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of the Roman empire, in a new form, under an imperial head, and by its recovering its former greatness, after every one thought that it had become extinct.

Their astonishment was accompanied with every manifestation of reverence, subjection, and adoration, directed not to God, but to the beast, whose deadly wound was healed. "They worshipped the dragon, which gave power to the beast, and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast, or is able to make war with him?' They did not any more than other idolators intend to worship the devil; but in supposing that such power as the antichristian empire possessed could be derived from God, and in adoring him as the author of it, they were in reality worshipping Satan. They also worshipped

the Beast himself, for the adoration contained in these expressions: 'Who is like unto the Beast who, &c., was, &c.?' is a part of divine worship which God claims as his peculiar honour, when he says,—To whom will ye liken me, or shall I be equal ? who shall contend with me? let him come near to me.'

• There was given to the beast a mouth speaking great things, and blasphemies, and power was given him to continue forty and two months. Because the ten kingdoms were united in one empire under the Pope as their head, and the mouth is in the head, he may with propriety be said to be the mouth of the antichristian empire, whose subjects universally acquiesce in whatever is spoken by him. This mouth was given to the beast by Satan, the father of lies, and in speaking great things, and blasphemies,' it corresponds to the little horn which came up in Daniel's fourth beast, and spake great things, and great words, against the Most High.' Never any, not even God himself, ever spake so great things as the Pope has done. As their spiritual head and the mouth of the antichristian empire, he not only claimed and professed to have power over all flesh-to depose kings from their thrones, and loose subjects from their allegiance to them but even to dissolve the obligation of an oath, and of civil contracts—to put asunder what God has joined—to make sin duty, and duty sin—to forgive sin, and to grant indulgence to commit it-and to have the keys of heaven and hell, so as to be able to open and shut them according to his pleasure. These great things are blasphemies' when proceeding from the mouth of any creature; and in this manner the man of sin makes himself equal to God, and exalteth himself above all that is called God and worshipped.'

The time of the beast's continuance is forty and two months. Fortytwo months, of thirty days each, amount to twelve hundred and sixty days. This is also the time of the Gentiles' treading the Holy City under foot, of the witnesses prophesying in sackcloth, and of the church's residence in the wilderness. In all these instances forty-two months—twelve hundred and sixty days—or in the language of Daniel, a time, times, and a half, that is a year of three hundred and sixty days, two years and half a year must be understood agreeably to prophetical usage, in which each day is put for a year, and therefore they denote a period of twelve hundred and sixty years. The commencement of this period seems most properly dated from the time when the antichristian empire was fully formed, and that was in six hundred and six, when it received a spiritual head, and the usurped

authority of the Pope as God's vicegerent, and Christ's vicar on earth, began to be acknowledged by the kingdoms within the territory of the ancient Roman empire. Some of the ten kingdoms which gave their power to the beast may withdraw it, and their number may be diminished, but the antichristian beast itself will exist so long as any of the subjects of these kingdoms acknowledge the supreme spiritual authority of the Pope, and this will be till the twelve hundred and sixty years are expired. On the supposition, therefore, that the beast arose in six hundred and six, he will come to his end in 1866, which is at the distance of seventeen years from the present time.

During the period of his reign the beast is said to open his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.' In all these ways does the antichristian empire blaspheme God, by means of the Pope as its mouth, Its subjects concede to him those divine titles and prerogatives which he arrogates to himself-revile the tabernacle of God, or the true church of Christ, as if it were the synagogue of Satan-brand all that belong to it with the name of heretics, and consign them to perdition—and at the same time dishonour those that dwell in heaven,' by the worshipping of angels and departed saints who regard this idolatrous adoration of them as the highest affront or indignity that can be put upon them, and reject it with the utmost abhorrence.

In fine, it was given to him to make war against the saints, and to overcome them, and power was given to him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations. In the prophecy of Daniel, seventh chapter, it is affirmed of the same antichristian power, that the saints shall be given into his hand, and he shall wear out the saints of the Most High.' When it is said of the beast that it was given to him to do these things to the saints,' and that power was given him orer the inhabitants of the world, there is a reference in these expressions both to the over-ruling providence of God, and to the agency of Satan. When Pilate said to Jesus, 'Knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and power to release thee?' Jesus answered, “Thou couldest have no power at all over me, except it were given thee from above.' So also it may be said of the antichristian empire, that it could have no power at all over the saints, and over the inhabitants of the earth, unless it were given it from above. But that power for evil which the wicked possess is from God, only permissively and providentially, not with participation and concurrence, like that which is from Satan. It is the latter that excites the antichristian empire to persecute the saints, and persuade men to become the subjects and supporters of it.

