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more difficult when one takes the brass coins in hand. All acids are at once to be absolutely excluded, because they corrode the metal.

For removing earth or dust and dirt generally a bath in soap and water will be found sufficient as for the other metals, but when one has to deal with oxidation there is no chemical preparation which will remove it without also acting on the metal, hence it is necessary to resort to mechanical cleaning. If the oxidation is slight and not very hard it may be removed by rubbing with a pointed piece of wood, but if on the other hand it is hard and resists that treatment a metal tool must be employed but then the greatest caution will be necessary so as to run no risk of scratching and spoiling the coin, and one should be all the more on one's guard if underneath the oxidation there is a patina which ought to be preserved intact, as that is one of the greatest ornaments of bronze coins. The operation is always most delicate and if the hand of the operator is not very skilful it is sure to be dangerous, so much so that very often, if not alwavs, it is advisable to let the coins alone, tolerating a little oxidation which is in fact only the natural consequence of the ages past, and of the material in which the coin has rested for so long a period. Thus the plants and mosses growing in the crevices of the Colosseum or on the ruins of the Baths of Caracalla do not take away from the beauty of those venerable ruins but according to my idea render them more attractive and interesting.



48. It is about five hundred years since the first works were written on Roman Numismatics, we may say indeed on Numismatics in general, for the Roman coinage was the first to be described.

The attention of students as well as of collectors happened to be first directed to the Imperial series. Very soon however followed the study of the Republican coinage, and works of greater or less volume were written on both these series and were gradually multiplied so that now they form an enormous library, for the Catalogue of which a huge volume would not suffice. In this ocean of books the young student has need of a pilot to direct him to those works which still deserve to be consulted, and to warn him from the vast shoals of books which no longer present any scientific interest, because whatever they contained of interest has been included by able writers in more modern works.

49> A short chronological list of the principal works will be of some use to give a general idea of the kind or publications issued, and thus to shew the names at least of the authors still commonly quoted in modern works.

Whoever may wish to know more need only consult the two great catalogues prepared by Lipsius1 and Leitzmann*.

50. As a sample of this literature a short list is here given of those works which ought without fail to be studied or consulted by all who wish to give themselves to the study of Roman Numismatics.

51. A new kind of scientific literature has been inaugurated in this century with the Periodical Publications such as Reviews aided or rather created by Numismatic societies ' which have also been instituted in this century. The great advantage of these Reviews is that they keep students always informed of the latest discoveries of science, by periodically publishing all the new finds as they occur, and the results of the most recent researches, and by encouraging public discussion on difficult points.

A brief list of those works which refer to Roman Numismatics will here be given, but it should be noted that many important recent studies are excluded from our list only because they have been published in periodicals.

52. List Of Works On Roman Coins

I. Andreas Fulvius. Illustrium imagines imperatorum e

illustrium virorum vultus ex antiquis numismatibus expressi. Rome, 1517, 1 vol. in-8.

II. Enea Vico. Le imagini con tutti i riversi trovati et le vite

degli imperatori. Parma, 1548, 1 vol. in-4.

III. Strada. Epitome du thresor des antiquitez, c'est-a-dire,

portraits de vrayes médailles des empereurs. Lyons, 1553

IV. Enea Vico. Discorsi sopra le medaglie degli anchi. Venice,

1555, 1 vol. in-4.

i.I. G. Lipsius, Bibliollieca numaria Catalogue Auclorum Sui usque ad finem saeculi XPIII de re monetaria aut numis scripserunt, Leipzig, 1801, 2 vol. in-8.

2. I, Lcitzmann, Bibliollieca numaria Venreichnisss&mmtlichcr in dem Zeitraume 1S00 bis 1S66 erschienenen fiber Mun^kunde, Weissensee, 1867, 1 vol. in-8. The principal Numismatic Societies of Europe are: e Numismatic Society of London (founded in 1836); Soci&e' Royale de Numismatique de Belgique. Brussels (founded 1841); Societe francaise de Numismatique. Paris (founded 1870); Numismatische Gesellschaft. Vienna (founded 1870); Sociiit6 Suisse de Numismatique. Geneva (founded 1879); Societa Numismatica Italiana. Milan (founded 1892).

