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sentences, bring some other topics under your consideration. The idea that our Lord satisfied public justice—that his death was merely an expedient designed to manifest the righteousness of God, for the benefit of the universe, greatly obscures all the leading doctrines of the gospel. In that case we do not see the need of the Saviour being a divine person. His death was designed to justify God in the sight of the universe, and not to satisfy the infinite justice of the divine nature. The cause of suffering was therefore finite, and might have been satisfied with a finite sacrifice. From this also it follows that our Lord was not a substitute, in the proper sense of that term. He did not occupy the law-room of sinners. They had offended the essential justice of God, as interposed in the penalty of the law, while he was punished by public justice. What he endured was therefore not what they deserved. Not being the substitute of his people, in the proper sense of the term, there was no necessity for his assuming human nature. And as it was other orders of creatures who were to be impressed by his death, and not divine justice that was to be satisfied in the
planet where she had been dishonoured, there was no reason for his coming to our world. If our Lord suffered, not because God was just, but in order that he might appear just, then it follows, with all the inflexible necessity of logical consequence, that the atonement was offered to the universe, and not to God. Gifted with an eye that never winks, Dr Wardlaw may espy this abyss at a great distance, and the vapour of ambiguous ideas may conceal it from his readers, or they may be kept from advancing towards it by the rete of elegant and enticing language in which he has entangled them, but to this the system leads, and some of its ablest defenders have not scrupled to avow this. Dr Gilbert, in his work on the atonement, maintains that the great God, with most illustrious clemency, forgoes his individual claims that the price of redemption is actually paid to the PUBLIC—that the aspect of atonement is towards creatures—that to them the sacrifice is made and that to them, as represented by God, the supreme executive power, is the price paid.'* It is appalling to read language like this, coming from one who is not an infidel. But there is a more dreadful consequence behind, which is not less certainly involved in the doctrine, though it has not been hitherto avowed. If the atonement was designed to make an impression on the universe, so that God might not inflict the punishment due to sin, and might yet appear to be righteous, then it follows that the atonement was offered for God, and not for man—the grand design of it was to preserve his character in the sight of the universe, and not to satisfy his justice for the demerit of sin. The scheme thus turns the universe upside down-puts the creature in the place of the Creator, and the Creator in the place of the creature. Among other consequences that flow from it, this is one, that our Lord Jesus Christ is not the Saviour. All men are equally indebted to him—what he did, he did for all. If, therefore, he is not a Saviour to those that are in hell, then he is not a Saviour to those who are in heaven, for he has done no more for the one than for the other; but if he be the Saviour of those that are in hell, then he is a Savour who does not save. The salvation of all who are saved depends not on his death, but on their improvement of it. This doctrine coincides, in several points, with Socinianism; and if the UNIVERSE be substituted for OUR WORLD, the two systems seem to us to be identical, in regard to the design of our Lord's death. Christ, says the Socinian, died that he might be an example of holiness; and God, say our improvers of this doctrine, put his Son to death that he might give a display of his righteousness for the benefit of the universe. According to the one scheme, he died to make an impression on men; according to the other, he died to make an impression on the universe. According to both systems his death is a great lesson, and be a great teacher. They differ from one another in regard to the field of his instruction; but neither of them regard him as being, in any scriptural sense, the great High Priest who offered himself a sacrifice, to reconcile us to God.' These are some objections to the doctrine respecting public justice, as maintained, explicitly and consistently, by the more thorough-going champions of universal atonement, and as laid down by Dr Wardlaw, as the basis of his system, though he has not sufficiently got rid of the more simple and scriptural opinions of his earlier days to be able to write consistently upon the subject. He is, however, as responsible as others for all the consequences that are involved in the general idea that Christ's satisfaction was rendered to public justice; rendered, not because God was just, but that God might seem to be just not because God, from the essential justice of his nature, necessarily demanded satisfaction, but because this was necessary for the welfare of the universe; a doctrine which carries in its bosom principles subversive of all religion, natural and revealed.
