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The philosophical and poetical pantheist, rude materials, but no building to dwell the worshipper of nature, opens his eyes in. Pantheism shows us a beautiful only half-way; and amidst the many mansion, but the sight is melancholy; we lovely “dreams that wave before the half- have no desire to enter the building, for it shut eye,” he refuses to gaze upon the still is without an inhabitant; there is no lovelier, but more dazzling image of a warm heart to beat, and no just mind to holy God. The victim of superstition rule, in these large but tenantless halls. opens and shuts his eyes by turns, opens Superstition gives us a strangely-formed them when there is anything to alarm or fabric, such as the eye shapes in the please, and shuts them against all that darkness of night out of objects impermight enlighten the reason, or mould the fectly seen; it peoples that mansion with character after the image of a perfect God. pale ghosts and horrid spectres, possessed True faith opens the eyes, and keeps of awful power, but power often used fothem fully directed upon the glorious evil rather than good. True faith intror works of nature, and wonderful events of duces us into a large, and stately, and providence, till they rise in glowing admi- well-constructed mansion, and tells of a ration to the perception of a light ever holy and benignant inhabitant within, shining, with unchanged and unchangeable who no doubt restrains and punishes evil, lustre, upon a universe rejoicing in its but rejoices also in all that is pure and beams; and they continue to gaze till lovely. "dazzled by excess of light,” they shut • Atheism is a system cold, and damp, themselves in holy meditation and devout and dark as the place of the dead. Panadoration.
theism gives us illusions which“ serve to * The atheist would extinguish, if he alleviate nothing, to solve nothing, to could, all the lights in the universe, and illuminate nothing; they are vapours leave us in utter darkness. The pantheist which may indeed show bright and gaudy would blot out at least the sun from the colours when seen at a great distance, heavens, and leave only the lovely, it may
but in the bosom of which, if one enters, be, but lesser lights of nature, which there is nothing but chill and gloom.” make the night beautiful, but leave no Superstition shows a strange land of room for free and fearless action. The mingled light and darkness, with scenes superstitious man would leave in the ever shifting with the capricious temper heavens the dazzling meteor and the of those who rule over them without piercing lightning, and would kindle all grace and without dignity, who are now along the surface of the earth glaring and sportive and now revengeful, but never lurid fires, not dispelling but colouring just and never benevolent, while those the darkness, and disposing men now to subjected to their power alternate between ecstatic action, and now to prostrating wild merriment and excruciating misery. helplessness. True religion would rejoice True faith opens our eyes on a world on in all the lights which God has given and which, no doubt, there rests a mysterious would kindle no others, that man in fear, cloud, rising from the damps of sin, but but still in confidence and love, may per- above which there is a luminary shining form the duties which providence has with bright and steady beams, and before allotted to him.
which that cloud must at last fade away and • Atheism gives nis nothing to rest on disappear, and leave a land of perpetual but unconscious matter and blind fate, calm and never-ending light.'
RELIGIOUS AND MISSIONARY INTELLIGENCE.
Free Church.-General Assembly of the Free Church met at Edinburgh in Tanfield Hall, Canonmills, on the 23d of May. The Sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr Mackay, of Dunoon. Reports were presented to the Assembly on the various schemes of the church, which give the
following results in the amounts received during the past year :-Sustentation fund, £89,648 17s 10d; building fund, £52,608 11s 114d; congregational fund, £77,589 12s 91d; missions and education, £11,604 ls id; miscellaneous, £45,170 16s 5 d. Total, £306,622 Os 17d. From the
financial statement of the missionary The amount collected during the past schemes, it appears that the purely mission- year is £515 4s 3d. The principal field ary funds of the church had, during the of their missionary labours is in China. past year, increased upwards of £3,000; Besides the Rev. W. C. Burns, their first while the total funds of the church, for all missionary to that empire, a second mispurposes, had increased, during the same sionary to China has been chosen--Dr period, upwards of £30,000. The total James Young of Hong-Kong, who is at amount raised by the Free Church since present prosecuting his preparatory studies. the Disruption is now £2,172,135 16s 3d. The synod has also a mission to the
The United Presbyterian Church held Jews at Corfu, conducted very much upon its annual meeting at Edinburgh, on the the plan of the Free Church mission to 6th of May. Sermon by the Rev. James India-by means of schools. The proMeikle of Beith, from Rev. xxi. 9. The spects there are encouraging, though the whole contributions to the mission funds, number of actual conversions has hitherto home and foreign, during the year have been small. The amount collected for been £14,059; while the expenditure has the Corfu Mission is £180 9s 6d. Total been £15,342, leaving a deficiency of for missions, £695 13s 9d. £1,283. The sum expended on home operations is £3,613. The returns from LONDON—THE Mar MEETINGS. From eighty-seven supplemented congregations, a carefully-prepared epitome of the May show that they have raised during the Meetings for this year, presented in a late year £7,276, being an average yearly
number of the Christiun Times, we select contribution for each member of 15s 4d. the following, as the most iateresting in Foreign mission stations in Canada, their statistical details :Jamaica, Trinidad, Old Calabar and Asylum for Idiots, 29 Poultry— InstiPersia.
