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amount of positive benefit in his district as beyond calculation. Another referred to an instance of serious conviction awakened in the mind of a Jewish gentleman, by his attendance at the last anniversary of the society. He also told of a dear child to whom he had given and explained the New Testament, avowing, in the presence of her Jewish parents, her love to Jesus, just before her spirit took its flight; and of an eminently pious christian lady, by birth a daughter of Abraham, first led to prayerful inquiry by the scriptural, persuasive eloquence of a little boy, a collector for this society. The female scripture reader found great cause for encouragement. Thirty persons had subscribed for and purchased, and ten more were subscribing for, the entire scriptures; twenty-six Jewish females regularly attended her bible class; and seren more families were willing to be visited, and let their children attend once or twice a-week. The past year had closed the educational course of the first students in the Missionary College. One had withdrawn a few months ago to pursue medical studies, but still with a view of devoti:g himself to the spiritual good of his brethren.
Six of them having given entire satisfaction to their tutors, and individually expressed their solemn resolution to dedicate their lives to the cause of their brethren, had been publicly set apart as missionaries, and were now engaged in the work. The college was again opened, and had received fonr students. From abroad, Mr Stern reported that five persons had been baptised at Frankfort during the year. Mr Gottheil presented the most urgent motives for strengthening the mission in Germany. He had established a monthly periodical, translated and distributed a number of the society's tracts, and disposed of 799 copies of the Holy Seriptures. He earnestly appealed for a mission to the 670,000 Jews in the Austrian empire. The opening year would of necessity be one of increased expenditure, as the committee would have to provide for the support of about twenty agents, in addition to the eight students expected to replace those who had left the college. The resources of the past year had not diminished, except in a few instances, where the failure, it was hoped, would be only temporary.
EXTENT OF DRINKING IN SCOTLAND. A PARLIAMENTARY paper, moved for by Mr Alderman Humphrey, shows that the number of licensed brewers in the United Kingdom, in the year ending on the 10th of October, 1849, was 2507—the number of licensed victuallers 88,496—the number of such victuallers who brew their own beer 26,166—the number of bushels of malt consumed by brewers 19,658,052– the number consumed by victuallers 7,067,166.
The following table will show the number of licensed brewers and licensed victuallers in each excise collection in Scotland, with the number of bushels of malt consumed by each class :
who brew their sumed by sumed by tuallers.
brewers. victuallers. Aberdeen,
49,587 3,624 Argyll (North)
243 Argyll (South)
54,447 2,022 Caithness,
21,510 668 Glasgow,
3,337 2,423 Linlithgow,
13,923 7,209 Montrose,
15,702 35,408 Perth,
61,099 14,413 Edinburgh,
15,081 181 764,813 106,743 The number of licensed brewers in Ireland was 96—of licensed victuallers, 14,080—bushels of malt consumed by brewers, 1,204,875.
ORIGINAL SECESSION MAGAZINE.
JULY, 18 5 0.
PAUL BY NATURE, AND PAUL BY GRACE.
It is very difficult for a man to speak or write much about himself without injuring his humility. Hence, wise and good men are generally found to have little to say on the topic. If, however, we look into the writings of the apostle Paul, we will find that he very frequently speaks about himself; and yet it is remarkable that, notwithstanding these repeated references to his own experience and history, his humility rather seems to grow upon us than to be injured. The reason of this is, that he never speaks of himself unless for the purpose ef exalting Christ, and extolling the exceeding riches of free and sovereign grace manifested in his conversion. Of the manner of these references to himself, we have a striking example in the third chapter of the epistle to the Philippians: “If any other man thinketh that he hath whereof he might trust in the flesh, I more: circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee; concerning zeal, persecuting the church; touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless. But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord : for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, and be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith.
In the above passage we bare a compend of Paul's inward life and progress. He is here drawn in his twofold character—Paul by nature, and Paul by grace; Paul as a christian, and Paul as a Jew; Paul as standing on mount Sinai, and Paul as come to mount Zion, the city of the living God; Paul as the fanatical champion of Judaism, and Paul as the ardent, and devoted, and heroic soldier of Jesus Christ.