* As quoted by Calvinus Minor.
Indep. Have you any thing further to say at present?
Orig. Sec. Do you not think I have said enough! I would only say, that I heartily concur in the opinion of Mr Haldane, in his work on the atonement-a truly-admirable work, which we would recommend to the serious perusal of all who wish to see the question treated in a calm, sound, scriptural manner. • The difference between the system of Dr Wardlaw and that of the scriptures is this: Dr Wardlaw teaches that the atonement was a display; the scriptures represent it as a reality. The atonement, according to the former, is nothing better than a make-believe, a show, a shadow of justice without the substance. And I trust that Dr Wardlaw will himself be brought to view the language which he has used, in regard to the justice of God and the atonement of Christ, with humiliation and sorrow.'
Indep. When we come to examine your system we will see whether as many objections cannot be stated to it. Do you really think that it is more clear and satisfactory?
Orig. Sec. The old view of the matter illuminates the whole subject in its relations to the other doctrines of the gospel. It shows the necessity of our Redeemer being God, because he alone could satisfy the claims of infinite justice. It shows the propriety of his being man, in order that it might be possible to establish a relation betwixt him and those for whom he was substituted. It shows the necessity of his coming to the world, that God might be glorified on the earth, where sin had so signally dishonoured him. And above all, and as the crowning excellence of the christian scheme, in opposition to the new theology, thereby the integrity of the divine character is perfectly preserved. The essential justice of his nature having been satisfied"; in pardoning sin, he performs, not merely a merciful act, but a just When magnifying his mercy, we can yet say,
“O righteous Father!' and exult in our privileges all the more that his character is unsullied by our salvation. Even pardon, even acceptance, even heaven would be less delightful if God, in granting them, should have recourse to anything that was not strictly and perfectly just. If Christ satisfied the claims of divine justice_if he endured the whole penalty which it had denounced against transgression, then here is sure ground on which to plant the foot of faith. IN CHRIST God is just, and being united to Christ by faith, God is as just in pardoning us as he would have been just in punishing us, if we had remained unbelievers. This is the foundation of the gospel. It rests not on mercy, it rests not on wisdom, it rests not on love; it rests on the adamantine rock of everlasting justice. God is as just in saving a believer in Christ as he is in accepting the persons of angels who never fell. “This stone which the builders are rejecting, God hath made the head stone of the corner.' Unsettle not this stone, this tried stone, this sure foundation ;' for it is the only refuge of distressed souls—the only asylum of trembling and guilt-laden sinners. And how admirably adapted is it to the case of such! A holy God, in perfect consistency with his character, can receive them into favour—he can pardon them, and yet be just—he can receive them into heaven, and yet, when they enter, they can join the song of those that are within - Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God of hosts!'
RELIGIOUS AND MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE.
EUROPE-FRANCE. Synod of the Reformed Church. The labours of this assembly, which commenced its sittings on the 11th of September last, were brought to a close on the 7th of Oct. Much of the interest that was at one time excited by the sittings of this assembly has passed away. Still, it may not be uninteresting to our readers to know that they have resulted, on the one hand, in the formation of a Free Church, which has already appointed its committee, consisting of the Rev. Frederic Monod, M. Agenor de Gasparin, Rev. Armand Delisle, and M. de Dimont; and upon the other, in a plan of organisation for the Synod at large, consisting of sixty-six articles, which is to be addressed to the Government, in order to obtain its sanction. Much diversity of
opinion has been expressed as to the cbaracter of this new plan of organisation. • Some view it,' says a correspondent of Evangelical Christendom, as perfectly evangelical, others, as nothing of the kind; some declare that it is altogether at variance with christianity; many members of the Synod are dissatisfied with it, as being false and hypocritical. On this account, the Rev. Adolphe Monod, and - Bastie, Evangelicals, have refused to sign it, as also the Rev. Martin Paschoad, and Montandon, Rationalists. In fact, it sets forth the cardinal verities of the faith, but in such a form, as to be deprived of their force by the phraseology in which they are presented, or evaded by the employment of passages of scripture understood in different senses.' In the meantime, the
evangelical party have also issued a provisional confession of faith, drawn up by M. M. Frederic Monod and De Gasparin, which has been embodied in an address to the French Protestants.