tuted in 1847, for the care and education of Reformed Presbyterian Church met at idiots, especially among the young. Income, Edinburgh, in the Rev. Mr Goold's £4,700 ; expenditure, £4,300. Patients, Church, on the evening of Monday, May 96. Fifteen additional patients elected out 6th, at six o'clock. Sermon by the Rev. of a list of 170 candidates, of whom no less Dr Andrew Symington, from Zech. iv. than 51 were orphans. 14. Besides the ministerial support fund Baptist Missionary Society, 33 Moorgateand the synod fund, reports were pre
street. Founded in 1792.
Receipts, sented to the synod regarding the mis- £19,736; expenditure, £19,632 ; debt, sionary operations, home and foreign, of £6,357. In order to keep the expenditure the church. From the treasurer's accounts within the income, large reductions have it appears that the receipts for missionary been made in the operations in India, Ceypurposes during the past year were- lon, and Africa. The field of labour inHome Mission, £80; Foreign Missions, cludes Asia, western coast of Africa, France, £252 16s 4d; Continental Mission, £135 and the islands of the Western Sea. 6s 91d; Jewish Mission, £76 4s 6}d.
Missionaries, 48, with their wives and 9 Total for Missions, £544 7s 8d.
females, engaged in the special department We are informed that the Reform.ed of education. Native agents, 120; other Presbyterian Synod, at their late meeting, Christian brethren, 180; and 30 school. re-appointed their committee of correspon
masters. Stations and sub-stations, 194. dence with the Synod of United Original In Hindi, 4,500; in Hindustani, Persian, Seceders, and agreed to respond to the and Bengali, 62,500; in Sanscrit, 7,500 request of the latter Synod, that arrange- copies of the whole or part of the Bible have ments should be made for the two Synods been printed. There are at present in meeting next year in the same town, and fellowship, in India and Ceylon, 1,962; in at the same period; but, not being aware Africa and the West Indies, 3,007, exclusthat the Synod of United Original Seceders ire of Jamaica ; making an increase of 188 are to hold their next meeting at Edinburgh, converts during the year. College of Monthe Reformed Presbyterian Synod appointed treal, Canada, closed. Institution at Cala. their next meeting to be held in Glasgow, bar, Jamaica, entirely successful. on the Monday after the fourth Sabbath of Baptist Home Mission.--Receipts, £4,521 April, 1851.
10s 2d; expenditure, £4,523 lös 8d; Presbyterian Church of England.--The debt, £432 5s 6d. Missionaries and foreign inission fund of the Presbyterian grantees, 107; assisted by 200 gratuitous Church in England seems to be in a pro- * fellow- helpers to the truth. Stations, sperous condition-a considerable balance 300. Hearers, 23,000. Sabbath-schools, still remaining in the treasurer's hands. 113. Teachers, 1,154, and 7,600 scholars.
539 persons were baptized and added to the Mission Churches during the year.
Baptist Irish Society.--Founded 1814. The income of this society has more than equalled its expenditure during the present year ; so that the debt is reduced from £1,670 85 60 to £1,606 13s 2d. During the thirty-six years of its existence 600,000 children have been educated by it.
Baptist Theological Institution for Scotland. - 4th session. Students, 9. Experises during past year, £150.
British and Foreign Bible Society, 10 Earl-street, Blackfriars.- Formed in 1804, for the exclusive parpose of promoting the circulation of the Scriptures. Income, £91,634 12s 7d; expenditure, £97,246 2s Od. Issues from the depository at home, 783,203 copies ; from depositories abroad, 353,492 copies : total, 1,136,695. Languages or dialects directly assisted, 85; indirectly, 59. Versions, 166. Translations never before printed, 114. Bible societies in connexion, 4,211.
