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opened his beautiful library and er 'ecti.) is in nalu:al bistory, to any one, wlio wishes to promote the study if t science," &c.

Mr. S. then 'mentions with great espect, his own countryman, Mr. DRYANDER: and in the merited praise which is here bestowed on his learning and attability, we cordially unite.

To be continued.)

Art. XXI. Hydropem Ventriculorum Cerebri Historiis morbi and Secti

onibus Cadaverum illustratum. Pro gradu medico PP. Auctor Gabriel

Rislacbi. Upsalia, 1804. WE wil! venture to assert, that there is not a disease to which the ha

man body is sub, ect, which more imperiously requires acuteness of discrimination, and promptness of decision, than that which is the subject of this inaŭgural thesis. The priysician, to have even the slightest chance of success, must be able to detect the disease, so ambiguous in its appearance,.on its first approach: in the moments when branular inflammation is effecting effusion.' Or rather, to give probability of success to his exertions, the earliest opposition should be niade to the previous infiammation, of which this disease can only be considered as a termination.

Fully aware of this, the learned author, by uniting clear pess of description with accuracy of distinction, has furnished us with a faithful bistory of the disease, evidently founded on the most careful observations,

To this he has subjoined a mode of cure, well adapted to the indications which have been pointed out by a careful consideration of all the circumstances on which the disease depends, and neațly in exact agreement with the rules laid down by the first professors of the healing art.

Whilst explaining the causes of the symptoms, Dr:"Rislachi properly imputes the convulsions, coma, dilated pupil, and, in a word, the whole of the syınptoms dependent on the interruption of the exercise of the functions of ihe brain, to the fluid collected in its ventricles. The effusion of this Auid, he attributes, to that debilitated state of the vessels, which succeeds to the increased action on which the previous inflammation de pended : the arteries being so weak as to be unable to contract with a degree of firmness sufficient to resist the impetus of the blood, and, therefore, allowing the water to pour out as though from mouths *.

By the observations, which this explanation of the symptoms leads us to make, we nean not to censure the author, whose opinion is sanctioned by high authorities; but merely to suggest, what appears to us, a most material and useful distinction. We are convinced, that it is not only during the relaxed state of the arteries, that the effusion of the lymph takes place, but that, on the contrary, a very considerable degree of effusion goes on, during almost the whole of the previous infammatory stage. The exhalation of a vapour into the ventricles, is an offico

heir open

Arteriæ ita resolutz nec solide contrahi nec ideo sanguinis impetui resistere possunt, sed osculis quasi apertis aquam in ventriculos etfurt dunt. p. 11.

performed by the arteries of this part, in their healthy state, this secretion, there is every reason to suppose, is augmente l in the same proportion as the action of the vessels, and the impetus of the blood is increased. In the same inanner in every case of inflammation, the progress of which we can observe, a tumefaction of the adjoining parts is observó able, from the increased secretion of lymph by those arteries which open their exhalant orifices into the cells of the cellular membrane. If this remark be, as we trust it is, well founded, an important lesson is the result—that the first indication, to remove the inflammatory state of the brain, should be kept in view, even after the symptoms decide that exidațion has taken place ; since the inflammation on which the exudation depends may still exist. A total reliance, at this period, on the nexı indication, to remove the effused Auid, whilst the circumstances continue to exist, on which the ffusion depends, is a practice, therefore, which sound judgement cannot authorize. On the contrary, if copious, early bleeding does not remove the disease, it must be repeated to the extent which the degree of pyrexia warrants, and the state of the vital powers will permit.

Some very interesting and instructive cases and dissections are sub oined, which, would our limits permit, we should with pleasure examine.

DANISH LITERATURE,

Art. XXII. Det græske sprogs Grammatik, aldeles fra ny af beasleided,

&c. A Grammar of the Greek Language, digested on a new Plan. By Dr. T. N. I. Bloch, principal Professor of the Greek and Danish Languages, at the Collegiate School of Odense. 8vo. pp. 266. Odense. THE author of this grammar appears to have enjoyed several advan

tages of some importance, in preparing him for the cask. He was teacher of the languages at a public school; and had, therefore, an opportunity of trying the respective utility of various modes of instruction. His intimate acquaintance with the language itself furnished him with the general rules of its construction, and having been many years préparing a lexicon, he was provided with a great variety of instances to exemplity and confirm them.

