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* In praying, the ancient Heathen directed his hands towards the object of his worship. If he prayed to the celestial gods, it was xsiques avarxar, with palms lified up, as if to receive a blessing ; if to the infernal, xóttus Threñv, beating the earth; and to those of the Sea, xeíquzs ögeyves, with hands stretched out before him. See A. 450, and I. 564. See also Horace Od. iii. 14. 5. So Virgil with peculiar elegance :

Ni, palmas ponto tendens atrasque, Cloanthus
Fudissetque preces, Divosque in vota vocasset :

Di, quibus imperium est pelagi, quorum æquora curro!' The same custoin was also prevalent among the Jews, and prevails to this day among the Mahometans and Oriental Nations. See Psal. xxviii. 2. xliv. 20, Pitts on the Religion and Manners of the Mahometans, p. 18 and 143, and Harmer's Obs. on Scripture-Passages, iii. p. 350.

L. 436. Ex de subas abanov. Anchors, it is properly observed, were unknown at this early period ; and certainly eur nerer could mean anchor. Dr. W. translates it stays:

“ The Euver seein to have been flat boards, on which the ships, when drawn up high on the strand, were wont to rest." So indeed, as Dr. W. might have added, the word implies; and the very curious and valuable bas reliefs of the Iliad materially corroborate this opinion.

L. 465. οβελoισι». “ These," says onr author,“ were probably like our gridirons ; for below, I. 213, Patroclus extends them over a clear fire to broil the meat.” We think this no proof; forks might be used in the same manner, and the words entsipar, and spucarlo

, confirm that interpretation ; besides, points is an idea essentially implied in οβελοισιν. .

L. 584. Aenas apeQINUTENOr. This is, described as similar at both ends, like an hour glass. Dr. W.'s opinion seems to us correct, in opposition to the common interpretations rotundum, or utrinque ansatum. The wood-cut annexed to this note is. about ten times larger than necessary, and occupies a whole. page very improperly.

Far from censuring these notes as too copious, we think Dr. W.would confer an inmense benefit on students in general, if he would publish a set of annotations in the same manner on the whole lliad, adopting more of Clarke's and Heyné's best criticisms.

His translation we understand is finished, as well as his notes ; he has sexit the first book into the world, to take the sense of the public on its merits. Of the translation we have spoken freely; we certainly do not wish to see any more of it; nor do we wish that a work so useful and generally acceptable as we have recommended, should be swelled by such an incumbrance. But the superior accuracy of many interpretations which Dr. W. has adopted in the course of the first book, strongly induces us to wish for a continuation of his notes. We see no need

VOL, II.

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of accompanying them, as he first intended, with the Greek text; that would be unnecessary, after Heyne's, and Wolfius' late edition, especially as Mr. Kidd's promised edition is shortly expected. Perhaps there might be reason to wish that Dr. Williams would undertake a prose version; but on this subjec we express njo opinion. We shall certainly be very glad to see his notes completed ; and we think that an octavo volume on the plan we have presumed to suggest, would be the most advisable both for his interest and his reputation, and would be received with eagerness and gratitude by the public. The extracts we have made authorize this expectation, and will most likely induce the reader to adopt an opinion, which we cheerfully avow, that, although Dr. Williams' talents as a poet cannot be extolled, he has proved himself a judicious critic, and an elegant scholar,

An ingenious Essay is annexed to this volume, entitled, "Conjectures concerning the Origin of the Poetic Fiction, that the Sụmnit of (Mount) Olympus was the Place where the Gods assembled in Council." Dr.W. supposes that this fiction arose from the appearance of the Aurora Borealis over the summit of this mountain, or range of mountains. So Diodorus relates the appearance; and Aristotle assures us, that Olympus implies luminous ; Homer very commonly applies to this word the epithet brilliant, asyanets, &c. This Dissertation appeared in the Gent. Mag. June, 1760. Art. IX. The Temple of Truth; or, the Best System of Reason, Philo

sophy, Virtue and Morals, analytically arranged. 8vo. pp. 566. Price

88. boards. Mawman. 1806. THERE is a notion prevalent in the world, which is found

so convenient to various individuals, that it has passed into a maxim ; that it is of very little consequence what is the nature of any man's religious sentiments, provided he be a good man, and lead a good life,' a maximn which has been arrayed in the attractions of poetry, and recommended from the lips, not only of Moralists, but of many who have claimeda high rank in the catalogue of Divines. "It would be folly to urge the truths of the Bible, or the creed of their church, against such divines; but considering them only as moralists, it is strange that, in this instance, they should have renounced the exercise of their reason, or suppressed its dictates. That men of letters shouid ever have adopted such an idea is truly surprizing; and it is only to be explained by the considera. tion, that they are usually more ignorant on the most important subjects, than they would choose to be thought on the most trivial. Such an opinion can have derived no support from the analogy of any pursuit with which they have been conversant, Roison will not answer the purpose of wholesome food ; a wrong road will not lead a man right; erroneous data in philosophy cannot conduct us to true conclusions,

.' Why, then, should there be such a difference in matters of religion ? May it not, on the contrary, be presumed, that error here will be peculiarly dangerous, and truth inconceivably important ?

