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in England generally classified according to their condition as "very fine, "fine," "mediocre" or "poor".

74. To Right or To Left mean that the figures on the coins are turned towards the right or left hand of the observer.

75. The Patina of a coin is the result of oxidation on copper coins. The kind of oxidation formed on the surface depends upon the materials surrounding the coin during the ages in which it was buried. Some show a beautiful malachite green appearance, others blue, red, bronze, or black. A beautiful patina adds very much to the price of a bronze coin, and if it is natural, is a sure sign of authenticity, but many artificial patinas are produced.

76. Titolo is an Italian word used to express the degree of purity of metal used in coining (the Standard).

77. The Legal or Nominal Value of a coin is the value determined by the contemporary laws according to the monetary unit, that is to say the value which is given by law to a given quantity of coined metal.

78. Metallic Value is the actual and variable price of the metal of which the coin is formed, without taking account of the cost of coining which forms part of the legal value.

79. The Monetary Unit is the coin which serves as the base of the monetary system of a country and which has its multiples and subdivisions.

The first monetary unit of the Romans was the As, and afterwards when silver was introduced the Sestertius.

80. Bronze Coins.

<i) As, the monetary unit (see ch. XIII, n. 125, 126, 133 et sq., 147 ; XXV, n. 215 et seq.).

0) Semis, the half of an As (see ch. XIII, n. 127).

c) Triens, the third of an As(sec ch. XIII, n. 128).

d) Quadrans, the fourth of an As (see ch, XIII, n. 129).

e) Sextans, the sixth of an As (see ch. XIII, n. 130).

/) Uncia, the twelfth part of an As (see ch. XIII, n. 131.

g) Sestertius, two Asses and a half, afterwards four (see chap. 25, d. 209).

h) Dupondius, two Asses (see ch. XIII, n. 141, and XXV, n. 209).

1) Tripondius, three Asses (see ch. XIII, n. 142).
k) Quadrussis, four Asses (see ch. XIII, n. 148).
/) Quincussis, five Asses (seech. XIII, n. 148).
wi)Decussis, ten Asses (see ch. XIII. n. 143).

«1 Follis (seech. XXV, n. 218, 219).
0) Centemonalis (see ch. XXV, n. 219).

81. Silver Coinage.

a) Sestertius, the monetary unit (see ch. XIX, n. 155).

b) Quinarius, two Sestertii (see ch. XIV, n. 154; XXIII, n. 205).

c) Denarius, four sestertii (see ch. XIV, n. 153 ; XXIII, n. 205). dS Victoriatus, a special coin (see ch. XIV, n. 160, 161, 162). e) Siliqua, a coin of the later Empire (c. ch. XXIV, n. 208).

jS Miliarensis a coin of the later Empire (see ch. XXIV, n. 208). g) Antoninianus, or double denarius, of the time of Caracalla (see ch. XXIII, n. 206, and XXIV).

82. Gold Coins.

a) Denarius Aureus (or simply Aureus) the monetary unit (see ch. XV, XVI and XXIII).

b) Quinarius, the half denarius (see ch. XXIII).

cS Solidus, denarius of the time of Constantine (see ch. XXIII).

if) Semis, a half-denarius (see ch. XXIII).

e) Triens, the third of a denarius (see ch. XXIII).

83. The Consular or Family Coins. These are names which are improperly given to the coinage of the Republic.

84. The Imperial Coinage should mean that issued from the beginning to the end ot the Roman Empire, "stante Romano Imperio'; but the expression is more generally used for the coinage of the Western Empire from Augustus to Romulus Augustulus.

85. Byzantine Coins are those issued by the Emperors of the East.

86. Coins Op The Emperors or Imperial Coins are those coined by the direct authority of the Emperor (see XXIII, n. 200 and 201 ; XXVI, n. 228).

87. Senatorial Coins are those coined by the authority of the Senate (see ch. XXIII, n. 201; XXVI, n. 223).

88. Colonial Coins are those struck in the colonies and forming a separate series from those properly called Roman. They are of Bronze and mostly with Latin legends (see ch. XXXVI, n. 303).

89. The Greek Imperial Coins. This series was struck in the Greek-speaking provinces under the dominion of the Romans, they bear the portraits of the Roman Emperors.

They are for the most part of bronze and bear Greek legends. They should more properly be called " City coinage" (see ch. XXXVI, n. 304).

90. Alexandrine Coins are the Imperial coins struck in Egypt. Some are in very base silver called '•potin", but the greater number are in bronze. Their legends are all in Greek and they shew a special type of fabric (see ch. XXXVI, n. 307).

91. Barbarous Coins are the base imitations of the Imperial money made among barbarous peoples. The are found in all the metals.

92. Lenticular Coins are those shaped in the form of a lens, being thicker and larger in the centre and gradually thinner towards the edge, as were the first emissions of the As.

93. Globular Coins. Some gold coins of considerable thickness, with a small diameter, of the Byzantine period are thus named (see ch. XXV, n. 220).

9. Concave Coins. There are some Byzantine coins of gold, silver, and bronze, which having been coined with a convex die for the Obverse, and concave die for the Reverse are stamped into a form rather like that of a shallow bowl. They were first issued about the end ot the eleventh century and continued to be issued until the end of the Byzantine Empire (see ch. XXV, n. 220).