In some respects, this work differs materially from the numerous grainmars that have recently appeared in Germany and Denmark. The scholar is directed to read the select passages from various authors first, and then, from their harmony in particular points, to deduce the rule initended to be established. He then proceeds to read and learn the subjoined rule, which he has thus fully understood and explained himself. The advantage of such a mode is obvious; and so is the difficulty of rendering it expeditious, or even practicable, with beginners.

The granımar is divided into four sections: 1. Of the inflexions, including the whole structure of the language; 2. Of the dialects ; 3. Of the prosody; 4. Of the syntax. Like all modern grammarians, Dr. B. adopts only three declensions, referring the fourth as an attic form to the second. In the conjugations, he pursues the mode of Walkenaer and Hemsterhuis, of whose nerits we have already expressed our opinioni. (E. R. vol. ii. p. 370.) He treats minutely of the derivation of the various inflexions, and maintains the superfluity of the iniddle, voice. The Section concludes with a historical deduction of the different verbal forms that have been produced from the simple radices. We think, however, that some parts of this section are unnecessarily extensive, and others not sufficiently adapted to the learner's capacity.

The dialects are very suitably treated; but the author has improperly difparaged the Doric, which not only possesses a peculiar and appropriate sweetness, of which our Scottish dialect affords some parallel, but has always been held in estimation as a symbol of strength and grandeur.The Doric order of architecture, therefore, and the Doric mode of music, have always been devoted to purposes of devotion or solemn festivity.

The prosody is, very properly, discussed with some minuteness, but scarcely to a sufficient extent.

Throughout the work, Dr. B. refers constantly to the principles of the Danish and Latin lang nages, and the theory of universal grammar. His syntax, therefore, is in some measure a list of exceptions, for it is only where the Greek pursues a different system, that any rules are laid down for the pupil to learn. The subjects treated are the following: The construction of the articles and nouns; enallage of number and gender; usę of cases ; anccoluthi, (or omissions in the construction of a sentence); casus absoluti ; syntax of the pronouns, verbs, and participles; verbal adjective in teos; and the peculiarities of the particles. The examples are happily chosen, and with becoming regard to the moral, as well as the literary improvement of the pupil.

With respect to Danish literature in general, we hope, ere long, to present our readers with some original and satisfactory information.-an Epic Poem, on the Exodus of Israel, the first regular example of the epopée in that country, will speedily come under our notice.

GERMAN LITERATURE.

Art. XXIII. Eutropii breviarium historie Romane. Ad libros scriptos

editosq. iterum recensuit et notis ad constituendum sextum sensumg. regendum comparatis instruxit Car. Henr. Tzschuke, Elect. Schol.

Misņ. Conr. 8vo. pp. xx. and 214. 1804. AS

Ş M. Tschuke had formerly (1796) published an edition of Eutro

pius with critical illustrations, this second required only a correction and modification of what he had already given to the public. He therefore once more attentively revised his work, and the apparatus criticus, which be augmented with the aid of one of the most ancient MSS. which the Ducal Library at Gotha possesses, and which had not before been used. This agrees in the principal passages with the first Leyden Codex; but it has also its own peculiar merits, and is free from the in. terpolations of Diaconus and others, so that many good readings are here.confirmed, and other established.

The Editor has prefixed to the text, a short dissertation on Eutropius and his work, comprehending the historical circumstances most necessary to be known respecting it, together with a perspicuous critique on the authorities, the nature, the value, and the style of this Epitome of the Roman history.

A considerable part of the notes refers to the criticism of the proper names, the bistorical data and the chronology. The clavis subjoined to the work, contains the historical and geographical names, with the most necessary explanations, and the Latinitas Eutropiana.

Art. XXIV. Der Man, &c. Man. An anthropological sketch ofthe

character of his sex, by C. F. Pockels. Aulic Counsellor to the Duke of Brunswick Lunenburg, vol. 1. Hanover, 1805. vol. 2. 8vo. PP. 480. 106.

AFTER the author has offered in his first section, some general observations on the difference of the sexes: he explains in his second, the general physical originality of man, and shews that it depends upon a preponderancy strength, and of life, which is not to be observed in woman. In the third section, he treats of the sensual nature of man, and shews that he has a much stronger and more insatiable appetite for enjoyment, than woman. Even the highest degree of cultivation and refinement, he observes, does not obliterate this sensual character, but only gives it ano

ther direction. This consideration is continued in the fourth section, , where it is particularly r marked, that roan has a far greater propensity,

if not to inteinperance, at least to full enjoyment in eating and drinking, than woman.

