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the common observation that “this story is generally supposed to be derived from that of Jephtha, so pathetically related in the book of Judges." We think, with Grotius and most other commentators, that this vow was fulfilled by her consecration to perpetual celibacy: Mr. G. should at least have mentioned this interpretation. With regard to Iphigenia, Sophocles (very expressly Elect. 574) Virgil, Lucretius, Horace, and Propertius, relate that she was actually sacrificed: This story has its раrallels, in the anecdotes of Idomeneus and Aristomenes. Euripides, Ovid, and Martial, maintain that a stag was accepted in exchange. Similar substitutions are mentioned among the Spartans, the Thebans, and the Phalerians in Italy. We see little reason for referring any of these (for if any, why not all ?) to the vow of Jephtha, or with Bochart, to the history of Abraham. Mr. G. ambiguously asserts, that the tale of Iphigenia “ was well known to the world from the time of Homer to Euripides.” But Homer, who like Lucretius calls her Ipbianassa, speaks of her as alive in the tenth year of the war. II. B. IX. 1. 145. It is probable, that the tale was current ainong the Greek rhapsodists subsequent to the age of Homer, and that Euripides moulded it to suit his own purpose, and produce stage effect.

Our next specimen shall be the famed exordiuin of the second Book, v. 1-36.

• How sweet to stand, when tempests tear the main,
On the firin cliff, and mark the seaman's toil !
Not that another's danger soothes the soul,
But from such toil how sweet to feel secure !
How sweet, at distance from the strife, to view
Contending hosts, and bear the clash of war !
But sweeter far, on Wisdom's height secure
Upheld by truth, to fix our firm abode;
To watch the giddy crowd that, deep below,
For ever wander in pursuit of bliss ;
To mark the strife for honours, and renown,
For wit and wealth insatiate, ceaseless urg'd,
Day after day, with labour unrestrain'd.

: 0 wretched mortals !race perverse and blind!
Through what dread dark, what perilous pursuits,
Pass this round of being !--know ye not
Of all

ye toil for, nature nothing asks,
But for the body freedom from disease,
And sweet unanxious quiet for the mind ?

And little claims the body, to be sound:
But little serves to strew the paths we tread
With joys beyond e'en nature's utmost wish.
What, though the dome be wanting, whose proud walls
A thousand lamps irradiate, propt sublime.


By frolic forms of youths in massy gold,
Flinging their splendours o'er the midnight feast:
Though gold and silver blaze not o'er the board,
Nor music echo round the gaudy roof?
Yet listless laid the velvet grass along,
Near gliding streams, by shadlowy trees o'erarch’d,
Such pomps we peed not; such still less, when spring
Leads forth her laughing train, and the warm year
Paints the green meads with roseat flowers profuse.
On down reclin'd, or wrapp'd in purple robe,
The thirsty fever burns with heat as tierce

As when its victim on a pallet pants.' We shall now present to our readers a selection of extracts, designed to exhibit some of the physical doctrines of the poet; from which they will, with pleasing interest, perceive how accurately he observed natural phenomena, how philosophical were his reasonings, how happy many of his conjectures, and how frequently he has almost, if not altogether, anticipated various important discoveries in the system of nature, which, by the aid of experience, the improvement of instruments, and the progress of mathematics, have been ascertained in the most recent times.

That there exists a vacuum, and that the gravitating power of all bodies is directly as their quantities of matter, are principles of the Newtonian school, for which Lucretius has ably contended. Book I. v. 341-364; in the translation, v. 385-411.

* But what more clear, in earth or heaven sublime,
Or the vast ocean, than, in various modes
That various matter moves? which, but for space,
'Twere vain t' expect; and,vainer yet to look
For procreative power, educing still
Kinds from their kinds through all revolving time.

True, things are solid deem'd, but know that those
Deem'd so the most, are rare and unconjoind.
From rocks and caves translucent lymph distils,
And from the tough bark drops the healing balm.
The genial meal, with mystic power, pervades
Each avenue of life; and the grove swells,
And yields its various fruit, sustain'd alone
From the pure food, propell’d through root and branch.
Sound pierces marble; through reclusest walls
The bosom tale transmits : and the keen frost
E'en to the marrow winds its sinuous

Destroy all vacuum tben, close every pore,
And, if thou canst, for such events account.

"Say, why of equal bulk, in equal scale
Are things oft found unequal in their poise ?
O'er the light wool the grosser lead prevails
With giant force. But were th' anount alike

Of matter each contain'd, alike the weight
Would prove perpetual: for. from matter sole,
Flows weight and moment, ever prone to earth :
While vacant space, nor weigbt nor moment knows.'

The same subject is thus further elucidated, in almost the very terms of experimental pneumatics : Book II. v. 230–239; of the translation, v. 234-244.

For though, when urg'd
Through the pure air, or clear translucent wave,
Doubtless all pond'rous forms more swift descend;
This, from the variance of resistance sole,
Flows, by such fluids formd 'gainst things unlike,
The grosser quick o'erpowering. But pure space,
In every part, in every hour the same,
Throughout resists not, the demanded path
Yielding submissive. Hence, in equal time,
Through the blank void, unequal weights descend

Of every fancied variance.'
This, our young readers know, is familiarly illustrated in the


air pump:

That the philosophy of Lucretius coincides, to an exactness almost perfect, with the doctrives of Locke and Newton on the secondary qualities of bodies, the ensuing passage will shew. Book II. 730, &C-808; of the translation, v. 743–818.

