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Great Panis, and the Poncas. He describes their dances at considerable length, and indulges himself in drawing a comparison between the state of man in society, and in savage life. But these we pass, and proceed to notice the information he gives us respecting the Spanish inhabitants.

The population and extent of St. Louis, the most important city of Upper Louisiana, and where the Lieut. Governor resided, when M. Dulac visted this country, are much the same as those of St. Genevieve. Its inhabitants, almost all engaged in commerce and the arts, attend but little to the labours of cultivation. Some, however, possess farms, the tillage of which is performed by negro slaves, who bring them, from time to time, the necessary supplies of provisions. They are less ignorant,' and more civilized, then the natives of St. Genevieve; and the commerce of furs, says our author, would have rendered St. Louis a city of great importance, under any government but the Spanish; which suffers only a privileged company to conduct the trade. Notwithstanding this obstacle, some individuals have been enriched by it; which has induced others to despise the slow, but certain advantages of agriculture. In spite, therefore, of a soil, the fertility of which might have rendered it the granary of Louisiana, and of the Spanish colonies in general, its product of grain hardly supplies the consumption of the country. The only mills are a few worked by horses, which produce meal of but a middling quality, yet with this the inhabitants are obliged to be satisfied. An advantage of a different kind which might be derived from immense meadows in the vicinity, yielding the most succulent herbage for cattle, is overlooked, although there can be no doubt that salted meats would' find a ready and profitable sale.

Saint Charles is the station next in importance, after the places already mentioned. Its meadows surpass those of St. Louis in beauty; but are suffered to remain equally unprofitable. However, its arable lands, by nature not less fertile, are better cultivated, and produce wheat, rye, maize, potatoes, and whatever is necessary to the sustenance of men and animals. For this spirited culture, it is beholden to the Anglo Americans, who, attracted by the beauties of the situation, the salubrity of the air, and the richness of the soil, have migrated hither in troops. Above four hundred families are already settled; and there would have been upwards of two thousand, if the government had not rigorously enforced, on all strangers, the oath of their adherence to the Catholic Faith. The lands which border the Missouri, in Upper Louisiana, are generally beautiful, rich, and healthy. Nature has been bountiful in the highest degree, to those on the upper part of this river.

Our author bestows considerable attention on the natural history of Louisiana; but the most remarkable article is that relating to the Mammoth, of which a skeleton, almost complete, is shewn in the museum at Philadelphia. M. Dulac compares this animal to the elephant, which it equals in size. He thinks from the general form of the jaw teeth, and the absence of incisors, that the Mammoth, like the elephant, was herbivorous and, from the apparent impossibility of his gathering his food on the ground, he supposes that this ereature was provided with a proboscis..


As we paid a pretty close attention to that skeleton of this animal, which was exhibited in London, we may be permitted to state, that our conjectures led us to compare him with the rhinoceros. From the nature VOL. II.

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of the places where his spoils are found, he appears to have delighted in marshes, or watery grounds, for which he could be at no loss in the Savannahs of America. His food, most probably, was the succulent branches of trees; and recent information from America acquaints us, that a stomach of one of these animals has been found entire, by Bishop Maddison, of Virginia, containing the remains of leaves, twigs, and branches, in a mass, so that, certainly, he was not carnivorous. This creature would have little occasion to bite close to the earth in feeding: but, if his power of elongating his snout was equal to that of the rhinoceros, he might gather his food with facility, rather from branches above, than from herbage below. Whether he could employ his horns as the rhinoceros does his horn, in rending young trees which resisted his bite, we cannot tell; but we were desirous of further evidence that the defences, or horns attached to the specimen in London, were correctly formed, and accurately placed; nor, till an instance is found, in which they remain attached to the skull, shall we consider this particular as determined.

M. Dulac observes, that hitherto no horns of this creature have been procured in a perfect state; because, on exposure to the air, they crumble to dust, however firm they may appear when first discovered. He took the pains to saturate one of these with melted bear's grease, and by this means recovered it entire but it was taken by the English, on its passage to France. What has become of this specimen?

The structure of these horns differs greatly from that of ivory. The superficies is brown, the interior substance is formed of layers, like the bark of a tree; it is decomposed by the air, and occasions a slight bubbling in water, like that produced by calcareous stones.

It deserves notice, that these fossil remains are found, in some places, in considerable quantities, lying together, whence we may infer that the animals were gregarious; which is another indication of their being herbivorous, and in this, also, they agree with the elephant. But we are not inclined to restrict the habitation of this animal to America, till a further investigation of the regions of Siberia may enable us to determine, whether some of the bones occasionally found fossil in that country, belong to this animal, or to others equal in dimensions

M. Dulac communicates information, not void of interest, respecting Lower Lousiana, but this has not the same novelty to recommend it, as his description of Upper Louisiana; from which, therefore, we have se lected our abstracts.

