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The vehemence, however, with which our author opposes the usurpations of hunan reason, has sometimes betrayed him into modes of expression, which are liable to exception, or at least to misinterpretation. Yet be, certainly is not to be classed with those injudicious divines, who seem to imagine, that in degrading and vilifying the ratiocinative faculty, they are doing God and religion an acceptable service ; for he has in different places defined his views very explicitly. It would indeed be a mark of singular humility or ingratitude, for the author to under-value that intellectual power, which he pos. sesses in so considerable a degree.

Untranslated Greek and Latin words, phrases, and sentences, abound in all parts of the volume; the merely English reader will, therefore, be frequently mortified and disappointed. The author pleads that his book is intended for a certain class of readers; and it is not unlikely that the mode which he has adopted, connection with the dignified and impressive style of the work, will answer his expectations of its utility. In things of this, nature, we are advocates for a considerable degree of freedom. But the sense and connection should be care, fully preserved, where it is practicable, without the formality of atranslation.

Perhaps a third part of the volume consists of notes ; but as they are mostly altered, the author does not think it just to name the writers from whom they are taken. Many of them are so excellent, that we have been tempted to quarrel with him for this scrupulous concealment.

But we should wish the reader to be personally acquainted with our architect, and with pleasure introduce them into his presence, while rearing his venerable fabric, or addressing the spectator.

You are a man of title, of fortune, of fashion, of taste, of learning; and, you slight this study : you leave it altogether to the public teachers of our religion. And what is the result? That you are as much unac quainted with the constitution, as indifferent to the author, and as regardless of the means of your highest felicity, as the profanum vulgus ! Could Solomon's fool act a more contemptible part, when he was

scattering fire-brands, arrowa, and death, and thought it sport ?.

Were you better informed in that science, which is the brightest orna. ment, and adds the greatest dignity, to the human intellect, you would know, that nothing ought to be accounted the happiness of an immortal, bat that, which is perfective of his nature ; but that which accords with his reason, in its highest state of improvement ; but that which is consonant with the purest virtue ; but that which is superior to all sublunary enjoy. ments, but that which is as eternal, as his existence ; which is therefore represented to us, in the sacred oracles, by a moral union with the inex: haustible fountain of all truth, excellence, and good ; an union of mind,

will, and affection. Nor can I devise a more comprehensive definition of religion itself, in fewer words than these. pp. 394 - 396.

• In another view of the same thing, truth, right reason, virtue, philosophy, faith, grace, when properly explained, are so many different denominations of happiness ; for they are each and all of them essentially con. nected with the summum bonum of every human being ; upon which account, by the way, they ought to be stated with such simplicity as to be compréhensible by every capacity. What for example is truth--but the repre. -sentation of happiness, as it is. And what is right reason, but the clear perception or knowledge, of happiness, according to its real nature, and just proportions--what is philosophy, but the love of that wisdom, by which crue happiness is understood and pursued. What is virtue, but that happiness, experienced and enjoyed. What is morality, but a character and conduct agreeable to such happiness? What indeed is religion itself? but the cheerful and habitual performance of the various obligations we are under to that Being, who is the great original and ultimate end of all this happiness and what is faith, but the adherence of the mind and heart to that object, through whom this happiness is communicated, “ therefore styled, the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ?" in fine, what is

grace,

but that supernatural, unmerited, and efficacious influence, by which we are enabled to discern the truth of happiness, become possessed of it, are preserved and secured in the enjoyment of it, until we arrive at the full, perfect, and eternal consummation of it, in the mansions of celestial bliss.

• This, if I mistake not, is a sufficient, though but a faint sketch of all that warranted happiness, which will supply us with light in darkness; strength, in weakness; fortitude, in amiction; solace, in suffering; patience, in trial; amidst all the multiplied and varied sorrows of this mortal life ; and inspire us with a peace, a hope, and a joy, which surpass all adequate description.' pp. 403 -406.