First, we have an account of his attainments and privileges in his unconverted state. These were all that could be desired in a Jew, He was á circumcised the eighth day, and was, therefore, from infancy externally in covenant with God. He was • of the stock of Israel, and not a proselyte from among the Gentiles. lle was • of the tribe of Benjamin, and therefore descended from one of those two tribes who
continued loyal to the house of David, and faithful to the service of God, when the other ten became disloyal and idolatrous. He was
an Hebrew of the Hebrews;' not a Hebrew by affinity, or by naturalisation, in consequence of his family having long resided in the country, but because he was of the pure, genuine, ancient Hebrew race, both by father and mother. “As touching the law, he was a Pharisee.' He belonged to the strictest sect of religionists among the Jews, and the one which had the highest reputation for godliness. And he was not an indifferent, torpid adherent of the faith of his renowned forefathers, but pre-eminent for zeal: Concerning zeal, persecuting the church.' In respect to moral conduct and the observance of religious ceremonies, he was unblameable and irreprovable: Touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless.' Here was a goodly array of qualifications: the very paragon of a professor of Judaism. How many have attempted to build for eternity on a less likely foundation—to ascend to heaven by a ladder that had fewer steps ? And there was a time when Paul gloried in his attainments. sooner, however, did he get a discovery of Christ and of his surpassing excellence and unsearchable riches, than the glory of Phariseeism was eclipsed; all that he had been and done appeared empty, beggarly, and vile; self was dethroned and Christ exalted in its place; and all things appeared as nothing in comparison with the glorifying and enjoying of Christ : What things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. Yca doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord; for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, and be found in him.'
It is evident, from the first glance at these words, and from the most superficial view of this apostle's history, that a very great change took place upon his character. He was not simply an altered man; he was a new man. What things were once gain to him, became loss.' His thoughts, and feelings, and plans, and conduct were entirely reversed. The dispositions of his inner man were made
He believes what he once rejected, and rejects what he once believed; he hates what he once loved, and loves supremely what he once hated with implacable hatred; he adores the name which he once blasphemed, burns with unquenchable zcal to diffuse that gospel which he once persecuted; and those objects for which he once · lived, and moved, and had his being,' are of no more value in his estimation than mire upon the streets. Nerer in the history of the human mind was there a change more remarkable in its character, or more memorable in its results. From being the brightest ornament, and the ablest and most devoted champion of Judaism, he became the most eminent defender of christianity, and the most illustrious human pattern that has ever appeared of the united grace and grandeur of the christian spirit. If the lion had become a lamb~if the vulture had been suddenly transformed into a dove, when about to seize its m-if the mighty river in the Western World had been made to re-ascend the cataract of Niagara, and flow backwards,—the change would have been less wonderful, than when the proud, selfish,
aspiring, malignant, vindictive Pharisee was transformed into the humble, generous, disinterested, self-denied, and devoted follower of Christ and friend of the human race.
And a similar change all must undergo; not, perhaps, so remarkable, circumstantially, but a change essentially the same, according to the measure of our stature. • If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature.' It is not enough that our conduct is altered; it is not enough that our faculties are cultivated; it is not enough that our passions are under control: our nature must be changed in its most interior and radical departments. Old things must pass away, and all things become new.' We do not require to get new faculties, but to get new dispositions to animate these faculties. We do not require more powerful faculties, but to have the power already possessed fixed upon other objects, and made to act in another direction. We must get new views of God and of ourselves, of time and of eternity, of the world and the Saviour. We must get new desires, new hopes, new fears, new feelings. We must hate what we loved, and love what we hated; we must renounce what we desired, and deny ourselves to that in which we delighted; instead of looking down upon the earth, we must • lift up our eyes to heaven. The reality and necessity of such a change is much insisted on in the word of God. This is the turning-point of the soul's immortal destiny—the commencement of vital godliness ;—without it there can be no true religion ; without it there can be no meetness for the state of everlasting felicity. And yet instead of this inward, radical, thorough change, how slight, and superficial, and trivial those reformations with which, it is to be feared, the greater number of professors rest contented! A little restraint upon their passions, a mere keeping within the limits of sobriety and decency in their conduct, a form of godliness, without its power, lamps without oil, profession without practice, is all that most men seem concerned about. But this will not do. It is not thus easily that men can escape from Satan, or be prepared for heaven. Paul was better than this while unconverted. He was honest, upright, sober, and showed the most laudable punctuality, and the most painful assiduity, and the most burning zeal in his religion; and yet, after all, he required to be created again in Christ Jesus; and we must be created again, be renewed in the spirit of our mind, or we cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven.
