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Anfangsgruende des philosophischer criminal rechts, &c. 1053 Fourth period, when metals are introduced into circulation. Digression on the value of money. Chap. 6. Fifth period, when society still exchanges its raw products for foreign commodities, without establishing any manufactures of its own. Chap. 7. Sixth period, when society begins to be sensible of the want of manufactures. Chap. 8. Seventh period, when a commencement is made towards remedying this deficiency. Chap. 9. Eighth period, ' when the commercial system endeavours to obtain, and actually obtains, advantages from all nations of the earth. Chap. 10. Ninth period, when other nations endeavour to set bounds to the endeavours of the commercial nation, to appropriate to itself the wealth of other nations.

Such is briefly the plan of this work, which well deserves to be recommended to the attention of political economists ; though it is obvious that the periods above stated must be very indefinite.

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Art. XXVII. Anfangsgruende des philosophischer criminal rechts, &c.

Philosophical Elements of Criminal Jurisprudence. With an Appendix on the Art of Juridical defence. By Charles Solomon Zachariae. Professor at the University of Wittemberg. 8vo. Leipzic. Sommer, 1805. Nthe introduction, the author treats of the nature of crimes, and punishand ethic punishments ; under 3. of juridical trespasses, which he defines to be actions which are in opposition to a law of right. After having treated particularly in 4., of punishments and their subdivisions, he proceeds, in 5., to consider the right of inflicting punishment, and exhibits the deduction of this right. The author endeavours chiefly to rest his system upon this principle: That whoever transgresses a practical, moral, or juridical law, deserves, by reason of the relation which ought to subsist between happiness and well-doing, to suffer punishment. Every legis. lazor, therefore, is both bound and authorised to punish the transgressor of his laws.-The author gives this system the preference, because it deduces the right of inflicting punishment from a duty of right, and against the system, which deduces it from the principle of deterring and preventing, he makes the usual objection, that it is founded merely on political expediency. The friends of that system would say, there is no proper relation between well doing and happiness, except on the ground of expediency.

In 6., the author treats of the justice of juridical punishments. According to the principles which he follows, juridical punishments can consist only in depriving the party of his liberty in relation to others. For he considers all kinds of crimés merely as infringements upon liberty. Punishments in life, limb, or property, he declares to be contrary to justice. Police, and other civil punishments he admits, because they are, strictly speaking, not punishments, but a previously determined compensation for damage done. -After having, in the theoretical part of criminal jurisprudence, treated of public and private crimes, he proceeds, in the practical part, to the criminal process, and treats here merely of the essential component parts of the accusatory process ; but the inquisitorial is not con: sidered at all, because, in his opinion, the accusatory process alone is consistent with justice, on the notion, that no one can be judge in his own cause. DANISH LITERATURE. Art. XXVIII. Naturhistorie for hver Mand, &c. Natural History for

every Man, in which are described the internal Construction and the external Shape of lactivorous Animals, their Abodes and Manner of Living, their Utility and Injury to Man. By C. G. Rafn, of the Royal College of Economy and Commerce. Part 1st. in 2 Vols. Co.

penhagen, 1802, and 1805. THE author of this work is one of the first naturalists and economists of

Denmark. In the latter capacity, especially, his writings are numerous and highly useful. It was this gentleman, who, in conjunction with Mr. Herholt, Doct. and Prof. Medicinæ, gained the prize in 1805, which the National Institute had proposed in 1799, and afterwards repeated, for the best answer to a question concerning the torpid state of the hybernating animals.

The literature of Denmark already possessed Fleischer's Naturhistorie, an original, voluminous, and well executed work; yet the present undertaking of Mr. Rafn is far from being superfluous. The work to which we have alluded embraces the whole of that extensive science, and consequently cannot enter so much into detail on the separate divisions ; a great part of it, also, being of a much older date, it could not have the advantage of recent observations. Both these wants Mr. Rafn has endeavoured to supply, and at the same time has carefully adapted the whole to the instruc. tion and entertainment of general readers.