From the account we have given of the views of the author, it will be apparent that his system is that which, “ from the cominencement of the Christian æra, down to the present period, has been injuriously charged with an extravagant ardour for grace and faith, and with betraying a cold indiffer; ence to the cause of practical religion.” To shew the absurdity of this charge, so incessantly repeated against the strenuous advocates for pure and uncorrupt Christianity, we subjoin the following extracts.

• We come now to the practical department of the Christian system : which, in our estimate of the subject, must be preceded by a right judgement of its doctrines, and an inward sense of its power. In other words, expressive of the same thing, there must be light in the understandinglife in the soul, “ the life of God”-and love in the heart-before there can be any degree of that evangelical righteousness, and true holiness in the conduct, by which the Christian character is exemplified. We must be “ the workmanship of God-created in Christ Jesus, unto good works." To this our great prophet might refer, when he said, “ A good manout of the good treasure, that is in his heart-bringeth forth that which is good.”—This is the order : and it deserves the utmost attention."

Pp. 426, 427.

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• The works here implied, are all such, as stand in opposition to every thing, that is evil-whether vicious, immoral, or profane ; whether prohibited by the first, or by the second table of the divine law; whether dishonourable to God, injurious to man, or prejudicial to our own excellence, and peace : such are all the works of the Aesh," and all the instigations of the devil ; which are sufficiently manifest without any precise enumeration : and indeed, the most effectual method of suppressing them, is, to recommend and establish their reverse : the very best mode, of avoiding that which is evil, is, to “ cleaye to that which is good.”

• It may safely be inserted then, as among the irrepealable ordinances of Heaven, that those, who are “ created in Christ Jesus unto good works, should walk in them.". And why so ? For a variety of reasons smand all of them becoming the dignity, the wisdom, the benevolence, of that Being, who hath thus decreed.

• That the grace of God, considered as a divine influence, operating effectually upon the human mind, and heart, as a principle of life, and action, is an inward, secret, and mysterious thing, will not be denied, Neither is it at all absurd, enthusiastic, or even unphilosophical, to argue, that the spirit of grace can and does act after this manner upon

“ the spirit of a man, which is in him.” For, why should it not be as natural for spirit to act upon spirit, as matter upon matter ?

• To ask — but how are we to distinguish, in those inward, secret, and mysterious operations, between (from)the illusions of an uncorrected fancy, the reveries of mysticism, and the vagaries of a fanatic,” is a very fair enquiry--and ought to be seriously regarded. The answer is, “ by their fruits ye shall know them.” For, while the former never fail to inspire the soul with penitential humility, and self-abasement, before God; with lively faith in the person, mediatorial character, and offices, of the Redeemer; and with that adoring love, “ which is shed abroad upon the heart by the Holy Ghost;" they excite, at the same time, to those works of faith, and to those labours of love, which are said to “ accompany şalvation,” pp. 466, 469.

Such a volume must necessarily obtain our warm approba. tion, and could oår recommendation so far avail, it should be found in the study of every minister of the gospel, as an able and interesting summary of those truths which it iş his duty to inculcate, in season and out of season.

The dedication of this book to the author of the Pursuits. of Literature, did not appear to us altogether appropriate. It is not clear to us that the person in question ever passed the threshold of the Temple of Truth ; nor is it certain that he was always actuated by the noblest of all motives, in levelling his shafts, from behind the shield of conceal. ment, at those who differed from hini in matters of politics or theology. It appears to us that a mark of unfeigned estimation,' whichany person might value, would have been conferred . with more propriety on a writer, whose moral and religious excellence had been as clearly discoyerable, as his political creed, and his literary talents in

