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AVG.&c.) except in a few cases in which the dative is used (IMP. NERVAE TRAIANO, &c.) it is the grammatical case used instead of the nominative on the Consecration coins (DIVO PIO, DIVO CARO).

On the Reverses of the coins however a much greater variety ot cases was in vogue. For the Deities, the nominative, the dative and sometimes also the accusative was used (IVPITER, IOVI, MARS, MARTI, IVNO, IVNONI, IVNONEM, later on DN.XS. REX REGNANTVM.); for the Emperors and Empresses the nominative, or the dative (RECTOR ORBIS, RESTITVTORI OR BIS TERRARVM, MATER AVGG., MATRI CASTRORVM.);forthe allegorical personifications the nominative, the dative, and sometimes the ablative (PAX, FELICITATI, PERPETVITATE). Historical events were commemorated with the nominative, and with the ablative absolute (FELIX PROCESSVS CONS — ADLOCVTIO, or we may take VEHICVLATIONE ITALIAE REMISSA — PLEBEI VKBANAE FRVMENTO CONSTITVTO). The ceremony of Consecration is always expressed in the nominative (CONSECRATIO). The prayers for the Emperor called Voti are expressed in the nominative or the ablative (VOTA, VOTIS).

248. Coins without legends are very rare in the Imperial Roman series. Some rather rare coins have only the Obverse, without legend, others have only the Reverse, and these last are the more common, especially if we count those bearing only the initial letters S.C. without any other legend. Reverses without legends are proportionately more common among the medallions in bronze.

249. Language In Which The Legends Are Written. The Imperial legends are in Latin on all the coins issued during the period of the Western Empire; during the prosperous times they were very correctly expressed, but afterwards they gradually deteriorated.

As early however as the first years of the Eastern Empire the Greek alphabet began to be introduced, at first under Anastasius only to indicate the year of his reign, but afterwards for more important information.

After that reign the Greek language was gradually introduced disguised in Latin letters and the words BASILEOS or DESPOTES in the eighth century supplanted those of AVGVSTVS or DOMINVS. Then we see the Latin letters shaped often like the Greek and at length in the eleventh century the Greek language definitely triumphed over the Latin.

250. As a general rule the legends commence on the left and follow the rim, the whole being written with the letters arranged so as to be read from the centre of the coin; rarely they commence on the right, and arc to be read by turning the coin round, the base ol each letter being next the rim.

251. Dates are never directly expressed on Roman coins unless in very rare and exceptional cases, which may be only three in number, a coin of Hadrian known in gold and bronze on which we read ANN. DCCCLXXIII1 NAT VRB. P. CIR. CON. that is anno 874 Nat(alis) urb(is) p(rimum) cir(cences) con(stitui) ; another coin ol Philip I with the legend MILIARIVM SAECVLVM, which was intended to commemorate the thousandth year of Rome, and a third of Pacatianus with the legend AN.MILL. ET PRIMO.

But we are able to discover indirectly though not directly the date of a very great number of the coins, if not the greater number, by several means.

In the first period of the Empire we find the number of the Consulate, and more often the year of the Tribunitial power telling the date, and later, that is, in the sixth century, commencing in the reign of Justinianus, the years of the reign are marked on the coins.

The office of the Tribunate was given annually and was renewed up to the time of Antoninus Pius on the day of the year in which it was conferred for the first time, and from Antoninus Pius to the time of Gallienus on the first day of January.

The Consulate was neither conferred nor renewed regularly; but for all that we know precisely the list of the Consuls during the whole period of the Empire.

Hence it is natural that from the notice of these two offices in the legends, the Tribunates and the Consulships, it will not be very difficult to assign dates to the coins on which they are recorded.

Let us take as an example a coin of M. Aurelius with the legend : M.AVR.ANTONINVS AVG.TR.P.XV.COS.III. Knowing that M. Aurelius was instituted for the first time to the Tribunitial power in the year 147 A.D. the coin will have been issued fifteen years later, that is in 161, the year which corresponds exactly with the assumption of his third Consulate.

252. The two following lists will he found useful in determining the dates of coins ; in the first are noted the years in which each Emperor was given the Tribunitial power for the first time, and in the second all the Consulates from Julius Gesar to Constantine the Great.

