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too often considered as the characteristics of a disciple of Jesus ; whilst, amid all these deceitful appearances, justice, charity, and mercy, the great topics of Christ's admonitions, are entirely overlooked. Consult your bibles, and you will find that these are the sure indications of thc favour of heaven.

The spirit of this address becomes more bitter as he proceeds. •Who,' he exclaims, ' but laments to see the luminous truths of christianity invested thus with a veil of mysticism--to see the splendour of the Sun of Righteousness obscured in the mists of ignorance and superstition! Let us, my brethren, beware of such errors ; let us view such fanatical vagaries with the contempt they deserve, and walk in the certain path marked out to us by reason and scripture.' It is manifest from this extract that, to the whole system of doctrine indicated by the expressive epithet, 'Christ crucified,' he entertained the strongest dislike. He did not leave this to be inferred-he had the boldness publicly to denounce by name some of the most distinguished and venerated advocates of evangelical truth. He had found out in his visits that many of his people read and admired the writings of the Puritans of an earlier age, and the works of their successors of more recent times; and, therefore, leaning over the pulpit on one occasion, he said, “Many books are favourites with you, which, I am sorry to say, are no favourites of mine. When you are reading Newton's Sermons, and Baxter's Saint's Rest, and Doddridge's Rise and Progress, where do Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John go to !" In the disjunctive conjunction of these names, there is a curious and daring originality; and it is probably the only instance in which Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John have received a compliment at the expense of Newton and Doddridge.

For this outrage on truth, and on the names of the honoured and illustrious dead, a severe but touching rebuke awaited him. He was called, not long after, to see a younger brother, during the last days of his life. Consumption had almost done its work upon him, but death, though near and certain, had no terrors, and Thomas could not fail to be considerably disconcerted to find that the serenity and confidence of his dying relative were founded exclusively on the very doctrines which he so vehemently repudiated, and still more when he found himself constrained, by the request of that brother, to read to him daily a portion of the Sermons of John Newton. If any misgivings visited his mind, they must have made but faint impression, and been soon dismissed. He had occasion soon after to visit England. The journal he kept during that visit is still preserved. The extracts which follow display both the good and evil in his mind, and that the latter was mournfully predominant:

LIVERPOOL, Sunday, April 26, 1807.-Preached in the forenoon for Mr Kirkpatrick on the comforts of religion, and in the afternoon on drunkenness, the former with far more effect and impression than the latter. In the afternoon we met at three o'clock, after dinner, which has the effect of making both a drowsy preacher and a drowsy aadience. Mrs H. evidently reluctant in her testimony of approbation- disposed to overrate the deficiencies of manner and pronunciation, and asleep in the afternoon.'

To make the next extract understood, it is to be remembered that the law which abolished the trade in slaves had not yet been passed,

and that vessels still proceeded from British ports to the coast of Africa, to steal men, women, and children, and sell them as slaves in our Western colonies,

Monday, April 27.-Accompanied Mr M'C. to dine in the river with Captain Tacker, on board the Union Guineaman (slave ship.] We reached the vessel-she was going out of dock, where we proceeded to an anchorage about a mile and a balf off from Liverpool. We had the music of benevolence to drown all the relentings of nature, and ladies waved their handkerchiefs from the shore to sanctify what was infamous, and deck the splendid villany of the trade.'

What follows will show how a minister of the Church of Scotland in those days felt himself at liberty to spend the Lord's-day :

*London, Sunday, May 3.-Walked on London Bridge, round the Tower, along Cornhill and Cheapside to St Paul's, where I heard service. After dinner we sallied out to Westminster Bridge, Si James's Park, Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens, and returned by Oxford Street and Blackfriars' Bridge. Astonished at the display ; the dress, the carriages, and company, give a high idea of the wealth and extravagance of London.