British Vissions, viz.—The Home Missionary Society. Founded 1819. Income, £6,159 7s 8d; expenditure, £6,360 4s 4d; increase in receipts over last year, £286 8s 1d. Agents or missionaries, 116; lay-preachers, 100; bearers, 41,000; Sunday-school teachers, 1,652; scholars, 12,700. Chapels or preaching-rooms, 450, scattered amidst 440 towns, villages and hamlets.-2. Irish Evangelical Society. Founded 1814. Income, £2,791 15s 7d; expenditure, £3,325; debt, £1,352. Pastors and missionaries reduced from 27 to 24 ; and scripture readers and teachers from 26 to 16 in number.-3. The Colonial Society. Founded 1836. Receipts, £2,765 10s 8d; expenditure, £2,677 14s 5d. Agents and separate stations, 37. Its operations are carried on in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Canadas, New South Wales, the Australias, and Van Dieman's Land, among men of the Anglo-Saxon race, who are forming empires, and laying the foundations of free, numerous, and evangelical churches.
Church Missionary Society. — Founded 1800. Income, £104,273 ; increase in receipts from legacies, £3,270; decrease in public contributions, £662; and in the remittances from local associations, £1,642. Espenditure, £83,710. Missionary institution at Islington in a very satisfactory state. Ordained missionaries, 147; European Catechists, secretaries, printers, &c., 27; attendants on christian worship throughout the several stations, about 107,000; communicants, 13,551; children under christian education, about 40,000; baptisms during past year, 5,554; increase of communicants, 543.
Points of special interest:-Home, opening of the Missionaries' Children's Home, 15 admitted; Sierra Leone, opening of a large new church in Freetown, and occupation of a new station, Wilberforce; Yoruba, increase of converts, and their constancy and faith, severe persecution ; Mediterranean, openings for missionary operations in Syria; East Africa, missionary tours and discoveries in the Interior; Western India, preparation of natives for the ministry, and proposed mission in Scinde; China, sailing of the Bishop of Victoria, with a reinforcement of four missionaries; New Zealand, increase of converts; and in North-west America, arrival of the Bishop of Rupert's-land.
Foreign Aid Society. -Established 1840. Income, £2,506 11s 3d; decrease on last year's receipts, £357 78 4d. The object of this society is to collect funds in aid of the Societes Evangeliques of France and Geneva, and such other institutions as may be formed on similar principles within the limits of the French Protestant Churches; and generally to promote the religious principles of the Reformation beyond those limits on the continents and islands of Europe. In the Genevan district there are 21 stations, 26 evangelists, and other agents; and the Societe Evangelique de France has been assisted to maintain 27 ministers of the gospel, 8 colporteurs-evangelists, 34 school teachers, and to provide for 30 students in their training institution. To the Societe Centrale Protestante de France £100 was voted last year, and to the Societe d'Evangelisation of Lyons, £200.
London Missionary Society --Formed 1794. Income, including £11,776 contributed by the missionary churches towards their own support, £62,545 08 11d. Increase on last year, from receipts and reduction of expenditure, £2,024; expenditure this year, £64,489 9s 5d. Missionaries, 170; native agents, about 700. Stations in Polynesia, West Indies, South Africa, China, India. Translations--the New Testament and Psalter in Sitchuana, translated by Robert Moffat; the New Testament in Malagassy, by Griffiths, Freeman, and their now departed brethren in Madagascar; in Samoan, by the missionaries collectively now labouring in that island; in Rarotongan by the lamented John Williams; and fifth, both the Old and New Testament in Tahitian, originally by Nott, Davies, and others, and recently revised by Messrs Howe and Joseph. In China the scriptures have been translated, and are now sold in the Chinese language at the price of 3d sterling
London Society for Promoting Chris
tianity among the Jews.- Instituted 1808. union-houses, amounted to 657. The Income, £28,278 4s 10d ; increase over last issues from the depository during the year, £934 6s 6d; expenditure, £26,484 year have been 19,245,441, making the 14s 11d. Missionaries and missionary total circulation at home and abroad agents, about 80. In Palestine-place, amount to about 523,000,000, in about Bethnal-green, there are schools containing 110 languages. 100 children-50 boys and 50 girls; and a Society for the Propagation of the GosHebrew College, from which 19 students pel in Foreign Parts.--Incorporated 1701. have been appointed to stations in the east, Total income, exclusive of rents, diviof whom 9 are of the house of Israel. At dends, special funds, &c., for 1849, Jerusalein there is a House of Industry for £53,000; expenditure, for the British receiving converts and inquírers; and a dis- Colonies, £35,729; for heathen countries, pensary and hospital for sick and destitute £21,994; total, £57,723. The colonies Jews.
and dependencies of Great Britain are at Protestant Association. — Established present divided into 23 dioceses, in which 1836. Income £928 6s 4a. Expendi- the society's missionaries labour, 297 in ture, £908 12s 6d. Established to de- the British Colonies, and 50 in heathen fend the Protestant institutions in Church countries. In each of the North Ameriand State, its labours have been directed can Colonies a college for the education to oppose all measures believed to be and training of clergy is maintained, and fraught with danger to these institutions, to every one of them the society grants and to be hostile to the word of God. exhibitions for the support of candidates Besides more direct operations, 2,000,000 for holy orders. of books, tracts, and papers have been Sunday School Union.-Established printed and circulated, many of them 1803. Benevolent income, £1,269 133 gratuitously.