• Deem not thou,
When ought of substance, black or white, the view
Solicits obvious,-deem not, in the germs
Of enibryon matter, black or white inheres,
Or aught besides of tint, where aught occurs,
Rousing the vision ; since the seeds of things
Live void of colours, actual or conceiv'd.

• Hence not essential colours to the form
Of things created : frequent e'en ourselves,
Mid the deep shade of night, by touch alone
Prove what surrounds us, every hue extinct.

* All hues, moro'er, to all by turns convert;
A change primordial seeds can ne'er sustain.

! But though material atoms thus live void
Of hue; still many a differing form is theirs,
Whence hues they gender, and their variance stamp.

And, since ail colours live but in the light,
Were hues essential to the seeds of things,
These, too, would die in darkness : for, resolve,
What hues exist beneath the midnight gloom?'-
Hues born of sun-beams, changing but their shades
As, playful, changes the refracted ray?

Thus the gay pigeon, as his plume he waves,
Drinks in new tinctures from the noon-tide blaze:
Now glows the ruby, and now, ting'd with blue,
Sports the green emerald-o'er his glossy neck.
Thus, too, the peacock, as direct or bent
Falls the full beam, wears each prismatic dye.
Since then th' impinging light each hue creates,

So, without light, each, instant, must expire.' Did our limits perunit, we should with pleasure insert the long and energetic, though sparingly adorned, detail of the phænomena and cause of lightning. We must, however, be contented with only a short portion of it; but this, we conceive, will excite the inquiring naturalist to peruse the whole. Lib. VI. v. 159, in the translation, v. 163.

* But the blue lightning springs from seeds of fire
With seeds conflicting mid the war of clouds.
As when the flint with flint, or steel, contends,
Swift flows the flash, and sparkles all around.

• Then earlier see we too, the rushing blaze
Than hear the roar, since far the fluent films
Of sight move speedier than of laggard sound.
As, when the woodman fells some branch remote,
It drops conspicuous e'er the bounding blow
Strike on the ear :--so the keen lightning far
Anticipates the thunder, though alil
Rear'd from one cause, from one concussion rear'd.

• Or, haply, hence, the winged lustre springs
Trembling amid the tempest; that when air,
Pent in the hollow of a cloud, ferments,
That hollow broad'ning, as already sung,
And close its sides condensing, the pent air
Heats from its motion; as from motion, heats
All sight surveys; work'd oft to flame, and oft
Melted, as melt the missile balls, at times,
Of lead shot rapid. Heated thus, at length,
Th' expanded air bursts sudden from its tomb,
Scatt'ring long trails of coruscating fire.
Then rolls the dread explosion, after heard,
Since sound than light far earlier ineets the sense.
Yet scenes like these in clouds alone exist

Of utmost depth, whirld mass o'er mass immense.' We shall close our extracts, more apprehensive of overpassing our own limits than of fatiguing our readers' patience, with the pathognomic description of the plague at Athens, the inimitable history of which, had they written nothing else, would have immortalized the names of Thucydides, and of Lucretius. Mr. G.'s professional studies and practice have endowed him with particular advantages, in the transfusion of this noble effort VOL. II.

scientific and poetic genius. Book VI. v. 1143— 1202, of the translation, v. 1188—1252.

The head first flam'd with inward heat; the eyes
Redden'd with fire suffused: the purple jaws
Sweated with bloody ichor : ulcers foul
Crept o'er the vocal path, obstructing close ;
And the prompt tongue, expounder of the mind,
O'erflow'd with gore, enfeebled in its post,
Hoarse in its accent, harsh beneath the touch.

* And when the morbid effuence through the throat
Had reach'd the lungs, and fill'd the fault'ring heart,
Then all the pow'rs of life were loosen'd; forth
Crept the spent breath most fetid from the mouth,
As steams the putrid carcase : every power

Fail'd through the soul,—the body,--and alike
-Lay they liquescent at the gates of death.
While with these dread, insufferable ills
A restless anguish join'd, companion close,
And sighs commixt with groans; and hiccough deep,
And keen convulsive twitchings ceaseless urg'd,
Day after day, o'er every tortur'd limb,
The wearied wretch still wearying with assault.

Yet ne'er too hot the system couldst thou mark
Outwards, but rather tepid to the touch:
Ting'd still with purple dye, and brandishid o'er
With traits of caustic ulcers, like the blaze
Of erysipelas. But all within
Burn'd to the bone; the bosom heav'd with flames
Fierce as a furnace, nor would once endure
The lightest vest thrown loosely o'er the limbs.
All to the winds, and many to the waves,
Careless, resign'd them; in the gelid stream
Plunging their fiery bodies, to be cool'd:
While some, wide-gasping, into wells profound
Rush'd all abrupt; and such the red hot thirst
Unquenchable that parch'd them, amplest show'rs
Seem'd but as dew-drops to th' unsated tongue.

Nor e'er relax'd the sickness; the rack'd frame
Lay all exhausted, and, in silence dread,
Appallid and doubtful mused the Healing Art.
For the broad eye-balls, burning with disease,
Roll'd in full stare, for ever void of sleep,
And told the pressing danger; nor alone
Told it, for many a kindred symptom throng d.
The mind's pure spirit, all despondent, ray'd;
The brow severe; the visage fierce and wild ;
The ears distracted, fill'd with ceaseless sounds ;
Frequent the breath; or pond'rous, oft, and rare;
The neck with pearls bedew'd of glist'ning sweat;
Scarcely the spittle, thin, of saffron dye,
Salt, with hoarse cough scarce labour'd from the throat.


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