GERMANY. Conference of evangelical ministers at Wittenberg.-An assembly, answering to this designation, and described in the circular calling it, as a free, brotherly conference on the present condition and future prospects of the evangelical church,' was recently held at Wittenberg, in Prussia. Its sittings lasted during three days, and its proceedings will be regarded with interest by the friends of truth everywhere. * There,' says the correspondent of Evangelical Christendom, amid the tombs of the early reformers, in the very same venerable Castle Church, to the walls of which were affixed Luther's famous ninety-five Theses, on the 31st October, 1517, a company of abore 500 brethren assembled on the 21st, 22d, and 23d of September, 1848. From the same pulpit whence, 350 years ago, Luther and Melancthon preached the scriptural doctrine of salvation by free grace, was testimony now borne to the same imperishable truths, and plans suggested for their revival and spread, by men who, in the 19th century, evince a desire to emulate the labours, and follow in the footsteps of those revered reformers. By this assembly which, both in character and in object, bears a close resemblance to the Evangelical Alliance, instituted nearly two years ago in this country, foreign missions were considered to be beyond the sphere of their confederation. Home missions, on the other hand, were regarded as having peculiar claims on their countenance and support. And upon a proposal being made that every individual, and scattered phase of their home mission which exists in isolated and separate forms throughout Germany, should henceforth be regarded as placed under the protection, and having a right to claim the furtherance of the Evangelical League, the meeting rose, as by simultaneous impulse, and with hands uplifted to heaven, pledged themselves to the adoption of the resolution.
Before the meeting separated, another resolution was proposed by Professor Hengstenberg, to the following effect :• That the Sunday following the
reformation anniversary, (the 31st October), consequently the 6th of November, should be observed throughout the evangelical churches as a day of fasting and humiliation, on account of present gloomy events.' To the
propriety of this resolution, all who were present cordially agreed, but decided to leare its adoption to the free, unbiased decision of the different pastors and congregations. • The pervading tone,' says Candidate Wichem, one of the members of the league, 'which spoke in all uttered sentiments, and found a harmonious echo in every breast, was the loud, heartfelt call to personal repentance, unity of faith, and a mutual stirring up to works of love towards the professing christian world.”
In accordance with the above resolution, an address, bearing the title, ' A call to Repentance, addressed to the hearts of all German brethren of the Evangelical Communion, by the Wittenberg Conference,' was prepared and published in several religious periodicals, and likewise circulated in a separate form. And in very many of the congregations throughout Germany this call was complied with. The excellent General Superintendent Nielson, in Schleswig, published an earnest exhortation to all the clergy within his spiritual bounds, to comply with so timely a recommendation, by setting apart a special service in all their churches for the purpose of humiliation and prayer. Very nearly at the same time there appeared a printed circular from Frederic, Count Armin, dated Berlin, the 16th of September, in which he expresses his deep conviction that the present distracied state of Prussia is a judgment from God on account of sin, but more especially on account of the supine neglect of all general effort for the evangelisation of that large mass of the population who, while bearing the christian name, deny the power of christianity not only in works, but in words.' Meetings of a similar character with the Wittenberg Conference, both in spirit and design, have been held in Holstein, Gnadau, Königsberg, Leipsic, and many other places, at all of which several hundreds attended.