The beasts making 'war against the saints,' includes all the attempts of the antichristian empire during the 1260 years of its existence, to search out the people of God, and compel them, by persecution, to renounce the true religion, and acknowledge Popery. It has made war against them, not only by denouncing them as heretics, rebels, and traitors, but also by prosecutions, unjust sentences, and executions; and even by sending forth armies into the field against them, to cut them off. This ' overcoming,' or wearing out the saints of the Most High,' is the same as the slaying of the witnesses,' foretold in the eleventh chapter of the Revelations, and must be understood in a tem

poral, and not in a spiritual sense. The utmost that the antichristian empire has been able to do to them, is to deprive them of their property, liberty, and life, and to silence their testimony for a season, by depressing and driving them into corners. It has never prevailed against them so far as to extirpate them, or even to make them renounce the truths and commandments of Christ, and embrace the errors and abominations of Popery. On the contrary, they have overcome the dragon and all his power, by the blood of the Lamb, and the word of their testimony,' and they loved not their lives unto the death. In fine, it may truly be said, that “power was given him over all kindreds, and nations, and tongues.' The ten horns of the beast, or the ten kingdoms into which the ancient Roman empire was divided, consist of different races of people, who form distinct nations, and speak different languages; but being united into one empire, under the Pope his authority was acknowledged by them all, and, therefore, the power of the Papal empire extended over all the subjects of these kingdoms.

We shall conclude this description of Antichrist in his imperial form, by directing your attention to the account which we have of his end in these words of John: “He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity; he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. That empire has for ages held many in spiritual thraldom and bondage, and led them captive to sin, soul-destroying error, and everlasting misery. It has deprived many of God's dear saints of their civil and religious liberties, shut them up in prisons and in dungeons, and banished them to foreign countries, as evil-doers; and it has shed the blood of many of them on scaffolds and in the high places of the field. But the same measure which it has meted to others shall, in the righteous judgment of God, be meted to it again. Both the Papal Head and the subjects of his empire shall be carried captive into everlasting perdition by the King of Terrors, and the “sword of the Lord shall be lifted up, and bathed in heaven,' and fall with vengeance and retribution upon it, to cut off its name and memorial from the earth. Daniel tells us that the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the devouring flame.'

[In our November Number we apologised to the Reformed Presbyterians for certain

expressions that previously appeared in this periodical, stating that these were contrary to an understanding come to at Glasgow respecting the Stranraer case. From the extracts in the following letter, it appears that the understanding had been first violated on the other side, and that the remarks which gave such offence to the Scottish Presbyterian were provoked by offensive insinuations and reflections, which had previously appeared in that periodical. We, therefore, consider it to be an act of justice to insert the following letter. We must, however, beseech our friends on both sides to cease from recriminatory remembrances, whether more openly expressed, or more secretly insinuated. No good can now be done by pursuing such a course, while it may do much evil) :

(To the Editor of the Original Secession Magazine.) SIR,—The obituary notice in the September number of your periodical has very unexpectedly given offence. The Scottish Presbyterian has made a most deadly attack on it.

In consequence of your apology, I think it necessary to make the following remarks: Respecting the agreement about the Stranraer case at Glasgow, there

must be some mistake. It is evident that the other party, at least several of them, have felt no obligation from it; so far as they are concerned, the case has not been closed.

The whole facts of it were published eight years ago, and I have nothing to retract or regret concerning it, as little

have I any

wish that it should be prolonged ; if so, it will be their own fault. I only alluded to it so far as circumstances required. I never stated anything as a fact about it but what I knew to be true, or inferred anything about it but what I believed to be well founded; therefore I have nothing to fear as to the result.

This article wears a warlike aspect. I should not be anxious to imitate it. Its imputations and insinuations are, in my estimation, so far removed from anything current or permitted among respectable men, that they are unworthy of notice. I know of nothing approaching to it in a religious publication, except a paragraph in the Memoir of the late Rev. Adam Brown of Kilmarnock.

In the Scottish Presbyterian for July, the writer states that the subject of his sketch was not like men of points, punctilios, and crotchets, whether private members or office-bearers, repudiating their former principles, and abandoning the fellowship of the church.

And in page 324, reference is made to parties, who by casting their testimony to the winds, and uniting with a church which they had long witnessed against in numerous particulars, because they failed to obtain a synodical decision in accordance with their views in one particular instance.'

The article containing the first extract was published and circulated bere in a separate form, and no one doubted its meaning. Was not the writer in very solemn circumstances when assisting in consigning to the narrow-house the remains of one who had been so suddenly removed from this world ? Yet he could not finish a portrait of that good man without a thrust at numbers around him, some of whom, it may fairly be presumed, would not suffer malerially on being compared either with the panegyrist himself, or with the subject of his sketch. Was this not raising a war-cry on the margin of the grave ? and in order that the dead may appear in the most favourable and attractive light, brings into operation the force of contrast, and shades his picture with a dash at the living.