94d; expenditure, £1,251 9s 6d. Sales Ragged School Union. — Established to the 31st December, 1849, amounted to 1844. Income, subscriptions, which were £6,595 15s 8d, showing an increase of last year £338, now amount to £520; £174 9s 2d over the corresponding portion donations, £1,631 ; legacy left by the of the preceding year. In the four London late James Grant, £1,000; total, Auxiliary Unions-schools, 503; teachers, £3,131. Expenditure, £1,718. Schools, 10,207; scholars, 100,035. Total num94, showing an increase of 14 on last ber of schools, 623; teachers, 12,642; year. Voluntary teachers, 1,350; paid scholars, 123,949. The committee pubteachers, 156. The children-on week- lishes a magazine, and Notes on Scripture days, 5,174 ; week evenings, 5,093 ; Sun- Lessons. Many years since they opened day evenings, 10,366. Scholars in the a reading-room and library for reference, industrial classes, about 1,200. Emigra- and subsequently added a library for tion Fund from August 1, 1849, to May circulation, for the use of Sunday school 1, 1850, £1,229 1s 10d. Expenditure, teachers. Books for circulation, 1,611. £594 5s 8d. 27 boys have since been Reading-room open from three in the sent out, and 11 more are waiting for afternoon until ten in the evening : numships; total number sent out from the ber of subscribers, 1,089. schools about 250; and in no instance Wesleyan Missionary Society.-Its mishave the committee, or those who assisted sions were commenced in 1786, but the in the good work, had reason to regret society was not organised till 1816. Total their well-timed liberality,
income, £111,685 138 6d; expenditure, Religious Tract Society.-Instituted £109,168 10s 7d; debt, £10,841 13s 2d. 1799. Total receipts, including sales, During the present year there has been an £61,327 88 8d, being an increase on the increase on circuits of 34; on chapels and previous year of £1,832 5s 5d. In Eng- preaching stations, 690; of missionaries and land, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, the assistants, 34 ; of other stipendiary agents, grants made to district visiting, city and an increase of 34; of unpaid agents, 8,087; town missions, christian instruction, and of church members, 5,163; and of schools, other kindred societies, for circulation, an increase of 4,230. In every quarter of amounted to 3,133,165 publications, of the world, in every clime, ander every disthe value of £3,302 15s 1d. The libraries pensation, its missionaries are to be foundgranted for destitute districts, schools, zealous, courageous, and faithful. national and British schoolmasters, and
ORIGINAL SECESSION MAGAZINE.
"Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature.'—MARK xvi. 15. That the world is entitled to receive the gospel, and to receive it at the hands of the christian church, is evident from the words of our Saviour, immediately prefixed to the head of this article. They contain at once the authority for missionary efforts, and mark the limits by which alone these efforts should be circumscribed. The followers of Christ should ever regard it as an interesting and profitable inquiry, to ascertain to what extent the command of Christ has been responded to by the church, and the measure of success which has attended the labours of her missionaries. In presenting to our readers a few brief notices of christian missions, it is not our design to write a history of them, but merely to indicate, in the briefest manner possible, the circumstances which have given rise to the efforts made by the various branches of the christian church, the localities chosen respectively by them, the first missionaries chosen for their work, and the measure of success vouchsafed to their labours.
The honour of sending the first mission to the heathen belongs to the christian church at Antioch. This took place about twelve years after the Saviour had ascended up into heaven. Her first missionaries -Paul and Barnabas—were expressly selected by the Holy Spirit for this work. The second mission was undertaken by Paul and Silas, who were afterwards joined in their labours by Luke and Timothy. By these devoted men the gospel was first brought from Asia to the city of Philippi, and thence it spread abroad throughout all the surrounding countries of Europe. Of the rest of the apostles—their lives, their labours, and sufferings—history furnishes only a few brief notices. It would appear, however, that each of them had his own sphere of labour, and though not so laborious as the great apostle of the Gentiles, was in no respect less devoted to their Master's work. James the Less is said to have laboured in Spain. Of Andrew, it is recorded that he preached the gospel in the countries situated near the Black Sea, and was put to death, by crucifixion, at Patral in Achaia. Philip is said to have preached in Scythia and Phrygia, and to have died, at an advanced age, at Hierapolis. Bartholomew and Thomas are related to have carried the glad tidings to India; and to this day the