Sunday, May 10.—The badness of the day prevented us from prosecuting any of our schemes. Walked out before dinner to Dulwich village, where we had the full view of a country enriched and adorned by the neighbourhood of the metropolis. After dinner, a round by Oxford Street. We returned by Blackfriars, where en passant we had an opportunity of hearing the delightful music in Rowland Hill's, and the roaring enthusiasm. of another preacher, whose sect was founded by a female mystic, Joanna Southcote. Sunday, May 17.-Went to the king's private chapel

, where, at half-past eight, I was gratified with the entrance of their Majesties and the Princess Elizabeth. His manner is devotional and unaffected. I heard them all repeat the service most distinctly; and was much pleased with their frank, casy, and benevolent appearance. The view of Twickenham was most charming. Pope's house was among the delightful residences that we gazed on with rapture from the opposite side. The river was enshrined with pleasureboats ; and the gay Londoa parties, walking and drinking tea on both sides, gave cheerfulness and animation to the prospect.

DURHAM, Sunday, May 31.-Started at seven, and walked to Bishop-Wearmouth. The country possesses no great or decisive features. The bridge over the Wear is an astonishing piece of workmanship. I got under it in a boat, and made my observations. Falling in with a man who drove a post-office gig, rode to South Shields. Crossed over to North Shields for twopence in a skuller. From North Shields I proceeded to Tynemouth, with which I was delighted; the east fragment of the Abbey is particularly beautiful. Sailed up the river to Newcastle.'

More than once in conversation, we have heard it objected against Dr Hanna that he has hardly, in any instance, appended an expression of regret or disapproval after such disclosures as the above. We have always dissented from this censure. The inspired memoir writers lie exposed to a similar charge ; and it is a part of the stock-in-trade of infidelity to attack the writers of the Old Testament on this very ground; and there are instances of a similar kind, or a near approach to it, in the New. Of the part which Saul of Tarsus took in the murder, of Stephen, it is simply said, “The witnesses laid down their clothes at a young man's feet, whose name was Saul,' and though it is afterwards said that Saul still breathed out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, it is but a historian's animated picture of a hotheaded persecutor.

It is left to the converted inquisitor himself, many years after, to empty his quiver of arrows, tipped with fire, against his former self, I was a persecutor, and a blasphemer, and injurious; and being exceedingly mad against them, I persecuted them into strange cities. The omission in either case, of formal epithets of

condemnation, allows the course of events to bring forth the disapproval with immensely greater effect from the lips and the conduct of the transgressors themselves, and tends greatly to enhance the force of the contrast.

The time was now near when that contrast was to be exhibited. A striking combination of events was made use of to accomplish the change. In the year 1809, he had been summoned to Anster to discharge the last duties to a greatly-beloved and venerated relative, who had been found dead in his chamber in the attitude of prayer. Two of his sisters appeared about the same time to be seized with the same fatal malady which had carried to the grave his lately-deceased brother. His attention had of late also been drawn to the opinions and characters of the christians of the earliest ages, and added to these appeals to his understanding and affections, he was, in the autumn of 1809, seized with an illness which confined him to his bed, or to his room, for upwards of four months. His days appeared to have been numbered. Eternity was made to stand full in his view. He himself believed that he was to die. For days and weeks he gazed on death brought thus so near with eye intent, and solemnised,— My confinement,' he writes to a friend, has fixed on my heart a very strong impression of the insignificance of time-an impression which, I trust, will not abandon me though I again reach the heyday of health and vigour. This should be the first step to another impression still more salutary-the magnitude of eternity. Strip human life of its connexion with a higher scene of existence, and it is the illusion of an instant, an unmeaning farce, a series of visions and projects, and convulsive efforts, which terminate in nothing. I have been reading Pascal's Thoughts on Religion : you know his historya man of the richest endowments, and whose youth was signalised by his profound and original speculations in mathematical science, but who could stop short in the brilliant career of discovery, who could resign all the splendours of literary reputation, who could renounce without a sigh all the distinctions which are conferred upon genius, and resolve to devote every talent and every hour to the defence and illustration of the gospel. This, my dear sir, is superior to all Greek and to all Roman fame.'

We have given at full length this first solemn utterance of the great orator. It may be viewed as the key-note to all that he afterwards said and did. From this point the volume acquires a new and intenser interest; but our space is exhausted, and we postpone, to a subsequent number, the concluding portion of our notice.


