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LVII. L. Millier. Numismatique de l'ancienne Afrique, ouvrage préparé et commencé par C. T. Falbe et J. Chr. Lindberg, refait, achevé et publié par L. Mtiller. Copenhagen, 1860-62, 3 vol.

LVIII. BartJx)lomco Borgbesi. Œuvres numismatiques. Paris, 1862.

LIX. I. Sabatier. Description des monnaies byzantines trappées sous les empereurs d'Orient, depuis Arcadius jusqu'à la prise de Constantinople. Paris, 1862, 2 vol. in-8 avec 70 planches.

LX. Baron d'Ailly. Recherches sur la monnaie romaine depuis son origine jusqu'à la mort d'Auguste. Lyon, 1864, 4 vol. in-4 avec 113 planches.

LXI. Théodore Mommsen. Duc de Blacas. Histoire de la monnaie romaine, traduite de l'Allemand par le duc de Blacas. Paris, 1865-1875, 4 vol. in-4 avec planches.

LXII. L. Piigçuniglio. Storia délia moneta romana. Rome, 1867.

LXIII. L. Sambon. Recherches sur les monnaies de la presqu'île

italique depuis leur origine jusqu'à la bataille a'Ac

tium. Naples, 1870, 1 vol, in-8, fig. LXIV. Alois Heiss. Description générale des monnaies antiques

de l'Espagne. Paris, 1870, in-8, fig. LXV. Ariodante Fabrelli. Raccolta numismatica del R. Museo

d'Antichità di Torino. Monete Consolari. Turin,

1876, 1 vol. in-4. LXVI. Alexandre Boutkoiuski. Dictionnaire numismatique (unfinished). Leipzig, 1877. LXVII. W. Froehner. Les médaillons de l'empire romain depuis

le règne d'Auguste jusqu'à Priscus Attalus. Paris,

1878, 1 vol, in-4, con 1300 vignette. LXVIII. François Lenormant. La monnaie dans l'antiquité. Paris,

1878-79, 3 vol. in-8. LIX. F. Imboof-Blùtner. Portraitkôpfe aufRômischen Mùnzen der

Republik und der Kaiserzeit. Leipsic. Teubner, 1879.

(II edizione. 1892). LXX. Head. The young collector's Hand-book of Greek and

Roman coins, London, 1883. LXXI. P. Raffaele Garrucci. Le monete dell' Italia antica.

Rome, 1885, 1 vol. in-fol. con 125 tav. LXXII. Ernest Babelon, Description historique et chronologique

des monnaies de la république romaine, vulgairement

appelées monnaies consulaires. Paris, 1885, 2 vol.

in-8 illustrati.

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LXXIII. /. Friedlander. Repertorium zur Antiken Numismatik in Anschluss an M ion net "description des medailles antiques ", zusammengestellt von J. Friedlander, aus seinem Nachlass herausgegeben von R. Weil. Berlin, Reimer, 1885, in-j pag. XI-40.

LXXIV. Seth W. Stevenson, C. Roach Smith, Fr W. Madden. A Dictionary of Roman coins Republican and Imperial. London, 1889, 1 vol. ill.

LXXV. William Ridgeway. The origin of metallic currency and weight standards. Cambridge, 1892.

LXXVI. A. Pfeiffer. Antike Miinzbilder fur den SchulgebrauchWinterthur, 1895, in-8 con tavole.

LXXVII. A. Blanchet. Les monnaies romaines. Paris, 1896.

LXXVIII. Max Bahrfeldt. Nachtrage und Berechtigungen zur Miinzkunde der Romischen Republik, in Anschluss an Babelon's Verzeichniss der Consular-Miinzen. Vienna, 1897, in-8 con 13 tav. e 103 illustr.

LXXIX. E. A. Stuckelberg. Der Miinzsammler. Zurich, 1898.

LXXX. G. F. Hill. A Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins. London, 1899.

53. Among these eighty works, the authors and titles of which I have given in chronological order, the following are to he recommended as the most practically useful, and almost necessary for young students.

a) For the coinage of the primitive period.

Marchi and Tessieri, XLVI.
Baron d'Ailly, LX.
L. Sambon, LXIII.
R. Garrucci, LXXI.

b) For tlx coinage of the Republic.

Eckhel (vol. V), XXXII.
Borghesi, LVIII.
Riccio, XLVIII.
Fabretti, LXV.
Babelon, LXXII.

c) For the coinage oj the early Empire.

Eckhel (vol. VI, VII, and VIII), XXXII.
Cohen, LV.
Mommsen, LXI.

d) For the Byzantine coinage.