By these views, the anonymous writer of this volume appears to have been powerfully actuated ; and as the result of assiduous and successful labours on the subject, his Temple of Truth has been reared and displayed to the public eyes. A book with a title of some resemblance, was published more than a century ago by one of the greatest men that England ever produced. Howe's Living Temple, 2 vols. Svo , in which he illustrates the declaration of sacred Scripture, that a good man is the temple of God," has always preserved a dise tinguished place in the libraries of Christian divines; and while the latter part of it abounds with valuable theological instruction, the former has been considered by the first metaphysicians, as a singular effort of inind. Our author treats the subject in a different manner, and adopts a form better suited to the taste and circumstances of the present day. The following is an outline of his plans

After an introductory prospectus of considerable length, and of a general nature, he produces a synopsis of principles: which are laid as the foundation of the building God alone is the first cause, the chief good, and the last end of all things.Revelation is the only inirror of moral truth, science, and goodness.---True excellence is the reflex image, however faint, of the divine nature, beauty, and glory, traced on the human. soul by an almighty, though invisible agency. There is neither piety nor virtue without divine grace.--Real happiness is the peculiar gift of Heaven.--A religious taste is the supreme wisdoın of man.-Simplicity and integrity are essential to the christian, character. The spirit of Christianity is a spirit of humility, and an essential qualification for eternal bliss.-A false guide, like an ignis fatuus, may prove, in the issue, a most fatal light, while a true one is a lamp of life.”'

These he denominatus : nine grand arches, on which he proposes to erect the Temple of Truth. Having thus laid the foundation, he brings forward a compendium of the primary doctrines.exhibited in the temple, which may be considered as the materials, of which it is composed. The insertion of them will make our readers acquainted with the plan of his work.

“ The salvation of man is that which includes and consti.. tutés all his religion, excellence and felicity, for both worlds.Salvation is by grace. Salvation is through faith.-The faith: by which we are saved is the special gift of God-Salvation is

"

not of works, lest any man should boast.---Real Christians are the workmanship of God in a very sublime and exclusivesense.--There is no true happiness but what is founded on the principles, and derived from the sources of Christianity.-The habitual practice of piety and virtue is the grand evidence of our being in a state of grace and salvation. A supernatural agency is indispensably necessary to form the Christian character. All the divine favours and blessings which relate to their supreme excellence and bliss, are communicated to the human race through the great Mediator and Redeemer. He is the central point of union between God and men.-It is a prin. cipal design of the Godhead in the economy of redemption, most illustriously to display the exceeding riches or the glory of his grace.-Christianity is altogether a religion of grace.

That his readers may see every object more distinctly, the author defines with accuracy the principal terms employed, viz. Truth - Reason -- Philosophy --Virtue-Morality-Grace Salvation-Faith_Good Works-Happiness. The doctrines just enumerated, are then introduced in the form of assertions, which are so many propositions to be illustrated and confirmed.

'In this volume, all the most precious truths of divine revelation are presented and discussed. With their importance the mind of the writer appears to be very deeply impressed ; his heart has most powerfully felt their influence; for their purity he is earnestly concerned ; and for their propagation in the world, and their cordial reception by all men, he is most fer. vently zealous. This sincerity gains remarkably upon his readers, as the work advances. In the beginning they will not feel interested in his favour ; for there is apparently something affected and magisteriul, at which the heart revolts ; but this impression gradually disappears. To the praise of our anony. mous author, it is but justice to assert, that he defines with ad. inirable skill'; he states his propositions clearly and strongly $ he illustrates with ability, and confirms with incontestable evi. ilence from the sacred Scriptures. His representation of the doctrine of salvation by grace, is exceedingly luminous; and his proof of it is singularly cogent. In argument he does not excel, nor does he often attempt it'; though, in several parts of the volume, it would have been both useful and appropriate,

But while with pleasure we mention his excellences, justice conipels us to notice tris faults. The worthy author appears not to be extensively acquainted with religious controversies. By some this may be considered as no great defect; but let it be remembered, that if a person chuses to give his judgement on topics connected with-theological systems, while he is unacqnainted with the arguments and explanations of contend, ing parties, he is in danger of committing egregigious blun

stances.

ders. The remark is exemplified in the two following ina

With all the severity which his pen could express, he inveighs against the self-determining power of the will; as diametrically opposite to the whole tenor of Christianity, and a total rejection of the indisputably requisite influence of the Holy Ghost.” He evidently referred to such as maintain that the will can exert its volitions to good, without the grace of the Spirit of God: yet he levels his shafts generally against those who hold the abstract idea of the will's self-determining power. But should he not have considered that Baxter, Watts, Doddridge, we believe, and many other divines, as well as philosophers, of acknowledged eminence, adopted and maintained the principle which he opposes, while, at the same time, they were as strenuous advocates as himself, for the necessity of grace

? All the fire of his fiercest indignation is poured forth against those who speak of terms or conditions of man's salvation, p. 167, &c. 'Yet, little more than a century ago, this was the current language of the most eminently pious and orthodox divines. When they called faith the condition of salvation, or when others added repentance, and some even obedience, they meant no other than modern writers mean, when they say, that unless a person believe on Christ, he cannot be saved; that, except he repent, he shall perish ; and that, without holiness, no man shall see the Lord. The phrases in question were liable to abuse, and have since been laid aside by those who found their opinions on the Scriptures. When they are used now, we acknowledge it is commonly in an antichristian sense, and against this sense alone, we are persuaded, the worthy author intended his severe and most merited censures. We only complain that the charge is so general, as to include some of the best, with some of the worst, of theologians.

In the chapter on Good Works, which contains many excellent remarks, and just views of truth and duty, our author does not sufficiently illustrate or enforce their grand object, " that God may be glorified thereby," John. xv. 8. The chapter too, would have been more complete, if he had urged more explicitly the necessity of good works, in order to qualify the Christian for the occupations and enjoyments of the heavena Jy world.

The proper furctions of reason, with regard to religious opinions, are generally stated with great force and judgement that faculty is properly represented as the medium of obtain ing a knowledge of revealed truth, not as the judge of it; as competent to decide on the authenticity of a Divine Revela. tion, but not on the subjects of it, when clearly authenticated,

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