The Synod of United Original Seceders commenced its deliberations on the evening of Monday, the 29th April, and continued its sittings till the forenoon of the following Friday. Thirty ministers and eighteen ruling elders were present, and five minis

ters absent, of whom three are located in Ireland. The Synod was opened by the former moderator, the Rev. George M'Crie, of Clola, with an appropriate sermon from Psalm xliii. 3, 0 send out thy light and thy truth.' The Rev. James Meek, of

Carnoustie, was unanimously chosen moderator for the present year. It was reported that the Rev. John Paston, formerly of Kirriemuir, bad been inducted to the pastoral charge of the Campbell Street Congregation, Glasgow, and that the Rev. James M'Lean had demitted his charge of the congregation of Kirkwall; also, that Mr Sommerville and Mr Simpson had been licensed since last meeting of Synod. A petition against the Marriage Affinity Bill, and also a petition for the suppression of post-office labour on the Lord's-day, were unanimously adopted by the Synod.

The minutes of the joint committee of the Original Secession and the Reformed Presbyterian Synods, embodying four propositions drawn up by that committee, were read; and after a lengthened discussion of these propositions, and the adoption of some alterations, the committee of the Original Secession Synod was re-appointed to meet with the committee of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod, for the further consideration of the whole matter. It was further proposed and agreed to, as a step likely to facilitate union, that a request be communicated to the Reformed Presbyterian Synod, that arrangements may be made for both synods having their next meeting in the same town, ard, at the same time, that they may have a friendly conference upon the propositions prepared by the joint committee.

An overture, subscribed by Mr William M'Crie and other members of Davie Street Session, was read. Among other things, it proposed that the Synod consider the present position, principles, and prospects of the body, and whether negotiation for union with the Free Church of Scotland, on terms honourable to truth, and consistently with the principles held by Original Seceders, ought not, under existing circumstances, to be renewed and prosecuted by the Synod.

Mr W. M'Crie, in supporting the overture, spoke at great length. We deeply regret that it is impossible to furnish our readers with an outline of the speech which he delivered, furnishing as it did the key to the true character of the discussions on which we have entered. He dwelt chiefly on the desirableness of union, and the evils of division, commenting, in severe terms, on the conduct of the resolutioners and protesters, and regretting that the Secession had not profited by their example. He then recommended union, on the plan of the various evangelical parties agreeing to come together without any change of sentiments, in the way of forbearing one another, or agreeMr Shaw, in order that it might be so more fully, that he should add the clanse, ‘it being understood that all negotiations which may be entered into proceed upon the basis of the instructions formerly given to the committee for correspondence with the Free Church Mr Aitken declared himself ready to withdraw his motion, in favour of that of Mr Shaw, with the addition that had been proposed. Mr Shaw expressed personally his willingness to the addition, but Dr M Crie and others having expressed reluctance to its being admitted, and it being declared on all hands that these instructions were still binding as much as if they were included in the motion, Mr White, with the concurrence of Mr Aitken, withdrew his proposal, and Mr Thomson's motion was also withdrawn. Mr Shaw's motion was now the only one before the house, but an amendment, simi. lar to the addition proposed by Mr White, was again brought forward by Mr Sterenson, and being seconded, was put to the vote, when twenty-five voted for Mr Shaw's motion, and seventeen for that of Mr Stevenson—Mr Aitken, and some others favourable to the addition as originally proposed, voting for Mr Shaw's. The Synod accordingly decided in terms of Mr Shaw's motion, against which decision the Rev. George Stevenson, the Rev. Archd. Brown, and John Nichol, ruling elder, craved to have their dissent marked.

ing to differ, and propounded the latitudinarian scheme of union as broadly and undisguisedly as ever we heard it announced, or can conceive of it being done. He deprecated argumentative discussion on points of difference, as being hostile to union, charged ministers with being generally the riogleaders in controversy, and ridiculed those who howled around the tombs of the martyrs. He next commented, at consiđerable length, on the new views which, he said, Seceders had obtained respecting the Revolution Settlement—that formerly the Revolution had been regarded with gratitude and respect by our fathers, but that of recent times it had been described as a gigantic act of Erastianism, as wholesale Erastianism, which was just the language of Dr Cook and the moderates. In fine, Mr M'Crie, while he expressed himself aware of the difficulties that stood in the way, recommended that immediate steps should be taken to promote a union with the Free Church.