In the fifth and last soction of the first volume, the sensual nature of man is described, in as far as it proceeds from the redundance of his sexual propensity, and of his enjoyment of life.

The second volume considers the intellectual character of man, and specifies the differences which exist in this respect between man and

First, the egotism of man is noticed, and it is shewn that man, as a rational being, destined for greater activity, has a greater degree of pride; whilst woman, whose nature is more adapted for the communication of pleasure, and for a retired life, possesses a larger share of vanity. The second section treats of the courage, bravery and fortitude of man. The third is occupied with investigations of the force of the sympathetic feelings, in man, which he is asserted to possess in a degree inferior to that in which they exist in women. The work concludes with a characteristic of the male sex according to the diversity of temperaments. If this work were translated we should probably firid abundant cause for expressing our dissent; in the present case, any opinion from us must be superfluous.

woman.

Art. XXV. Ueber den Einfluss der Heilkunst, &c. On the influence of

Medicine upon practical Theology. By Fr. Xavier Metzler. M. D.
Second Edition with Additions. 2 väls. 8vo. Ulm. 1806.

THE Author's object in this work is to show to the ministers of religion, particularly to those in the country, partly what degree of influence the physical dispositions of men, both in health and sickness, exert upon their morality, and partly, how, in their own sphere, they may regard and promote the health of their parishioners. This subject is considered in its utmost extent, and its discussion necessarily comprehends a large mass of physiological and pathological knowledge, which is here applied to objects of practical utility:

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Art. XXVI. Dictionnaire historique et critique par Pierre Bayle. Nou

velle Edition, revue sur les Editions originales, avec le vie de l'Auteur par M. des Maizeaux, un Discours préliminaire des Editeurs, et des Additions et Corrections, tirées des meilleures sources par une Societé, de Gens de Lettres. A Leip. ig au Bureau de Literature nationelle et étrangere, large 8vo. THIS new edition is to consist of eight octavo volumes; the first of which appeared in the year 1901; and the first part of the fourth comprizing the letters Fa-Jou, in 1904. It contains, in the first place, a complete comparison of all the editions deserving of notice. These are, the first, of 1697, now becoming very scarce, which is here designated by the letter A, that of 1702, by B, that of Marchand, 1720, by C, and the last edition, printed in Holland, 1730 and 1740, by D.

This mode is adopted for the purpose of distinguishing the additions i Add. de Ç.' therefore, denotes Addition de la troisieme edition. Such a comparison, has never before been made; it often affords interesting and important results, which are applied to the restoration, correction, or elucidation, of different passages. Several errors of the press, by whieb the meaning is distorted, and innumerable omissions of consequence, which had crept into the edition of 1740, have thus been corrected and supplied.

Another essential distinction of this new edition is, that it has been rendered more complete by several additions, correctious, illustrations, qad references, which have never before been introduced.

For this purpose, Bayle's correspondence and a so Marchand's Memoires have now, for the first time, been, enplayed. Thus we find a very considerable and important supplement to the Article Henri IV. (T. iv. P. 2.) which the editor has borrowed with very little alteration from Bayle's Reponse aux questions d'un Prouincial, and which, as wis appear on a comparison, was evidently intended as a supplement to ihat article in his Dictionary. A similar Emendation is also derived froin his letters, edited by Des Maizeaux. Art. Abarlanel. (T. ;. P. 1.)

The Discours preliminaire promised in the advertisement prefixed to the work. p. 83. and in the title page, is intended to contain an impartial estimate and delineation of Bayle's genius, and a critique of the Diction:ury accordipg to the views of the present age, with a particular account of its literary history. Professor Schreiter, the editor, intends also to add some supplementary volumes to the work, in which he expects to obtain the assistance of several other eminent literati..

Art. XXVII. Versuch einer systematischen Entwickelung, &c. At

tempt towards a systematical illustration of all the Ideas belonging to Docưiaal Religion, according to the Symboliçal Books of the Protestant Churches; together with accounts of Publications, particularly the Modern, on all Parts of Doctrinal Religion. By C. G. Bretta schneider, Private Teacher of Philosophy, at the University of Wits temberg. Leipzig. Barth. Large 8vo. pp. xvi. and 55). 1805. THE author's plan, in this work, is to give a clear and comprehensive view of the principal ideas contained in the confession of the Lutheran

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