The first 80 pages of the 1st volume contain the physiology of man and animals, explained in a lucid, popular, and interesting manner, without presupposing in the reader any knowledge of anatomy and chemistry.

The species described in these two volumes are the monkey, the badger, the sloth, the ant-eater, the shell-animals, the armadillo, the elephant, the rhinoceros, the camel, the stag, the camelopard, the bison, the goat, the sheep, the antelope, the ox, the horse, and the swine.

The author has bestowed the most attention and labour on the domestic animals, their qualities, uses, treatment, &c. The manner in which this task has been performed, we shall exemplify in the instance of the ox. The different races, and their qualities, are first described; the wild ox, the African, Indian, Abyssinian races, and that of Madagascar; the chief European races, such as the Swiss; the different Danish, the Norwegian, the Icelandic, the most remarkable of the English, the Hungarian, Moldavian, Franconian, Bohemian, Thyringian, and Sicilian races. The author then discusses the means of improving cattle; and treats on stables, fodders and drink, stall-feeding, feeding with succulent roots, on the choice of cattle intended for stock, on the breeding of calves, on dairy cattle, draught oxen, and fat cattle; afterwards on the animal products, milk, butter and cheese. The modes by which the Swiss, the English, the Dutch, the Parmesan, the Thybocheeses are made, are particularly

described. Next are stated the methods of using the flesh, the tallow, the bones, the hide, the horns, the hair, and the manure, &c, Lastly, the diseases incident to horned cattle, are enumerated. For this section the author has carefully consulted, of economical writers, Parmentier, ' Marshall, and Thaer; and of naturalists, Forster, Pennant, Pallas, Vaillant, Hearne and others.

" A book which thus conveys the most extensive, and generally correct information, in a very plain and popular manner, must be particularly valuable to a large class of readers.

A great number of copies, we understand, have been bought by private gentlemen, and distributed among the peasantry ; a plan which is greaty promoted by the generosity of the publisher, who sells the work at half price, when it is purchased for this patriotic purpose.


IN addition to the publications, noticed p. 862, which have recently

issued from the Swedish press, we subjoin the following :A Systematic Introduction to the Science of Commerce ; Stockholm. A History and Description of the Province of West Gothland. Part I.

An Introductory Lecture on the Study of Geography; by M. M. Thunberg, Rector Schola.

A Treatise on the Manner of drawing Military Situation Maps, and distinguishing the Objects with Precision ; by Ó. Gripenburg, Major in the Army.

Ingenieur Lexicon; or a Dictionary of Surveying ; Part I. with Plates; by Major Sturtzenbecher.

Lectures on Fortification ; three Vols. with Plates ; by the same Author.

An amended Map of the Roads in the Southern Part of Sweden; by J. C. Linnerhjelm, Geographus Regni. This little map will be found very useful to all who travel over that principal part of Sweden, which extends from the Sound to the extremity of Dalecarlia. It distinguishes all the chief roads, and very properly marks the stages and dictances.

Information concerning Copenhagen ; collected and published by J. Angelin. To this work, which describes concisely the most remarkable objects in the Danish metropolis, a map is anne

nexed, in which the fortifications, harbours, and channels, are delineated.

Collected Works of C. Lindegren ; Part II. (Part I. 1805.) This gentleman, who is a poet of some merit, is also among the first dramatic writers of Sweden; the Reconciled Father is one of his most considerable productions. He was for some time Royal Secretary to the Opera, a post which he has since been compelled to relinquish, in consequence of the enmity he had excited by a satirical poem, intitled, the Burgomaster and the Oxen. Among a certain class of readers, this performance is highly valued on account of its Petro-Pindaric humour. His elegy on the tomb of his reverend father, however, is a far more beautiful and generally acceptable performance. This gentleman, we believe, is nearly related to a family of the same name, who reside at Portsmouth.