Saulcy, XLI.
Sabatier, LIX.

e) For general reference.

Rasche, XXX.
Stevenson, LXXIV.

54. For simple guidance in classification the Jollowing three works vili suffice.

Babelon, LXXII for the Republican coinage.
Cohen, LV, for the Imperial coinage.
Sabatier, LIX, for the Byzantine coinage.

5 5. The following is a list of the principal Reviews containing articles on Roman Numismatics.

CURRENT REVIEWS

I. Revue Numistnatiquefrancaise, Paris, from 1836.

II. Numismatic Chronicle. London, from 1838.

III. Revue belge de Numistnatique. Brussels, from 1842.

IV. Numismatische Zeitschrlft. Vienna, from 1870.

V. Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik. Berlin, from 1874.

VI. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, from 1888.

VII. Spink's Monthly Numismatic Circular, from 1893.

REVIEWS WHICH HAVE CEASED TO BE ISSUED

Giornale numismatico (F. M. Avellino.) Naples, 1808-12.
Annali di Numismatica (G. Fiorelli). Roma, 1846-51.
Memorie Numismatiche (diamilla). Roma, 1847.
Notizie peregrine di Numesmatica e d'Archeologia (F. Schweitzer).

Trieste, 1851-61.
Rivista della Numismatica antica e moderna (olivieri e Maggiora

Vergano). Asti, 1863-65. Rivista Numismatica italiana (maggiora Vergano). Asti, 1866. Annuaire de Numismatique et d'Archeologie (d'amècourt-belfort).

Parigi, 1866-96.

Periodico di Numismatica e Sfragistica per la Storia d'Italia (C. Strozzi). Firenze, 1868-74.

Gaietta Numismatica (S. Amurosoli). Como, 1881-87.

UnìIdino di Numismatica e Sfragistica (santoni C Vitalini. Camerini), 1882-87.

CHAPTER XII

TECHNICAL TERMS

56. The first requisite for clearly understanding numismatic works without risk of confusion is that of clearly defining the meaning of the terms used therein, it therefore seems advisable to supply definitions of some technical terms frequently met with. For most of these a simple definition will be enough, but for those which need a more complete or diffuse explanation references are given to the chapters dealing with the subjects.

57. Numismatics is the science which has for its object the study of coins from the point of view of history, of art, of portraiture, and economy.

58. A Coin (nummus or numisma') is a piece of metal, gold, silver, brass, or bronze, cast or struck generally in the form of a disc, which bears an impression conferring upon it a legal character by public or private contract.

59. The Sides or Faces of a coin are the two opposite surfaces presenting the types and legends.

60. The Obverse is the principal side which generally bears the head of a deity, or of a ruler, or some other sign of the authority by which the money was issued.

61. The Reverse is the side opposite to the Obverse, it is less important and usually bears a historical or mythological type.

61. The Field is the free space of the two sides of the coin, that is, the space not occupied by the head, the types, or the legends.

63. The Exergue is the lower segment of the face of the coin, generally on the Reverse for the most part bounded by a horizontal line.

64. Contorno is an Italian word for the edge round the rim of a coin.

65. Tondino or Tondello is an Italian word used to express the disc of metal prepared for the striking of a coin.

66. The Type is the figure or object represented on a coin, it is generally used for that on the Reverse (see ch. XIV, XIX, XXXVII).

67. The Legend is the inscription whether found on the Obverse or the Reverse of a coin (see ch. XX and XVIII.

68. Anepigrafa. An Italian word for a coin without a legend.

69. The Impress means the type and the legend as a whole,

Roman Coini. )

that is the entire design struck on a coin. The word is also used to signify any reproduction of a coin in paper, wax, or plaster (see ch. X).

70. Mint Marks and Moneyer's Marks are abbreviations of words generally consisting of the two first letters of a word. They are specially used to indicate the mints on the coinage of the later Empire, as RA for Ravenna, MD for Mediolanum.

71. Monogram, signifies the principal letters of a name grouped into one design, or joined in a single figure. Many examples are found on the Byzantine and Italian Gothic coins.

72. Module is the word used to indicate the dimension or rather the diameter of a coin. In the older works on Numismatics the module was described by reference to the scale published by Mionnet in which there are nineteen small circles of different dimensions, but it is much better and more accurate to express the dimensions, as is now commonly done, by reference to fractions of an inch.

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73. By the Condition of a coin is meant its actual state of preservation. A coin which is found in the same perfect condition in which it was issued from the mint is called in English " in mint condition", in Italian " Ruspa" in French " Fleur de coin ". Coins are

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