than the white rotz; because, as soon as the bulb is taken out of the ground and kept dry, the rotz dries up also. The stool or plate of the bulb (that is, the point from which the roots proceed downwards), on the side, appears as if eaten out, and the scales at that part have dry black edges. When, therefore, there is but little of this disease in the bulb, it is more difficult to be ascertained; and it must be particularly looked for, when the bulbs are about to be put in the ground, as it will not only destroy the infected bulb, but all those that are healthy near it. A bulb so attacked must therefore be thrown away.