V. Diethelm Keller. Kunstliche und aigeneitliche Bildnissen

der rhom. Keyseren. Zurich, 1558.

VI. Sebastiano Erizjp. Discorso sopra le medagli degli antichi.

Venice, 1559, 1 vol. in-4.

VII. Andrias Gessner. Imperatorum Rom. imagines, Zurich,

VIII. Hubert Gol^. Caesar Augustus, sive historia imperatorum

IS 59- ' .

Caesarumque Romanorum ex antiquis numismatibus

restituta libri II. Bruges, 1574.

IX. Fulvius Ursinus. Familiae romanae quae reperiuntur in

antiquis numismatibus ab U.C. ad divum Augustum. Rome, 1577, fig.

X. A. Le Pois. Discours sur les m£dailles. Paris 1579, 1 vol.


XI. Jos. Scaligerus. De re nummaria dissertatio, liber postumus

Antverpiae, ex officina Plautiniana Raphelengii, 1616.

XII. Ch. Patin. Familiae romanae in ant. numismatibus ab

Urbecondita ad temporadivi Augusti. Paris, 1663.

XIII. Ch. Patin. Imperatorum Romanorum numismata. Argent,


XIV. Exeeh. Spanheim. Dissertationes de praestantia et usu

numismatum antiquorum. Amsterdam, 1671.

XV. Andreas Morellius. Specimen universae rei nummariac

antiquae. Paris, 1683.

XVI. Paolo Pedrusi e P. Piovene. I Cesari in oro, in argento, in

medaglioni, in metallo, grande, mezzano e piccolo raccolti nel Museo Farnese e pubblicati colle loro congrue interpretazioni, Parma, 1694-1727, 10 vol. iti-fol. illustrati.

XVII. Ch. Patin. Histoire des medailles, ou introduction a la

connoissance de cette science. Paris, 1596,1 vol. in-12.

XVIII. /. Vaillant. Numi antiqui familiarum perpetuis interpre

tationibus illustrati. Amsterdam, 1703. 2 vol. in-fol.

XIX. Hah. Goltzius, De re numaria anticjua opera quae extant

universa. Anversa, 1703, 5 vol. m-fol.

XX. John Harduinus. Opera omnia. Amsterdam, 1709, 1 vol.


XXI. Ansehnus Bandurius. Bibliotheca numaria sive auctorum

qui de re numaria scripserunt. Paris, 1718, 1 vol. in-fol.

XXII. Ansehnus Bandurius. Numismata imperatorum romano

rum a Traiano Decio ad Paleologos Augustos. Paris, 1718, 2 vol. in-fol, — 2d Edition (with supplement by Hier. Tanini). Rome, 1791, 1 vol, in-fol.

XXIII. Adolphus Occo. Fr. Mediobarba. Phil. Argelatus.

Imperatorum romanorum numismata a Pompeio Magno ad Heraclium. olim congesta augustorum iconibus, perpetuis historico-chronologicis notis pluribusque additamentis jam illustrata a Fr. Mediobarbo Birago, additionibus usqne hac desideratis, criticisque observationibus exornata, curante Ph. Argelato. Milan, 1730, 1 vol. in-fol.

XXIV. Andreas Morellius. Thesaurus morellianus, sive familia

rum numismata omnia diligentissime undiquc conquisita ad ipsorum numorum fide accuratissime delineata et juxta ordinem F. Ursini et C. Patini. Amsterdam, 1734, 2 vol. in-fol.

XXV. P. Louis Jobert. Jos. Bimard de la Bastie. La science

des m^dailles, nouvelle edition avec des remarques historiques et critiques par Jos. Bimard de la Bastie. Paris. 1739, 2 vol. in-12.

XXVI. Beauvais d'Orleans. La maniere de discerner les medailles

antiques de celles qui sont contrefaites, Paris, 1739, 1 vol. in-4.

XXVII. Francesco de Ficorini. I Piombi, antichi. Rome, 1740,

1 vol. in-4.

XXVIII. /. Vaillant. Numismata imperatorum romanorum prae

stantiora a Julio Caesare ad Postumum usque. Rome, 1743, 1 vol. in-4.

