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The Use and Advantages of Pearson's Draining Plough. By T. L. Hodges,
This plough has been described and figured in the Encyclopædia of Agriculture, 2d edit. p. 710. We should be glad to know from any correspondent whether it is much used, as we know only of one instance, that of Sir C. M. Burrell, Bt., M.P., at Knepp Castle. The Visitor's Guide to Knole, in the County of Kent, with Catalogues of the
Pictures contained in the Mansion ; a Genealogical Descent of the Sackville Family ; and Biographical Notices of the principal Persons whose Portraits form Part of the Collection. By J. H. Brady, F.R.A.S. Illustrated with engravings on wood by Bonner, Sly, and others. Foolscap 8vo, numerous woodcuts. A very interesting guide to one
of the most remarkable old family mansions, or we might even say palaces, in England. The biographical notices of the portraits are very curious, and the descriptions of old trees, and other particulars in the park and gardens will amuse the gardener ; while the architect will be instructed by the engravings of different parts of the house, and of the ancient furniture, more particularly of the fireplace, fire dogs, chairs, tripods, masks, sconces, &c. Remarks on Mr. Espy's Theory of Centripetal Storms, fc. By W. C. Redfield.
Pamp. 8vo, pp. 32. New York, 1839.
Mr. Redfield endeavours to show the physical impracticability of a centripetal movement in the atmosphere, over a surface of several hundred miles in diameter, towards the centre of a storm; alleging that, instead of the accumulation which must inevitably result from a centripetal movement in the air, its state of diffusion, or centrifugal movement, is known by the indications of the barometer to be unusually increased. To understand the subject thoroughly, the pamphlet must be studied in all its details. Revue générale d'Architecture et des Travaux Publics, fc. General Review
of Architecture and Public Works ; a Journal for Architects and Engineers, Antiquaries, Builders, and Proprietors. Conducted by M. César Daly, Architecte. No. I. Imp. 4to, pp. 64, 3 lithographs and numerous woodcuts. Paris, 1839.
This is the commencement of an architectural magazine, and it promises to be one of a very superior description, in point of paper, printing, and engravings. This first number, after a general introduction pointing out the importance of the art of building, contains articles on the history of Byzantine architecture, illustrated by five plans and three elevations of celebrated Byzantine churches or cathedrals ; on the importance of architectural museums; the theory of suspension bridges; on a new system of carpentry in wood and in iron ; on bitumens, and the different modes of employing them; and, lastly, one on certain buildings, built of unburnt bricks, found in the South of Russia. The bricks are formed of compressed earth, and the walls bear a close resemblance to those built in the en pise manner of the French. This article, as well as the last, is illustrated with several wood-engravings. The number concludes with several pages of reviews and miscellaneous intelligence, includ. ing a review of a work by M. Tessereng on the public works of Belgium and France. To all engaged in building or engineering pursuits, and to country gentlemen who wish to keep pace with the progress of the times in their knowledge of territorial improvement, such a periodical cannot but be acceptable: to those who have a taste for architecture it must be more especially interesting The British Almanack of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, for the Year 1840. Sm. 8vo, pp. 96. London, 1839.
The Companion to the Almanack; or Year Book of general Information for 1840.
Sm. 8vo, pp. 263. London, 1839.
These volumes possess their usual value as almanacks, though the Companion contains rather less than it did last year of matter which can be rendered directly available to the gardener as such. There is, as usual, an
ellent article on metropolitan improvements, and on the churches and other public buildings erecting in different parts of the country. Next year, we hope this article will contain some account of the public gardens or arboretums forming in different parts of the country, as at Leeds, Bath, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Derby, &c.; and by that time, also, we hope the garden in the Inner Circle, Regent's Park, will have made some progress.
Art. 1. General Notices. THE Peach and the Nectarine the same Species. - Dec. 1. 1835. Planted twenty stones of peaches, which had been kept in sand since August last. Sept. 1839. These stones came up the following summer; one of the trees bore fruit in 1838, and proved to be a nectarine of excellent flavour; another tree fruited this year (1839), and is also a nectarine (free stone) of excellent quality; proving the correctness of your opinion, “ that the peach and nectarine are essentially the same species." Query? As far as this goes, is it not evidence that the smooth-skinned peach, or nectarine, is the more original ? T. C. Brown. Farther Barton, near Cirencester, July, 1838.