Other individuals who subscribed the overture having been heard, the Rev. Mr Aitken of Aberdeen, father of the Synod, rose and addressed the house in a speech of great dignity, solemnity, and hallowed firmness, animated by a spirit of tenderness and christian conciliation-such a speech, in short, as we would rather have spoken than all the others which were delivered in the Synod put together. Mr Aitken fully accorded with the sentiments which had been put forth by Mr M'Crie, respecting the desirableness of union in general, and with the Free Church in particular; but wbile union was to be sought, truth was to be maintained, even though union should be sacrificed; though peace was to be cultirated, we were bound to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints, and the idea of parties coming together in the way of sinking their differences, would put an end to everything like a testimony for truth. He then stated the various steps which had been taken by the Original Secession, since the Disruption, to obtain union with the Free Church, showed that the Synod had done all to promote this object that could possibly be expected at their hands, that the backwardness seemed to be on the part of the Free Church, they having dismissed their committee of correspondence with us, while we had one still in existence ready to correspond with them, and that, therefore, the Synod was not called on to take any step, in the way of proposing further negotiations, till a committee was appointed by the Free Church, and that to do otherwise


A statement being made in behalf of the congregation at Toberdony, in Ireland, that the roof of their church had been blown off, and that they solicited the aid of other congregations to enable thern to make the necessary repairs, the Synod agreed in recommending that a collection be made for this purpose by all the congregations in the body.

Read an overture from the Session of Clola, which lamented that no object of sufficient interest to maintain the united exertion of our congregations in raising funds for missionary purposes has been proposed ; and prayed the Synod to provide that a definite sum should be allocated to the Foreign Mission Committee of the Free Church, for the support of a native missionary in India, who, being in communication with our church, would be a distinct object of interest and sympathy to us all. It was moved by Mr George M'Crie, and seconded by Mr Auld, that this overture be adopted. It was also moved by Mr White, and seconded by Mr Shaw, that Dr Duff be requested to meet with the Mission Committee of this Synod, at an open meeting, which all members shall be invited to attend, to ascertain whether we could have an agent in India,

would show a want of due self-respect, and be calculated to awaken the suspicion among our people that we were resiling from our principles. This is a correct representation of some of the principal sentiments contained in Mr Aitken's speech ; but it gives no idea of the fine union by which it was characterised, of wisdom without guile, decision without one taint of harshness, and of the purest and most catholic charity, without one tinge of effeminate softness, or of that detestable neutrality,' so often bepraised under the heavenly names of charity and liberality, though in reality it be selfishness the most intense. Mr Aitken moved, to the effect, that the Synod was not called on to take any step, in the meantime, to re-open negotiations with the Free Church, and that to do so might be construed into a resiling from our principles. The conclusion of Mr Aitken's speech having been received with strong marks of approbation, it was stated that such expressions of feeling were contrary to the practice permitted in the court, and the moderator desired the audience to abstain from this in future, which was done, except in one case, where a speaker inadvertently appealed to them as judges. Mr Aitken's motion having been seconded by Mr Manson, and one or two others having addressed the house, Mr Thomson of Dundee delivered a very long and very animated speech, setting forth his views on all these questions. We did not fully understand the import of Mr Thom. son's speech, and could not venture to give a correct statement of his sentiments. He concluded by moving, to the effect, that the prayer of the overture be granted, as almost all, if not all, the grounds of separation had been removed. The debate was at this point, owing to the lateness of the hour, adjourned till next evening. On its being re-opened, Mr Shaw proposed a third motion, which was in these words : That while sympathising with the spirit of the overture, so far as it manifests a desire for union with all the friends of the Covenanted Reformation, and particularly with the Free Church of Scotland, the Synod do not judge that it would conduce to that object to renew, at present, negotiations with that church; and as there is a committee already existing for carrying on pondence with

other churches, in reference to union, leave it to that committee to renew correspondence with the Free Church, if a favourable opportunity occur.' Mr White expressed his conviction that this motion was in accordance with the general sentiments of the Synod, and suggested to


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