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much inferior to the other translations. The measures are too heavy for the subjects.
The epitaph on Nelson, however closely it may be " imitated from the Greek," contains only a compliment which has been echoed, we believe, in every newspaper in the kingdom.
Of Martial's epigram on Pætus and Arria, it is enough to say
the translation is new. We are not more delighted with Dryden's witty epitaph of a husband on his wife, translated into Latin. Though the thought is so hackneyed by every old bachelor, and almost every married man, Mr. H. gives us again the sickening dose.
“ Hic tandem jacet uxor: hic, ut oro,
Et dulci fruor ipse nunc quiete.” For this and some other trifles, Mr. H. has doubtless ran. sacked his school exercises. The same is much better in French, because only half as long:
Ci git ma femme: ah! qu'elle est bien,
Pour son repos ; et pour le mien. And still better in the English, on which every retailer of wit, we suppose, has long occupied his memory and his tongue;
• Here lies my wife here let her lie!
She's now at rest—and so am I.' The translations from Horace are perhaps superior to those from Anacreon; but for these we must refer our reader to the work.
The English version of Adrian's Address to his Soul, and of Gray's Odes to West, are proofs that our author is no mean votary of the Muses.
But we pass on to his specimen of a new translation of Persius, which we quote with approbation, that he may
be induced to fulfil his intention of publishing an entire translation of that satirist. Sorry indeed should we be, by any untimely praise, to slacken the hand of industry, and to lessen the importance of the lime labor; but we think, si sic omnia, that Mr. H. needs not feel much chagrin at a comparison of his performance with any yet before the public.
“ Sluggard! awake,” imperious Avarice cries,
What?" apswers Avarice, "why what should you do,
But run forth with to port, and issue thence,
And lick the emptied platter o'er and oʻer.” The translation of Homer's' Batrachomyomachia into mock-heroic blank verse, is in some respects, we think, superior to Addison's Battle of the Cranes and Pigmies; Mr. H. preserves the true spirit of the burlesque, with much success; and indeed blank verse is much more suited, than rhyming heroics, to the expression of ludicrous pomposity, Mr. H. has also been happy in the selection of names for his whiskered chiefs and croaking heroes--Pickcrumbos, Lickmelia and Puff-cheeko, &c.
In translating of the Iliad into blank-verse we would not advise our author to proceed ; among other reasons because his labours are not wanted, and especially, as he is a Christian minister, because they may be more profitably employed.
The Latin oration, which concludes this little volume, we remember hearing delivered in the Senate House : and the very circumstance of its gaining the Members' prize, attaches to it that meed of praise, which supersedes the necessity of our considering its merits.
It is due to gratitude that we should recommend the reader to an entertainment, from which we rise with considerable satisfaction; and it is due to justice that we should assure Mr. Howes of our opinion, that he may fairly claim an honourable rank among modern translators,
Art. IX. The Apocalypse or Revelation of St. Jahn translated ; with
notes, critical and explanatory: to which is prefixed a dissertation on the divine origin of the Book, in answer to the objections of the late professor, J. D. Michaelis. By John Chappel Woodhouse, M. A. Archdeacon of Salop, in the diocese of Litchfield and Coventry. Roy. 8vo. pp. 700. Price 10s. 6d, Hatchard. 1806.
E lately accompanied Mr. Faber in this route. He
was a dashing traveller, who rode through thick and thin, up hill and down dale, with such rapidity, that it was
extremely difficult to take an accurate view of the objects which came in the way.
now called to set out on the same journey, with a person of a character directly opposite ; one of the most sober-minded men that we ever met with. Unmoved with events which pass before his eyes, and under the unshaken influence of certain general principles and laws of criticism which he has established, he calmly examines the text of the Sacred Writer, and with great deliberation and candour weighs, in the balance of a temperate judgement, the prophecies relating to the Christian church.
In earlier years Mr. W.'s attention was drawn to this part of sacred Scripture, but not having time to pursue his researches, he resolved to postpone them till a future period, when greater leisure, more extensive acquisitions in literature, and fuller maturity of judgement, might enable him to attend to them with better prospects of success. In the mean time he determined to avoid the perusal of every book or treatise on the subject ; and to this, with the exception of Bishop Hurd on Prophecy, he resolutely adhered, that he might arrive at the work, free from prepossession in favour of any system, and unfettered by a predilection for any particular mode of interpretation. After his work was written, however, he examined' preceding commentators, and adopted their interpretation where it seemed reasonable. His manner of proceedins", and the canons of interpretation which he laid down for his direction, are so instructive and so good, that we cinnot forbear inserting them in his own words.
• After an interval of many years, I found myself at liberty from other engagements to pursue my original design, and after some preparatory studies, began to read the Apocalypse, unassisted by any of the commen
• And without placing any presumptuous confidence on my sagacity, or my literary acquirements, of the mediocrity of which I was fully conscious, I felt myself not altogether discouraged by the seeming difficulty of the attempt. For, if the Apocalypse be of divine revelation, it appeared to me, that an uniformity must be expected to subsist between this and other parts of sacred Scripture ; and that the clue, for tracing and develop ing its figurative language and meaning, would be safely and effectually derived from that source. If the same divine spirit, which dictated the preceding prophecies, were also the inspirer of the Apocalyptic visions, 2 mutual relation must subsist between them ; and the light derived from the one, must contribute most beneficially to the elucidation of the other,
This then was the first principle upon which I resolved to ground my method of investigation ; to compare the language, the symbols, the predictions of the Apocalypse, with those of former revelations ; and to admit only such interpretation, as should appear to have the sanction of this divine authority.