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Art. XX. Resa igenom en del af England och Skottland; or Travels through Parts of England and Scotland, in the Years 1802 and 1803, by ERIC. TH. SVEDENSTJERNA. Stockholm. 8vo.

THERE are few classes of literature so amply and yet so insuffici

ently supplied, as that which comprizes voyages and travels. We meet, sometimes, with a dry detail of miscellaneous occurrences, sometimes with sentimental declamation; but very seldom with a book that enlarges the bounds of useful science, at the same time that it pleases and interests the casual reader. A work that imparts scientific disco

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veries and enlightened remarks in a graceful and familiar form, is equally rare and valuable.

Mr. SVEDENSTJERNA's travels relate chiefly to science, but they do not neglect to record many useful and judicious observations on the state of society and manners: his language is modest and pertinent, and his remarks display an impartial and enlightened observer. His work points out many advantageous hints to the people visited; and for this reason we should be glad to announce a translation of into it our own language, The opinion which sensible foreigners forms of our characters and regulations, must be highly interesting to all who feel a patriotic regard for the interests of their country, and who would eagerly embrace every suggestion for promoting it.

It appears, p. 5, that Mr. Svedenstjerna travelled at the expense of a society of ironmasters at Stockholm, to study chemistry and mineralogy abroad; and that, after having spent some time at Paris, in the school of the well known VAUQUELIN and others, he came over to this country to take a view of our iron-works, and by comparing our process with that used in Sweden, to assist in promoting its improvement. And as it was not, he observes, either the wish of his employers, nor any way compatible with his own character, that he should travel as a spy, in order to elicit secrets from private individuals, but as he meant strictly to conform, to the laws of hospitality, he found it no difficult matter to obtain every access and information that a foreigner could reasonably expect.

"When we go to a foreign country," says Mr. S., "it is necessary to know why, and then to provide ourselves with letters of introduction accordingly." By this means he soon was honoured with the acquaintance of Count BOURNON, and the Right Hon. Mr. GREVILLE, whose valuable mineral collection he had frequent opportunities of inspecting. He bestows great praise on this gentleman, from whose friendly assistance he derived the greatest advantages. Mr. Greville recommended our traveller to undertake a tour through South Wales and Cornwall, and gave him letters of recommendation to his friends. He further proposed, as his travelling companion, Mr. Bonard, a French ingenie ir des mines, with whom he consequently made part of his English tour. Before we enter more minutely on the subject of these travels, we shall let Mr. S. take leave of his companion, who left him at Birmingham, and give his own reflections on the occasion, as from these we may learn, more correctly, the character of our friend and his sentiments of us.

Mr. Bonard, it seems, was obliged suddenly to return to France, and Mr. Svedenstjerna, after candidly acknowledging the advantages he derived from his company, (p. 155.) observes: "However there are few advantages, which are not attended with some inconveniences. My travelling companion, in common with most of his countrymen, could not, without the most visible constraint, conform to the customs of the country; and this peccatum originale, which in Frenchmen will often display itself in their dress, manners, questions, and answers, &e. though it is readily forgiven by an enlightened Englishman, is, however, in the minds of the less informed a deadly sin, and began now, when the report of a new war was circulated, to be an abomination. At least, I can see no other reason than this, that from a certain place, which we had passed, we had been announced as suspicious characters, and that, in consequence of it, a small collection of minerals, which my com

panion had sent off from Cornwall, was seized in London. This occurrence, of which I knew nothing till I returned to the capital, and the unpleasant consequences of which Mr. GREVILLE, through his bond for our behaviour and intentions, had the goodness to prevent, convinced me, however, that we could not advantageously have pursued our travels together. Those of my countrymen, who in future may make a similar tour, may judge from this, how necessary it is to know their company perfectly, and even then to have a protection, on which they may safely depend. There is, certainly, not a country, where travellers, in general, may more securely enjoy every comfort and convenience, without inquiry or molestation; but at the same time, there are few countries, where those who devote their attention to manufactories and mechanical works are more vigilantly inspected. However, I cannot but mention with satisfaction, that a Swede always meets with a more open reception, than several other foreigners, who in later times, by smuggling out models, and by decoying mechanics and artizans from the country, &c. have raised against themselves the justest suspicions. Against these, and similar artifices, an Englishman is on his guard; but we should wrong him much, if we believed that he will make a secret of any thing, the discovery of which would not be injurious to himself, and which a prudent mechanic in any other country would disclose to a stranger. He is, on the contrary, quite unreserved, when he meets with a man who understands his subject, and we may safely expect he will not, either from a talkative disposition, or sinister views, say what he has not him-` self ascertained."