It was not merely a change that took place in Paul's speculative views, but a change in his will, a change in the choice of his soul, a change in regard to the chief end of his existence. His language is not, “What was my creed formerly, has ceased to be my creed now; I ceased to be a Pharisee, and made a profession of the christian religion.' No, his words are, ' rhut things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ.' His mind was changed in regard to that in which the gain or chief end of the soul consisted. Formerly he thought he could only serve God aright, and secure his own happiness by observing the requirements of the Jewish law, by defending the principles of the Jewish faith, and endeavouring to extirpate its opponents. This was his hope, this was his gain, this the traffic, by carrying on which, with great ability and industry, he expected to realise immense wealth in the sight of God. At that time he saw nothing estimable in Christ—no glory in his person, no safety in bis mediation, no wisdom in his gospel, and nothing but ignominy in his cross. Now, however, all is changed: a complete revolution has taken place upon his inner man: Christ has taken possession of his soul, and he now sees inconceivable excellence in his person, unsearchable riches in his grace, and glory unspeakable in his cross. His whole course of life is altered. Christ is now the grand predominating object which fills his eye, and fires his heart, and animates his conduct, and is the end of his existence. "To me to live is Christ.' This was a most enlightened change on the part of Paul. Thereby he placed his safety as a sinner on a sure foundation, and could say, "I know whom I have believed. Thereby he betook himself to God's plan for promoting the happiness of souls; and the end of his existence was thus brought into harmony with the plans and the purposes of God. And we have all gone out of the way, and require to be brought back again to the chief end of man. Let us not, therefore, rest content with a change of crecd; let us not rest content with a change of sentiment; let us not rest content with a charge of outward conduct. Let us seek to have an inward change in regard to our chief end; let us never rest content until we make the glory of Christ our chief' aim, and the enjoyment of God in Christ our supreme good. It is not enough that we look to Christ for our safety, if we look to the world as our gain. Christ must be our gain, Christ must be our riches, Christ must be our honour, or we have no part in his salvation. To know him, to confide in him, to serve him, to love him, to be like him now, and to be with him for ever, these are, to the christian, what wealth is to the covetous man; what sensual delights are to the lovers of pleasure; what power is to the votary of ambition. Christ is the object of his ruling passion, of his supreme desire.
It is not enough that we make this profession in words. If we have such principles within us, they will lead to practical results. The may assent to the doctrine that Christ ought to be the supreme good of the soul, and yet we may be clinging to the world, and every year may be bringing it nearer and nearer to our bosoms; and it is a melancholy thing when high erangelical sentiments are found united with a worldly disposition--a sad thing when Christ is in the head, while Mammon in the heart sits exalted as on a throne of state, Wherever Christ is seen, and felt, and believed to be the chief good, it will be productive of great practical results—it will, to the individual, “ turn the world upside down.' Such was the effect produced on the mind of Paul. So soon as he became acquainted with Christ, all things in which he formerly glorice were renounced, and thrown away as worthless, for the Saviour's sake: “What things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. These are seafaring terms, The word rendered gain signifies that kind of gain which is obtained hy trading; or rather the rich commodities which constitute the cargo of a merchantman, and from the sale of which he expects to realise much gain. The word loss signifies loss incurred in trade, and more