There can be as little doubt about the reference of the other extract given above. The flourish about casting their testimony to the winds has far more sound than sense. It is true that the Original Secession congregation, Stranraer, did make a change, and they stated their reasons for doing so; but they continue to witness as formerly. One point excepted, and that, in their former connection, involved no practical difficulty ; they acted in reference to it as their consciences, inclinations, or interests directed them; and it would not be easy to make them believe that they are not as faithful testimony bearers now as they were then; and they greatly prefer the testimony they have espoused, and the church with which they are now connected.

In page 307 there is the following sagacious advice : Those who leave our church would every way consult their own credit by assigning no reasons for their conduct, and attempting no defence.'

This advice is very instructive. It shows that, in the opinion of the writer, there never can be any valid reason for leaving their church; and should he be believed, some of those that leave them have not much credit to lose ; besides, as it has happened, so it may happen again, that some may be so far in error as to leave it, and yet so foolish as to assign reasons for so doing. Should such delinquents follow this advice, that would save the trouble of answer ing them.

No doubt the writer felt exhausted when concluding his protracted (but bloodless) battle with Mr M eod, and anxious to put off his armour. Mr M'Leod has received an affectionate and lengthened farewell

. It was cruel to be so severe on one who was lately so near a brother: for his valuable services in 1841 he has received his reward. If he has been so dealt with,

others who never did a tithe of the service he did cannot expect very favourable treatment.

It is therefore obvious that I did not re-open the case, and it was you, sir, who was entitled to demand an apology.

Stranraer, Dec., 1849.

REVIEW.

THE MYSTERY OF GODLINESS PRAC- thought that the heaven, even the

TICALLY ILLUSTRATED. By the beaven of heavens, could not contain Rev. DAVID A. STURROCK, Mid- him,' he was so amazed with asholm. John Johnstone, Edin- tonishment, when he thought that burgh.

this infinite Being, was to make his No man bath seen God at any special residence in a little fabric time, or can see.' To be invisible built upon a most minute corner of by corporeal organs is one of his per- his own footstool, that he cried out, fections. In condescension, however, • Will God in very deed dwell with to human weakness, and in order to men upon the earth ?' And when lay a strong foundation for the main- we think of the character of God, tenance of religion in the world, God and the character of man, was it not was pleased in early times to hold wonderful that, in condescension to converse with man by sensible mani- our limited and frail nature, he festations of his presence. God was should draw a veil over his own inpot visible, but the sign or symbol of finite glory; that the invisible One his presence was visible. 'In this should give a visible token of his premanner God oftentimes appeared sence; that the infinite, omnipresent, unto the patriarchs, sometimes by one all-comprehending, uncomprehended symbol, and sometimes by another. One, should select a small spot on When the church, after her deliver- the summit of Mount Zion, and say ance from Egypt, received a more concerning it, “This is my rest: here definite and permanent organisation, will I stay; for I have desired it?' God appointed the ark of the cove- But all these symbolic manifestanant, or mercy-seat, to be the token tions of Deity-whether the transient of his presence.

At first the ark ones given to the patriarchs, or the was placed in a tabernacle, or mov- permanent one in the tabernacle and able tent, where it continued until the temple-were but types and shathe temple was built by Solomon. dows of that great event, which is the The temple was dedicated to the wonder of the world, and the foun. Lord, by Solomon, in a prayer which dation of the church-we mean the is upon record, and certainly is one incarnation of the Son of God. When of the most sublime that ever an he came to our world, he assumed a earthly monarch presented at the human nature into personal union footstool of the King of kings. The with his divinity, and dwelt therein most prominent idea by which that as in a tabernacle or temple. He remarkable act of devotion is per- received humanity into union with vaded is the littleness, insignificance, Deity in a way which no creature can and nothingness of man, in compari: explain, so that neither Deity was huson of God, and the unworthiness of manised nor humanity deified ; but the most splendid structure which nevertheless a union was formed beman could rear to be his dwelling- tween them, so that they constitute place. When David looked to the one wonderful person, one glorious heavens, the work of God's fingers, Redeemer, one adorable Mediator, to the moon and the stars which he IMMANUEL, GOD WITH US. What had ordained, then said he, Lord, a wonderful matter is this! Finite what is man that thou art mindful of and infinite, created and uncreated, him?' But when Solomon looked eternity and time, united, intimately, above the moon and stars, above the inseparably, and for ever. Our minds thrones of angels, unto God, and are so limited, our conceptions are

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