He begins

We shall resume the author's tour at its commencement. with giving some salutary advice to travellers leaving France for England, and describes the regulations that aliens are subject to in this country. He observes that books, maps, and instruments, are under a heavy duty; but that he had to pay but a trifle on landing at Dover, as what he brought with him was handsomely considered as necessary for his travels. We find him very soon introduced to men of the first literary abilities in this country, and he never misses an opportunity of extolling merit, wherever he finds it.

The first thing that more materially falls under his consideration, during his stay in London, is the Royal Institution, where, of course, the pame of Count RUMFORD is conspicuously introduced. The very accurate description which he gives of this establishment, impressed us with a favourable idea of the author, which every subsequent page has confirmed. His opinion of Mr. DAVY, Chemical Professor of the Institution, is such a just tribute to merit, that we cannot hesitate to insert it: "He seems," says Mr. S., "born for the place. He is clear and simple in his expressions, and possesses in a high degree, the art of making his subject pleasing, without detracting from its solidity. He has, besides, a happy delivery, and his youth and modest appearance might even be reckoned among the means he has to increase the number of amateurs to his science. A lecture on the practical utility of chemistry, with which he last winter opened his lectures, surpassed, in eloquence, all that I ever heard on the science, even FOURCROY's own prelections not ⚫xcepted."

Our author is somewhat astonished to find ladies, not only here, but in some other places in England, devoted to scientific pursuits.

Of the Royal Society he says but little, alledging that this is sufficiently described by other travellers.

Speaking of the British Museum, the collections of which he estimates very highly, he laments that it should be so defective in that order and regulation, which renders the museum in the Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, particularly advantageous to the learned, and comprehensible to the curious. We sincerely wish that this remark of a foreigner, so disreputable to our national museum, may have some effect in removing the evil which we have often had occasion to regret. The collection of minerals, of course, fixed his greatest attention. He compares the Wernerian System adopted by Mr. HATCHETT in his classification, to that of Count BOURNON, and thinks the latter has paid less attention to the analysis of the different chemical products, than to the form of them. The most curious article in this collection he considered to be a piece of that kind of stone, in which Mr. HATCHETT detected his new metal columbium. Our readers know, that some pieces of this stone were accidentally brought from America, whence the name columbium. It is not yet decided, we believe, whether this metal is not a single lusus naturæ; for no more stones of this kind have been discovered. Perhaps, upon a minute examination, this metal will appear to be, with small variation, the same as the tantalum of Mr. EKEBERG, chemiæ laborator at the University of Upsala; for certainly the memoirs on both seem to indicate a remarkable similarity. Mr. S. also admits that there is a great resemblance as well in the ore itself as in the metal. An analysis of this ore, we think, would have been acceptable to many of his countrymen, among whom, we are sure, his travels will be extensively circulated. The tantalum, in which Mr. EKEBERG discovered a new inetal, which he calls tantalit, has been known, though obscurely, these sixty years. It is found in a large mountain near the sea, in the parish of Kimito, Finland. It contains, besides, iron and manganese. The name Tantalum, alludes to its being incapable, though in abundance of acid, of submitting to the smallest oxidation. The specific gravity is 7,953. It is not drawn by the magnet; but it emits numerous sparks, on collision with steel *.

Mr. S. next visits the Leverian Museum; (which we are sorry to say is now under the hammer, and is contributing to enrich the museums of France and Austria,) whence he makes a sudden start to the Mineralogical Society, on which he bestows merited praise for its numerous useful investigations, many of which are to be found in Tilloch's Philosophical Magazine. Mr. S. proceeds to some private mineral collections, among which he mentions as the first that of Mr. GRAVILLE. Here he seems to have been highly gratified, and to have examined every thing with the attention of a scientific amateur. After mentioning the collections of Dr. Crichton, and Dr. Babington, he proceeds to remark, p. 51. "The remembrance of mineral collections, and their owners, with whom I spent so many pleasant hours in London, had almost made me pass over something, which gives Sir JOSEPH BANKS the greatest claim to the esteem and gratitude of his countrymen, as well as of all who are lovers of the sciences. I mean the generosity, with which he has

* See the transactions of the Society of Arts and Sciences, at Stocknolm, for the year 1802, p. 80. Seq.

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