99

Before we conclude, we bey leave to notice, that in a variety of places our respectable author utters the most pointed Philippics against the present day. There is more ignorance of religion, more error, and inorë wickedness now, than there ever was before. In short, we are run down without mercy; and if he is to be credited, we are fallen into the “ fag end of time.” With all submission, we feel compelled to declare, that in our sober judgement, and without any undue partiality for the times in which we lire, there have not been for fourscore years past, so many ministers who preached the religion of Christ in its purity, nor so many people who heard from the pulpit the sacred truth which it reveals, nor so many who acknowledged their value, and habitually felt their influence, as at the present hour. The correctness of this assertion, our author might with a little examination, and a few inquiries, satisfactorily ascertain. Perhaps a sufficient apology for his ignorance of the state of the world may be found in the account which he gives of himself, p. 559. " Totally detached from all sects and parties, a more isolated being, who is not cast on a desert island, can scarcely exist. In such a peculia. rity of situation, these thoughts have been penned ; in the direct view of that eventful moment, when his judges and his critics will appear together with him at an eternally decisive bar: and if he has not given the inost accurate statement of the religion of the bible, with all the assistance he could derive from close investigation, undisturbed solitude, and persevering application to “ the Father of lights,” he is utterly incapable of discerning what it is, or what it means.

To this solitude which has a tendency to generate moroseness and severity in the best, as well as in the strongest minds, we ascribe a want of the meekness and gentleness of Christ, which is sometimes chargeable on this production, and a positiveness and indignation of censure, which 'savour not of the wisdom which is from above ; and which we notice the more particularly, because the author appears to think them justifiable, or even meritorious.

But, we would ask, why is the author such a recluse? Did God make him a man, that he should make himself a monk? As he thinks the age so bad, ought he not to come forward and be active for the glory of the Redeemer, and the reclaiming of perishing sinners? So solitary a course is neither honourable to God, nor useful to man: it is injurious to a life which we desire to be greatly prolonged, and hurtful to an intellect which we shall rejoice to find often employed in promoting the noblest objects by the most expedient ineans.

Art. X. A History of Ireland, from the earliest Account, to the accom

plishment of the Union with Great Britain in 1801. By the Rev. James Gordon, Rector of Killegny, in the diocese of Ferns, and of Cannaway in the diocese of Cork. Z vols. 8vo. pp. 1080. Price 1l. 4s. Longman and Co. 1806.

A COMPLETE and well executed History of Ireland, has

been much wanted for a cousiderable time. Leland's valuable work has, we believe, been long out of print ; and there is certainly no other which is capable of supplying its place. A new edition of Leland, with notes and a continuation to the Union, would be an acceptable, but a voluminous work; and its price must exceed the incans of many, to whom the present will be accessible.

We shall let Mr. Gordon himself explain bis object in the compilation of these volumes.

• Since IRELAND, now politically consolidated into one potent kingdom with Britain, her great sister Ireland, forms an integral part of the British Empire, a compendium of her particular history from the earliest accounts to the amalgamation of her legislature with the British, may not be useless nor unacceptable ; a compendium embracing whatever is found authentic and important, rejecting whatever appears fabulous or nugatoryThis narrative extends to the commencement of the nineteenth century, a luminous period in comparison of ages past, yet marked with some strokes of deepest barbarism.'

Mr. G. very judiciously commences his work, with a geographical description of Ireland, extracted from bis Terraquea, a work to which he frequently and rather slily sends the reader for more copious information.

The pretensions of the Irish to high antiquity, have been carried by their bistorians to a ridiculous excess. Of these, sove account is given in the second chapter, which the author has chiefly copied from Mr. Pinkerton's Inquiry into the history of Scotland, We camot approve, or pass wi

ut cen, sure,

the prevailing disposition of bistorians to adopt inplicitly the whole of that learned writer's hypotheses, which, if they took the pains to examine for themselves, would frequently prove uncertain, if pot false. We have often found the authors whom he cites in support of his argument, bear testi mony directly against it.

The bistory of Ireland, as far as it is known, previous to the invasion of Henry the end, is a melancholy tale of barbarism, treachery, and feud; and the country, from its distracted and divided state, offered an easy prey to the arms of different bodies of invaders. The Danes, under the name of Ostmen, succeeded in making a permanent settlement on the sea coasts,

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