Quinnan, or Woman ; a poem ; by Walierius. This poem is neces. sarily interesting; and, though not ill-written, derives perhaps, its greatest attraction from the nature of its subject. Mr. W. first rose into notice as a franslator of French poems and plays. Some of the best dramas he adapted for the Swedish stage, where he performed various characters himself. He is now Secretary to the Opera. Among his original poems, his Ode to Patience, Tålamodet, is the best, and is, indeed, a very excellent production.

J. O. Wallin proceeds with his valuable translations from the Latin poets, which we noticed a short time since. (see p. 479). Another voiunie is expected to appear very speedily.

The friends of religion will hear with regret, of the death of the Right Rev. Dr. J. Möller, bishop of the island of Gottland. With his life has terminated a useful periodical work, commenced in 1901, intitled, · Lectures on different religious Subjects ;' a work of great utility, breathing the warmest zeal for the cause of Christianity and the real interest of mankind, and manifesting, at the same time, considerable talent and erudition. Seven volumes of this work are now before the public ; and we shall be very glad to hear that some competent person has undertaken to continue it.

In the third vol. there is an Essay on Parish Schools, and the instruce tion of the children of the peasantry. By several wise regulations, every child within the whole kingdom of Sweden 'has an opportunity of learning, and is actually taught, the principles of the Christian religion. This is made so great an object, that no person from the royal palace to the cottage, is regarded as a member of society, till he is examined and approved at the confirmation. Till this regulation is complied with, no one can hold any office, or take an oath, or enter into a marriage contract.

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The Rev. J. Lawson, author of Lectures The prospectus of a new periodical on the History of Ruth, is preparing for work has just been circulated, entitled, the press, Lectures on the History of JoRecords of Literature; it is intended to seph. present a general statement of the pro- William Holloway, Author of the gress of knowledge in all its depart- Scenes of Youth, &c. is about to publish a ments.

New Edition, being the Third, of the 1. Correct Information relative to the “PEASANT'S FATE,” with very consideraproposed Object, Size, and Price of all ble additions and improvements. Works announced at home or abroad. The late Bishop of St. Asaph, had just

2. On their publication, a succinct before his death prepared a volume of account of their Contents will be offered Sermons for publication, which will apin regular course, with Abstracts or Ex- pear in the course of the winter. tracts.

A new Edition of Brydone's Tour. 3. The Prizes proposed and distributed through Sicily and Malta, will soon be by Learned Societies, more particularly published. when they relate to Literary Subjects, Vol. 5th and last of the Whole Works will be regularly recorded.

of Archbishop Leighton, (Ogle's enlarged 9. A brief Necrology will inform the Edition) is in the press, and will shortly Republic of Letters of its Losses, as suis- be published. tained in the decease of its more islustri

In the press, a new Edition of Solitude ous Members.

sweetened, or Miscellaneous Meditations It will in fact, form an Index to the Li- on Various Religious Subjects, written in terature of the World.

dis:ant parts of the world, by Dr. James The Second Volume of " Oriental Meikle. Customs) by the Rev. S. Burder, of St. We understand that the Rer. G. BrunnAlban's is now finished at the Press, and mark is adding to his Swedish Grammar, will bēpublished immediately. A new a vocabulary of words most useful to Edition of the former volume will be a traveller in a foreign country this ready for delivery in a few wecks. The addition we considered as very desirable work is now printed in royal and com- when reviewing his book. E. R. Vol. I. non octavo.