WITH NOTES OF THE FIRST YEAR IN WHICH THEY WERE CONFERRED

TRIBUNATES

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Claudius » 41

Nero » 54

Galba reigned only 7

Vespasianus year 69

Titus » 7'

Domitianus 8 80

Nerva reigned 16

Trajanus • • • • year 97

Hadrianus. His coins scarcely ever indicate the

Tribunitial power »

Antoninus • »

M. Aurelius year

L. Verus"

Commodus 8

Septimus Severus »

Caracalla"

Geta »

Macrinus"

Elagabalus »

Sev. Alexander »

Maxi minus 8

Gordianus III"

Philippus I 8

Philippus II 8

Trajanus Decius"

Valerianus 8

Gallienus 8

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CONSULATES

Year B.C.

44 J. Caesar

43 M. Antonius

43 Augustus

42 Lepidus

37 Agrippa

34 M. Antonius

33 Augustus

3i — 30 —

29 — 28 —

27 Agrippa 27 Augustus 27 Agrippa

Year B.C.

V 26 Augustus
I 25 -

I 25

II 23

I 13 Tiberius

II 7

II 5 Augustus

III 2

IV Year A.D.

V 12 Germanicus
VI 15 Drusus

II 18 Tiberius

VII 18 Germanicus

III 21 Tiberius

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Drusus
Tiberius
Gnlba
Caligula
Claudius
Caligula

Claudius

Vespasianus
Nero

Galba

Otho
Vespasianus
Titus
Vespnsianus
Domìtianus
Nerva
Vespnsianus
Titus
Domitianus
Vespasìanus
Titus
Domitianus
Vespasìztnus
Titus
Domitianus
Vespasianus
Titus
Domitianus
Vespasianus
Titus
Domìtianus
Vespasianus
Titus

Domitianus

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II 108 Hadrianus

I 112 Trafanus

II 118 Hadrianus

I l 19 _

III 120 Antoninus Pius

I 136 /Eelius

I 137 _

IV 139 Antoninus Pius
III 14o _

II 141 M. Aurelius

V 145 Antoninus Pius
lll 144 M. Aurelius
III 154 L. Verus

VI 161 M. Aurelius
IV 161 L. Verus

IV 162 _
VII |75 Albinus

V 177 Commodus

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Year A.D.

193 Albinus

194 Sep. Severus 164 Albinus

202 Sep. Severus

202 Caracalla

205 Qiracalla

205 Geta

208 Caracalla

208 Geta

217 Macrinus

218 Macrinus

218 Elagabalus

219 —

220 — 222 —

222 Alexander Sev. 226 — 229 —

236 Maximinus

239 Gordianus III 241 —

245 Philippus I 247 —

247 Philippus IT

248 — I

248 — II

249 Trajanus Decius

250 —
252 Treb. Gallus

252 Volusianus

253 —

254 Valerianus

254 Gallienus

255 Valerianus 255 Gallienus 257 Valerianus 257 Gallienus

261 —

262 —

264 —

265 Valerianus jun.

266 Gallienus 269 Claudius II 271 Aurelianus 273 Tacitus

Vtir A.D.

II 274 Aurelianus II II 275 III

III 276 Tacitus II

III 277 Probus I I 278 — II

II 279 — III

I 281 — IV

III 282 — V

II 283 Cams I

I 283 Carinus I

II 284 Carinus II

I 284 Numerianus I

II 284 Diocletianus I

III 285 Carinus III

IV 285 Diocletianus II I 287 Maximianus Herc. I

II 287 Diocletianus III

III 288 Maximianus Herc. II

I 290 Diocletianus IV

I 290 Maximianus Herc. Ill

II 293 Diocletianus V I 293 Maximianus Herc. IV

II 294 Constantius Chlorus I I 294 Gal. Maximianus I

III 296 Diocletianus. VI II 296 Constantius Chlorus II

I 297 Maximianus Herc V

II 297 Gal. Maximianus II

I 299 Diocletianus VII

I 299 Maximianus Herc. VI

II 300 Constantius Chlorus III

II 300 Gal. Maximianus III

I 302 Constantius Chlorus IV

III 302 Gal. Maximianus IV II 303 Diocletianus VIII

IV 303 Maximianus Herc. VII

III 304 Diocletian IX

IV 304 Maximianus Herc. VIII

V 305 Constantius Chlorus V

VI 305 Gal. Maximianus V I 306 Constantinus Chlorus VI

VII 306 Gal. Maximianus VI I 307 Maximianus Herc. IX I 307 Constantinus Magnus I

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