Superiority of Mr. Hoare's System of pruning the line. — Three years since, I transplanted a vine of several years' growth, preserving the roots as long and uninjured as possible, against the wall of a barn in a southern aspect. The ground was previously trenched to the depth of 2 ft., the bottom being dry, and the soil calcareous. This vine was managed according to the plan recommended by Mr. Hoare; two shoots being left last autumn for bearers, and two cut down for new wood. This spring, the two shoots, each having twelve buds, with the buds on the stools, and one or two pushed from the old stem, produced 152 bunches, most of them very large. Six other vines, managed on the same plan, were full of promise, and no instance of failure occurred. This success, coupled with the simplicity of Mr. Hoare's system of pruning, strongly recommend it for adoption. If generally followed, grapes would be as common in England as gooseberries and currants; would that we were equally sure of ripening them! — Id.
A Device for serving the Bees of any Hive with Food when they need it. Let the crown of the hive be perforated with a circular opening, in. across. Provide an instrument of the following structure, which can only be made in a finished manner by a turner :- - A circular wooden dish, 74 in. across, 24 in. in external height, and it in. in internal depth ; its floor perforated in the centre by a cylindrical funnel 14 in. in height, as measured from the floor of the basin, and about 2 in. over. The interval between the wall of the dish and the wall of the funnel is to contain the food designed for the bees. A circular board, 64 in. across, not quite of an inch thick, perforated with numerous holes, arranged in four concentric circles, and with a large hole in its centre, 2 in. across, which admits the funnel through it, is provided to float on this food. A lid, 6 in. across, or more of an inch in thickness, and furnished in its central part with a circular pane of glass, about 3} in. across, covers the funnel, float, and food, and received into a ledge, made about
of an inch deep on the inner edge of the top of the wall of the dish. In applying the instrument, the base of the funnel is placed over the opening in the top of the hive. The bees pass up the funnel, whose height allows them free passage between the top of it and the lid : they descend to the surface of the floating board, and take their food through the holes perforated in it. The glass in the lid allows the person who has the care of the bees to see when
they need a fresh supply of food; and the lid and the floating-board have each an upright peg or two fixed in them to enable him to remove either at pleasure. The advantage of the whole machine is, it enables the bees of the hive to which it is applied to take their food without being exposed to the weather, or without molestation from the bees of other hives.
I understood Mr. Levett to deem himself the inventor of this excellent instrument; and this may be quite true, for no one who knows Mr. Levett will doubt his veracity ; but there may have been other inventors of it. On my describing the instrument to Mr. James Barrett of Bury St. Edmunds he stated that his late employer, the present Sir Thomas George Cullum, Bart., had possessed a similar instrument nine or ten years ago, but with the lid made wholly of glass. A neighbour of Mr. Levett's turns and makes the bee-dishes, and sells them at 3s. 6d. each. _Mr. Levett spoke very approvingly of Jonas de Gelien's work called the Bee-Preserver (London, 1829, 8vo, pp. 134, price 3s.). - J. D.
To destroy Worms. A correspondent has sent us M.Dougal's recipe, which is : Roll the lawn twice; then water it with lime water, at the rate of one pint of lime to ten gallons of water. The operation, twice performed, will destroy every worm, without injuring the grass. Or, mix a quarter of an ounce of corrosive sublimate with three gallons of water, and the same effect will be produced. “A Subscriber.
Wetterstedts patent Metal. - We recommend gardeners who are curious in making tallies for plants in pots to make trial of this metal. It will take the impression of types or figures almost as well as lead, while it is stiffer, and less likely to bend by frost or heat. It appears, also, to be equally durable as lead. We are not aware that it has yet been tried for piping, either for heating by hot water, or conveying water under ground for fountains, &c., but we think it well deserves a trial for these purposes.