The same gentleman iš about putting


to press his translation of Dr. Odman's The Rev. W. Hazlitt, A. M has issued Essays on various subjects.

proposals for publishing by Subscription, Mr. C. Wilkinson has in the press a Fifty-two Sermons for the use of FamiTranslation of Dr. Reineggs' Description lies; to form two volumes 8vo. of Caucasus, with Marshal Bieberstein's Account of the Countries on the Caspian,

AMERICA. between the rivers Terck and Kurr, in- Dr. West has published at Hartford, cluding the Marshal's catalogue of scarce Sketches of the Life of the Rev. Dr. Hopplants. In two Volumes, accompanied kins; this work is accompanied by marwith a map and three plates,

ginal notes, extracted from the author's Mr. Dunne, formerly surgcon of the private Diary. auxilliary British cavalry in Portugal, Eliphat Pearson, LLD. Hancock Proproposes to publish in one volume, octavo, fessor of Hebrew, has pronounced and " the Chirurgical Candidate, or Reflec- published a Public Lecture occasioned by tions on the Education indispensable to the death of the Rev. J. Millard, S. T. D. complete the Military Sargeon, or Pri- LLD. President of the University in vate Practitioner.” This work will be Cambridge. particularly serviceable to young practi.

FRANCE. tioners in hot climates, particularly the M. Balthazar Solvyns intends shortly to West-Indies.

publish, in 4 folio'volumes, a description Mr. Cracknell is printing his Sermon in of the Hindoos, their manners, customs, favour of Academical Institutions.

and ceremonies, &c. represented on 252 In the press the second Edition of plates, drawn from Nature in Hindostan, the Age of Frivolity.

accompanied with a concise account in Also the 2nd. edition of Mr. Buck's French, English, and German. Treatise on Experience.

Memoirs and letters of Marshal de The following arrangement is made for Jessé, containing anecdotes, and unknown the Lectures of the ensuing Season at the historical facts relating to the reigns of Royal Institution : they commenced on Louis XIV. and XV., are expected to be Wednesday, the 19th of November. shortly published at Paris, in two voMr. Davy, on Chemistry.

lumes octavo, 11 fr. 50 c, common paMr. Allen, on Natural Philosophy. per. 20 p. 50 c. tine paper. (Memoirs

Rev. T. F. Dibdin, on English Litera- et Lettres du Marechal de Jesse.) fure.

M.J. B. Buc'hoz has published a MeRev. Mr. Crowe, on Dramatic Poetry. moir on Siberian Flax, which he states to Dr. Shaw, on Zoology.

be a species of the plant far superior to Rev. Mr. Hewlett, on Belles Lettres. that ordinarily cultivated; the treatise Dr. Crotch, on Music.

also includes descriptions of several difRev. Mr. Foster, on the History of ferent vegetable productions adapted to Commerce.

various manufactures, and explains a Mr. Craig, on Drawing in Water Co. mode of preparing hemp, by which it is lours.

said to be rendered equal in appearance Dr. Smith, on Botany.

to flax. It also treats of the manufacMr. Wood, on Perspective.

ture of paper as practised in China, and Mr. Coleridge, on the Principles common Japan ;--plants proper for tanning to the Fine Arts.


- on kali, and other marine The friends of Mrs. Chapone, are pre- productions from which soda may be exparing a volume of letters and other writ- tractes --of the propriety of cultivating ings of that lady, hitherto unpublished; them ;-their uses in medicine, manufacwith an account of her life and character, tures, dying, &c. (Memoire sur le lin de in contradiction to some injurious state- Siberie, Svo, 2 fr. 90 c.) ments lately printed.

Dr. Moore's Travels in France, SwitzerThe Rev. James Hall, A. M. has in land and Germany, have been translated the press, Travels in Scotland by an un- into French by a Lady, and published by asual Route; with a trip to the Orkneys M. Perlet: it has experienced a favouraand Hebrides; containing, Hints for Com- ble reception from the Critics. (Voyage mercial and Agricultural Improvements, de John Moore en France, en Suisse, et on Characters, and Anecdotes. It will be Allemagne. 2 Vol. 8vo. 10 fr.) printed in royal octavo, and embel- M. Joseph Baader, Chief Engineer of lished by more than twenty plates. Hydraulics, Mines and Salt-works of his

The second Part of Dr. Motherby's Me- Bavarian Majesty, has published a Prodical Dictiopary, will appear in a few ject of a new Hydraulic Machine, indays,

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