9 5 . Countermarked Coins. Some Imperial brass and a very few silver coins bear a sign or countermark, stamped upon them long after they were issued, with the intention of giving fresh authority to their currency in a fresh reign. The countermarks consist of certain letters, sometimes easily interpreted, when for instance they form the name of an Emperor, as TIB. IMP. (Tiberius Imperator) or VESP, (Vespasianus) &c. or the common legend S.P. Q. R. (Senatus populusque Romanus) at other times however they are difficult to interpret, being formed of letters of unknown meaning, as for example NCAPR for which many interpretations more or less plausible have been proposed, as Nummus Cusus Auctoritatc Populi Romani.

96. Countersigned Coins. Some denarii of the Republic bear, impressed in the form of little countermarks certain signs of very diverse forms which from their variety seem to have been stamped by private persons as guarantees of the goodness of the metal.

97. Posthumous Coins are those which were struck after the death of the ruler whose name and effigy they bear. Thus Augustus issued coins with the head of Julius Caesar, Tiberius coined others with the head of Augustus and others did the same (see ch. XXIX).

The consecration and restitution coins form other series of posthumous coins.

98. Consecration Coins are those struck in memory of the apotheosis of an Augustus, an Augusta, or a Caesar, that is, a ceremony which celebrated their passing to join the Divinities on Olympus. They exist in all the three metals commencing from the time of Hadrian and terminating with that of Constantine the Great (seech. XXXI).

99. Restitution Coins are those which were recoined at a time long after their first emission. They bear the original types more or less faithfully reproduced, but the Emperor who reissued them added his own name followed by the word RESTITUIT or more commonly REST. They arc found in all three metals but the period during which they were issued was very short. They first appear under Titus, and end under Trajan (see ch. XXX).

100. Legionary Coins are those which were coined in honour or in memory of the Legions. Mark Antony was the first and Carausius the last to coin them. They are found in both gold and silver (see ch. XXXIII).

101. Votive Coins are those which record the public prayers for the Emperors (see ch. XXXIV).

102. Plated Coins called Suberate or Foderate in Italian and Fourre" in French are those which have a lining or body of base metal (brass, bronze, or iron) covered with a thin coating of silver, or more rarely of gold (see ch. XIV, n. 159).

103. Serrated Coins are those silver denarii which instead of having an ordinary plain rim have a notched rim shaped like the teeth of a saw. They are only found in the Republican series (see ch. XIV, n. 158).

104. Tinned Coins, called Imbiamcate or Stagnate in Italian, are Imperial bronze coins of the decadence of the Empire which were made to simulate silver and had forced currency as silver although they were made of brass or bronze whitened with tin (see ch. XXIV, n. 206).

105. Incuse Coins are those which bear the same type on both faces, convex on the one side, and concave on the other. But in the Roman series there are no coins made intentionally in this manner, as for instance in the Greek series. Those which are found (and they are common in the Republican though rare in the Imperial series) are always the result of a mistake.

These mistakes are often found in the silver coins, rarely in bronze, and are unknown in gold. Their origin must be due to placing a fresh piece of metal between the coin dies without having first removed the coin just struck, so that the blow of the hammer in falling impressed upon the upper side of the second piece of metal the head in relief produced by the die on the hammer and on the under side the same head in concave produced by the coin already struck and accidentally left on the lower die.

106. Restruck Coins are those which have been struck a second time at a later period. They are met with principally under the ephemeral reigns of certain tyrants who on account of urgent haste, or it may be the lack of metal or of mints of their own, having procured^ dies bearing their own portraits struck them upon current coin. So carelessly was this done that it is not at all uncommon to see visible traces of the original design under the new type. For examples we may take the coins of Regalianus and Dryantilla.

107. Hybrid Coins. Those coins which have an Obverse type which is not usually found with that on the Reverse are called hybrid, being made with dies belonging to two different coins. These mistakes could only have arisen from the dies being mixed in the workshop, while two or more magistrates were coining money at the same time, or when, on a change of officers, or on the succession of an Emperor some of the former dies were not destroyed. The mistake might also have arisen through the clumsiness of a forger.

108. Genuine or Authentic Coins are those recognised as having really been cast or struck officially at the date of issue.

109. False Coins consist of two kinds, the ancient false coins which were made in ancient times by private fraud to be spent as current coins, (these always have a historic and numismatic value,) and the modern false coins, that is imitations ot the ancient coins made in order to deceive collectors.

These are being made by many methods, and although some are easily recognizable others are made with such skill that a practised eye is necessary to distinguish them from the genuine (see ch. IX, n. 38.

110. Falsified Coins are those which although originally genuine have been so much altered by the work of the falsifier as to seem something quite different from what they were originally (sec ch. JX, n. 39).

in. Medallion. This is a word improperly used by students of Roman numismatics. As a derivative of Medal (i. e. a large medal) it would signify any piece of metal cast or struck with a type on both Obverse and Reverse, but which however similar it might be to a coin except in its generally larger size would have no legal character without the legal legend and hence would not properly be used in business. Now, medallions in the true sense of the woid do not exist in the Roman series unless we choose to make an exception in favour of the contorniates; but in common parlance the name of medallions is improperly given to those coins which exceed the common dimensions. They should more correctly be called "multiples".

They exist in all the three metals (see ch. XXVI).

112. Medallions Of Two Metals. Sometimes brass coins of very large dimensions are struck on a disc formed of two metals, the central portion of one metal set in a ring of the other. The two portions are generally of two different qualities of bronze, or of different metals, brass and latten, that inside being softer the better to receive the impression, the outer ring hard and more resisting.

113. Framed Medallions. Those which are furnished with an ornamental circle are called in Italian Medaglione cerchiato. The

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