Cond. Grafting the Lilac on the Ash. -- This season I grafted the different species of lilac upon the common ash, in accordance with some information I received from a friend (Mr. Wolff, jun.), while I lived in Paris. I do not recollect to have seen any account of any one having tried the same in this country. We had grafted here about three dozen ashes, varying from 4 ft. to 10 ft. in height with the common and Persian lilac; and I am happy to say that the result has exceeded my most sanguine expectations ; for we have now growing about twenty fine healthy plants, with branches from 1 ft. to 18 in. long, which I hope, in another year, to see covered with bloom. They were grafted in April, after the lilacs had made considerable shoots. I would therefore advise that the scions be taken off in January or February, in order to retard their vegetating too soon for the stocks. Would not the pendulous ash form a beautiful object by having its branches grafted with Persian lilac ? - J. Scott. Milford Nursery, Sept. 7. 1839.
Use of Lime in Planting Trees. - In most plantations there is a loss of about 8 per cent on the plants, from frost or other causes, and the great object of the forester is to accelerate and secure their growth the first year. On this head we can give a useful hint from the experience of Darnaway. One hundred and fifty acres have, within the last two or three years, been planted there without a single instance of loss, and this has been achieved by a very simple process, which merits the name and the honours of a discovery. It is merely putting a small quantity of lime into the hole in which the plant is laid. About four bushels of lime will suffice for an acre: it is thoroughly mixed and incorporated with the mould, before the plant is inserted. The effect of the lime is to push on the growth of the plant in its first and most precarious stage : new fibres begin to form and ramify from the taproot, and not only is the growth of the plant secured, but it is advanced in a double ratio, compared with the ordinary system where no lime is used. We saw this process in operation two years ago, and were not a little anxious as to the result of the lime. We had great faith in the sagacity and practical knowledge of Mr. Cutlar, the forester, but we confess we had a doubt that
liming the plant would force it on prematurely, and that after a brief season of remarkable growth it would be found deficient in stamina, and decline as rapidly as it had arisen. Experience and observation have dispelled these fears. The plants are thriving steadily and vigorously in the most exposed parts of the forest; and, the dangerous period of their existence being over, there seems no doubt that they will co tinue to assert and maintain their superiority of growth over their brethren of the forest. Indeed, we anticipate that in a short time lime will be universally used for this purpose, as it is in the operations of agriculture. The person that first used lime for manuring his land in Ross-shire was Major Mackenzie of Fodderty, and many of his neighbours shook their heads in wonderment and pity at the adoption of such a scheme for “ burning up the land.” The worthy major, however, triumphed over all the unbelievers of the district, and has lived to see the universal adoption of lime, as well as another potent auxiliary of the soil, bone dust. May we not hope for a similar result as to the application of lime in our forest plantations ? With respect to quality of soil, we need only remark that, wherever ferns grow strong and abundantly, oaks will thrive and prosper ; and it is on a soil of this description that lime has been found to answer in the nurture of plants. (Inverness Courier, Oct. 16. 1839.)
New Kinds of Wheat. - I herewith give you the particulars of the cultivation of fifty-five sorts of wheat which you so kindly submitted to me for experiment. The conclusion arrived at from the cultivation of the small wheats (Triticum sativum) may be briefly stated, viz. that they are every one inferior to the most approved sorts grown in the district, with which they were compared. The Blé de Lammas rouge sans barbe is probably the best, being hardy, healthy, and productive, and the grain being of good quality, but it is deficient in produce of straw, and from its velvety chaff is liable to be damaged from wet in harvesting. The Poulards or Rivets promise better. Three varieties I have chosen for further experiment; Patineillé blanc d'orient, for its superior grain, Poularde d'Auvergne à epilony, for early maturity and productiveness, and also Blé de St. Helena. I need scarcely say that the experiment has been highly interesting in affording an opportunity for observation, and especially in exemplifying the difference of habit in the same plant, some varieties being found so much more liable to be affected by mildew, red gum, fly, or lodging, than others. — John Clarke. Saffron Walden, Nov. 15. 1839.