• A second controlling principle seemed necessary. For, as the lauguage, symbols, and predictions, thus interpreted by the assistance of Scripture, were to be applied afterwards to historical facts, a preliminary question seemed to occur ; to what kind of history are they to be applied? To profane history, or sacred ? to the extensive and boundless mass of the Gentile history, or, exclusively, to that of God's chosen people? To assist me in answering this question, I had recourse to the preceding prophecies of the Old and New Testament. How have we been authorised to explain these? In what kind of history do they appear to have been accomplished ? The answer was at hand ;—The history of the church of God. For, in this sacred history we find the divine prophecies principally, and almost exclusively, fulfilled. For whenever sacred prophecy is seen to deviate from this its peculiar object, it is in such instances only, wherein the fortunes of God's people have become necessarily involved with those of heathen nations.
When the people of God were to become subservient to the four monarchies, the character, and succession, and fates of those monarchies were predicted: but the main object, continually kept in view, was their deliverance from these successive yokes, by the superseding dominion of the Messiah. This supreme and universal dominion, gradually and finally to prevail, appears to be the grand object of all sacred prophecy : and revolutions of worldly power among the Gentiles, seem to be noticed only at those times, when they impede or promote it. Therefore the prophecies of the Apocalypse appeared to be applicable principally, if not solely, to the fates and fortunes of the Christian church; to the progress or retardment of that kingdom of the Messiah, which, when these predictions were delivered, had already begun to obtain its establishment in the world.
And I conceived myself obliged to adopt as a controlling principle of interpretation, that unless the language and symbols of the Apocalypse should in particular passages direct, or evidently require, another mode of application, the predictions were to be applied to events occurring in the progressive kingdom of Christ.
• In the wide field of universal history, innumerable events may be selected by the industry of investigators, seeming to bear resemblance to the figurative pictures of holy writ. Instances of wars, famines, conquests, and revolutions, may be separated from that infinite mass of information, appearing to assimilate to (resemble) images presented in prophecy. Some restriction is therefore necessary to guide investigation, and to serve as chart and compass, through such extensive and difficult seas; and what can be deemed more proper than this principle, which derives its authority from the analogy of sacred Scripture ?
A third controlling principle seemed also requisite, arising from a consideration of the nature and kind of that kingdom, which had thus appeared to be the grand object of the prophecies; it is a kingdom not temporal, but spiritual ; not a kingdom of this world, not established by the means and apparatus of worldly power and pomp, not bearing its external ensigns of royalty, but governing the inward man, by possession of the ruling principles; the kingdom of God, says our Lord, is within you.
• Such a kingdom may be in a great degree independent of the fates and revolutions of empires ; affected only by those changes in the political world which are calculated to produce the increase or decline of religious knowledge, and of pure profession and practice. Wars therefore, and conquest, and revolutions of short extent and of great political import, may be supposed to take place even in the Christian world, without becoming the proper object of Christian prophecy. The inhabitants of the Christian world may be subdued by a ferocious conqueror, the sufferings of the vanquished may be such as result from ferocious conquest; the faithful servants of Christ may undergo their common share in this calamity, may suffer grievously in their property and in their persons : yet, in such times of general distress, if their religion be not denied them, if they enjoy those consolations, which under such afflictions their religion is designed to bestow; if corrected by the awful visitation, not only they, but Christians of lower practice, and the inhabitants of the earth in general, shall be seen to turn to their God, and allow to his purifying religion, its due influence on their hearts and lives, shall we expect that such a revolution should be predicted as a calamity, as a woe? Our conception of the state of Christ's kingdom, the object of such prophecy,) will determine us to answer in the negative. But if such a conqueror, after having subdued the bodies of men, should proceed to extend his usurped dominion over their souls, should require them to renounce their allegiance to the heavenly king ; to deny their God and Redeemer ; then will succeed a conflict of another nature, and a resistance deserving the notice and interference of divine prophecy. Then will be employed those arms, which properly belong to this spiritual warfare; then will the kingdom be truly advanced or diminished. I describe this imaginary conquest, succeeded by such spiritual conflict, only as what may happen; not adverting to any similar instances which have occurred. I mention them to shew. with what previous notions I formed the rules of interpretation, for which I deem myself accountable.
• A fourth general rule of interpretation has been also adopted in the prosecution of this work, not to uttempt one particular explanation of those prophecies which remain yet to be fulfilled. Few words will shew the reasonable foundation of this rule, which I am sorry to observe so frequently transgressed. They shall be borrowed from Sir Isaac Newton ; « God gave these, and the prophecies of the Old Testament, not to gratify men's curiosity by enabling them to foreknow things; but that after they were fulfilled they might be interpreted by the event, and his own providence, not the interpreter's, be then manifested to the world.”
The good sense, the sagacity, the wisdom, the piety, and the justness, of these rules in expounding this prophetic book, we cannot sufficiently commend. But good rules, it may be objected, are oftener made than observed This accusation cannot be brought against Mr. W; he adheres faithfully to his principles through the whole work. While he was writing his commentary, events, astonish ing and awful in the extreme, constantly solicited his attention; but he was not dazzled, nor drawn aside from that steady soberness of mind which he appears eminently to possess. The French revolution, which maddened so many VOL. II.