XXIX. M. G. Agnethler. Numophyl Schulzianum. Lipsia, 1746.

XXX. Io. Chritoplmus Rasche. Lexicon universae rei numma

riae veterum et praecipue Graecorum et Romanorum. Leipsic, 1785-1805, 14 vol. in-8.

XXXI. Domenico Suluri. Opere diverse. Rome, 1789-1829.

XXXII. Joseph Eckhcl. Doctrina numorum veterum. Vienna,

1792-1798, 8 vol. in-4. XXX. Caylus. Numismata aurea imperatorum romanorum e cimelio regis christianiss, delineata et aeri incisa, (without date).

XXXIV. P. Felice Caronni. Lezioni elementari di numismatica

antica dell'abate Eckhel. Rome, 1808, 1 vol. in-4.

XXXV. N. D. Marchand. Mélanges de Numismatique et Histoire.

Paris, 1818, 1 vol. in-fol.

XXXVI. Marquis de Pina. Lecons elémentaires de Numismatique

romaine. Paris, Trouve, 1823.

XXXVII. Steinbiichel. Ios. Eckhel. Addenda ad doctrinam numo

rum veterum. Vienna, 1826, 1 vol. in-4.

XXXVIII. T. E. Mionnet. De la rarete' et du prix des medailles

romaines. Paris, 1815, 1 vol. (2d Edition. Paris, 1827,

2 vol. in-8).

XXXIX. H. Hennin. Manuel de la numismatique ancienne.

Paris, 1830, 2 vol. in-16. XL. Celestiiw Cavedoni. Saggio di osservazioni sulle medaglie

di famiglie romane, ecc. Modena, 1829 e Appendice,

1831, 2 vol. in-8. XLI. F. deSauky. Rssai de classification des suites monetaires

byzantines, Metz, 1836, 1 vol. in-8 avec atlas. XLII. John. Y. Akerman. Coins of the Romans relating to

Britain. London, 1836, in-8, fig. XLIII. C. IV. Barth. Das romische Ass unde seine Teile.

Leipzig, 1838.

XLIV. Lavy. Museo numismatico Lavy appartenente alia R.

Accademia delle Scienze (parte II. Descrizione delle

medaglie romane. Turin, 1839-1840. XLV. John. Y. Akerman. Numismatic Manual. London, 1850, XLVI. P. P. Marchi e Tessieri d. C. d. G. L'Aes grave del

Musco Kirkcriano ovvero le modete primitive dei

popoli dell* Italia media. Rome, 1840, 1 vol. in-4. XLV1I. Alaini. Intorno al tipo ordinario dele antiche monete

librali romane. Turin, 1842. XLV11I. Gennaro Riccio. Le monete delle antiche famiglie di

Roma. Naples, 1843, 1 vol. con tav. XLIX. /. Sabatier. Lcs phases de l'art monetaire a Rome et a

Byzance. S' Petersburg, 1848. L. /. e L. Sabatier. Production de l'or, de l'argent et du

cuivre chez les anciens et hotels monetaires des

empires romain et byzantin. S'Petersburg, 1850. LI. Fr. Carelli. Numorum Italiae veteris tabulae CCII.

Modena, 1851.

LII. A. de Barthelemy. Nouveau manuel complet de Numis

matique ancienne. Paris, 1851, 1 vol. in-16. (2C Edition. Paris, 1890.)

LIII. Celestino Cavedoni. Ragguaglio storico archeologico dei precipui ripostigli antichi di medaglie consolari e di famiglie romane. Modena. 1854, in-8.

LIV. Henri Cohen. Description generale des monnaies de la republique romaine, commune'ment appel^es Consulates. Paris, 1857, i vol. in-4 avec 75 planches.

LV. Henri Cohen. Description historique des monnaies frap

p£es sous l'empire romain jusqu'a la chute de l'emnire d'Occident. Paris, 1859-1868,7 vol. in-8 avec planches. (2d Edition. Paris, 1880-1892, 8 vol. illustrated).

LVI. /. Sabatier. Description generale des M^daillons contorniates. Paris, i860, avec 19 planches.

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