Sida Abutilon L., a malvaceous annual, has lately been brought into culture by W. Taylor, F.L.S., of Holbrooke, near Ipswich. From experiments it appears that the plants succeed best when sown in May, as they arrive at perfection in three months and a half. The quantity of seed required for an acre, when sown in drills, is about 8 lb. Mr. Taylor sowed 5 rods of ground at Old Brompton, which produced 50 lb. of fibre, or at the rate of 15 cwt. of saleable fibre per acre.
Some of the fibre he had manufactured into excellent ropes, by Mr. Buckingham, hemp and flax manufacturer, Broad Street, Bloomsbury. The maceration of the smaller stalks is finished in about six days, and of the larger in twelve days. Málva críspa, M. peruviàna, and M. mauritiàna also produce fibre which might be applied to the same purpose as that of Sida Abutilon ; more especially Málva críspa, a very common annual in British gardens. — W. T. London, Nov. 1839.
Màdia sativa. - This new oil plant, first brought into notice in this Magazine by M. Hertz of Stuttgard, has been grown on a considerable scale last summer, by Mr. Taylor, at Holbrooke, near Ipswich. One acre of very poor stiff clay loam, which otherwise would have been left a naked fallow, was sown on March 5. with 5 lb. of seed; and, about the middle of August, the crop was mown and dried like hay, and carried to the barn and threshed. The produce was 33 bushels of fine seed: 8 bushels of this seed weigh 320 lb.; and 320 lb. yielded 50 lb. of oil, and 108 lb. of oilcake. duce of the acre was 250 lb. of oil, and 410 lb. of oilcake. The oil is worth 5s, a gallon of 7 lb.; so that, independently of the value of the oil
The total pro
cake as food for cattle, and of the straw as manure, the oil produced nearly 91. per acre. — W. T. London, Nov. 1839.
Three new improved Kitchen-Ranges. — I have within the last week seen in operation three different specimens of an improved kitchen-range (said to be "patented”), and all founded on the Arnott principle of economising the fuel
sed, and giving the utmost effect to the heat produced. The first is the invention of Mr. Brown, an ironmonger of Luton, Beds. Its appearance is that of an ordinary range with oven and boiler, with the front and top of the fire-grate shut in, and the space beneath the bottom also partially enclosed.
The fireplace is cased with fire-brick on the back and sides, and an iron plate forms the front, which, becoming red hot, supplies the heat necessary for roasting; when not in use for that purpose, it is screened by an outer plate sliding in grooves on either side: a portion of the top plate is removable to afford an opportunity of boiling, frying, broiling, &c. The fire plays round the oven, and partly under the boiler, and the vapour escapes by a pipe into a chimney or otherwise. The top forms a hot plate. The space under the grate bottom in front is enclosed in part with talc, and the drawer for receiving the ashes occupies the remainder. There can be no doubt of the improvement effected in this range in the avoidance of smoke and dust, economy of fuel, &c., over the common range; the oven and boiler appear to act as well, too, in every respect ; and the inventor assured me that he had roasted a leg of mutton by the red-hot plate of 194 lb. weight. This range is made in different sizes, and sold at from 7 to 10 guineas each.
The second, viz. Wright's Kitchen-Range (see Vol. XV. p. 728.), is to be seen in operation daily in Arthur Street, near the Monument. The only difference between it and the above appears to be, that in the latter the front of the fire-grate is enclosed with talc, and through this talc it is said that sufficient heat is radiated to roast meat. It is also provided with the necessary appurtenances for boiling, steaming, frying, and broiling. These included, the price is from 30 to 40 guineas.
The third kitchen-range is now exhibiting in White Lion Court, Cornhill. It dispenses with the means of roasting, and has two ovens in the larger-sized range, and only one in the smaller. It has a boiler above the oven, and a
a hot-closet under. This is also fitted with stew-pans and fish-kettle, the top forming a hot plate. The price of the smaller ones is 13h. ; that of the larger from 35l. to 451.-W. Wilds. Hertford, Dec. 1839.
Kirkwood's Stove. This stove consists of two distinct parts. An outside
case of thin sheet iron, which may be removed at pleasure ; and an inside stove or fire place which may be used either with or without the outside case.