PRUSSIA. Mission to the Jews in Berlin.--Here, as at other places on the continent of Europe, the operations of the mission to the Jews have been interrupted and retarded by the convulsed state of the Prussian capital, while the Jewish proselytes, already nambered as converts to the faith of the gospel, have been placed in circumstances of peculiar temptation. Since March,' says the Rev. E. Schwartz, of the Free Church of Scotland, 'all Jewish proselytes are allowed to become Jews again, if they choose; and some wretched people have availed themselves of the permission given, partly enticed
by the entreaties of their Jewish relatives,
ASIA-INDIA. partly because they hope to be more assisted Missions of the Free Church of Scotland by their Jewish brethren, as the Jews fre- at Calcutta, &c.—From Calcutta the Rev. quently provide well for such apostates.' Dr Duff, in a letter dated September 7, • Four persons,' he adds, in another part of his 1848, intimates the completion and opening letter, we have under instruction-three of the Free Church in that city. “As reyoung men and one female, of respectable gards our missions,' he adds, 'all things standing, and rather in a promising state of are quietly, but effectively progressing.' mind; and as no external motives can ia- From Puna the Rev. J. Mitchell, in a duce them to become christians, we may letter to the Convener, of date Sept. 29, hope the more that it is a real desire of says,— On Sabbath last, the 24th inst., their souls to know the truth.'
I baptized, in presence of the native church,
and several Brahmins and others from the TURKEY.
city, one of my inquirers, named Káwaji, Mission to the Jews in Constantinople- who is employed as a peon in the city Half-yearly Report of the Mission School police. He is a respectable young man, at Galata. -The mission to the Jews at about twenty-five years of age, of a prethis station from the Free Church of Scot- possessing appearance, and a very thoughtland bas perhaps suffered less from the ful and serious turn of inind. He is mardistracting influences of revolutionary move- ried, and has one child. His wife is well ments than the other branches of their inclined, and he hopes that she may also missions to the house of Israel, especially soon come forward to ask admission into those in Hungary. Connected with the the church. He has a brother who has mission in Constantinople is the mission frequently attended divine worship with us, school in Galata, the half-yearly examina- and who also expresses a considerable intion of which was held in October last. terest in what he hears. They are all of * There were present at the examination,' the Mahar caste.' At Madras, the Free says the Rev. R. Koenig, in a letter to the Church Mission is in a state no less satisConvener, of date October 13, 1848, 'fifty- factory. “As regards the general work,' nipe children-twenty-six boys and thirty- says the Rev. J. Anderson, our institution three girls—most of whom had been at- and its branch schools continue in the same tending during the whole suminer. Five state of prosperity. There are about 1100 were admitted to the school but a few weeks pupils in them all, upwards of 700 being ago, three of whom came from Russia, and at Madras and Triplicane, under our own one of their number, a very promising boy, direct superintendence. It is a sowing was sent here by his parents for the sake time of great promise. Ten young native of shielding him from the hardships of christians, nine of them our own converts, Russian military service. The examination assist now in the daily work of the institubegan with praise, prayer, and a Bible tion. The outward prosperity, both as relesson from Luke xvii. 11-19. At the gards classes for native youths and girls, of close of an hour, in which the children had whom we have upwards of 200 at Madras been catechised about the story of the rich and Triplicane, and about 100 at the man and Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, little branch schools, is as great as at any former Sarah, after she had listened very atten- period. In one instance, however, at this tively, was asked, “Do you think that you station the missionaries have been sorely will be one day with Abraham and Laza- distressed by the apostacy of V.Narasimeyah,
“No," she answered in a low a young lad of twenty-one, and a Brahmin voice. And when asked again, “ Why ?” by caste. On account of improper conduct, she said, “I have a bad heart;” and many they found it to be their painful duty to of the children seemed to feel what she cut him off from the church. meant to say.'
DOMESTIC. MISSIONS OF THE ORIGINAL SECESSION the pleasure of seeing B- This is the CHURCH.
man of whom I have spoken often in my We resume our extracts from the journals preceding reports, and who has left his of the colporteurs employed by the Synod church from reading the word of God, and in connexion with the evangelical societies the good books which I have lent or sold of Geneva and Belgium :-
him. He told me that formerly he was 'I made a sale,' says P—, one of the not much persecuted, but that now the colportears, of some books, etc., after curè allows no opportunity to pass, either which I went on to V-, where I had by means of his wife or his friends, to dis