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CHARLES KNIGHT, 22, LUDGATE STREET,
NEW YORK, WILLIAM JACKSON, 53 CEDAR STREET,
BOSTON, MUNROE & FRANCIS, 128 WASHINGTON STREET.

MDCCCXXXIII

COMMITTEE.

Chairman-The Right Hon. the LORD CHANCELLOR, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France.

Vice-Chairman-The Right Hon. SIR HENRY PARNELL, Bart., M.P.

Treasurer-WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq., M.P., F.R.S.
W. Allen, Esq., P.R. and R.A.S.
Thomas Falconer, Esq.

James Manniog, Esq.
Rt. Hon. Visc. Althorp, M.P., Chancellor of 1. L. Goldsmid, Esq., F.R. and R.A.S.

J. Herman Merivale, Esq., F.A.S.
the Exchequer.
B. Gompertz, Esq., F.R, and R.A.S.

James Mill, Esq.
W. 3. Baring, Esq.M.P.
G. B. Greenough, Esq., F.R. and 1.5.

W. H. Ord, Esq. M.P.
Capt. F. Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.S., H. Hallum, Esq. F.R.S., M.A.

Dr. Reget, Sec. R.S., F.R.A.S.
Hydrographer to the Adiniralty.
M. D. Hill, Esq. D.P.

Rt. Hon. Lord John Russell, M.P., Pay.
Sir C. Bell, F.R.S.L. and E.
Rowland Hill, Esq., F.R.A.S.

master to the Forces. G. Burrows, M.D.

Edwin Hill, Esq.

Sir M. A. Shee, P.R.A., F.R.S. C. Hay Cameron, Esg

David Jardine, Esq., MA.

Rev. Richard Sheepshanks, M.A.
The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Chichester, D.D Henry B. Ker, Erg.

J. Smith, Esq., M.P.
William Coulson, Esq.
Th. Hewitt Key, Esq., M.A.

Jolin Taylor, Esq. F.R.S.
R. D. Craig, Esq.
J.G.S. Lefevre, Esq. M.A.

Dr. A. T. Thomsou, F.L.S.
Wm. Crawford, Esq.
George C. Lewis, Esq., M.A.

N. A. Vigors, Esq, M.P. F.R.S.
J. Frederick Daniell, Esq. F.R.S.
James Loch, Esq., M.P., F.G.S.

John Ward, Esq.
Rt. Hon. Lord Chief Justice Deoman.
George Long, Esq., M.A.

H. Waymouth, Esq.
Lieut. Drummond, R.E., F.R.A.S.

J. W. Lubbock, Esq., F.R., R.A. and L.5.9. J. Whishave, Esq., M.A., F.R.S.
Rt. Hon. Visc. Ebrington, DC.P.
H. Malden, Esq. M...

John Wood, Esq.
T. F. Ellis, Esq., M.A., F.R.A.S.
A. T. Malkin, Esq., M.A.

John Wrottesley, Esq., M.A. F.R.A.S. John Elliotson, M.D., F.R.S.

LOCAL COMMITTEES.

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Anglesea--Rev. E. Williams.

Rev. W. Johnson.

Mr. Miller.
Ashburton--J. F. Kingston, Esq.
Barnstaple.----- Bancraft, Esq.

William Gribble, Esq.
Bilston--Rev. W. Leigh.
Birmingham--Rer.J.Corrie,F.R.S. Chairman.

Paul Moon Janes, Esq., Treasurer.
Jos. Parkes, Esq. !
W. Redtern, Esq.

Honorary Secs.
Bonn-Leonard Hurner, Esq., F.R.S.L & E.
Bridport-Wm. Forster, Esq.

James Williams, Esq.
Bristol-J. N. Sanders, Esq., Chairman.

J. Reynolds, Esq., Treasurer.

J. B. Estlin, E84, F.L.S., Secretary. Bury St. Edmunds--B. Bevan, Esq. Calcutta-Lord Wm. Bentinck.

Sir Edward Ryan.

James Young, Esq.
Cambridge-Rev. James Bowstead, MA.

Rev. Prof. Henslow, M.A.F.L.S. & G.S.
Rev. Leonard Jenyos, M.A., F.L.S.
Rev. John Lodge, Al. A.
Rev. Geo. Peacock, M.A., F.R.S. & G.S.
Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A, F.R.S. & 6.8.
Professor Smytlı, M.A.
Rev. C. Thirlwall, M.A.
R. W.Rothman, Esq.,M.A.F.R.A.S.&G.S.

Rev. George Waddiogton, M.A.
Canterbury-Alexander B. Higgins, Esq.

John Brent, Esq.
Dr. Harry Wm. Carter, M.D., F.R.S.E.

William Masters, Esq.
Canton-J. F. Davis, Esq., F.R.S.
Carnarron-R. A. Poole, Esq.

William Roberts, Esq.
Chester-Hayes Lyon, Esq.

Dr. Cumming.
Dr. Jones.
Henry Potts, Esq.
Dr. Thackery.
Rev. Mr. Thorp.
- Wardell, Esq.

-- Wedge, Esq.
Chichester-John Forbes, M.D. F.R.S.

Thomas Sanden, M D.

C.C. Dendy, Esq.
Corfu-John Crawford, Esq.

Mr. Plato Petrides.

Corentry- Arthur Gregory, Exq.
Denbigh-John Madock, Esq.

Thomas Evans, Esq.
Derby-Joseph Strnet, Esq.
Desunport und Stonehouse - John Cole, E-

Norian, Esq.

Lt. Col. C. Hainilton Smith, F.RS.
Etruria- Jos. Ierig word, Esq.
Ereter-Rev. J. P. Jones.

J. Tyrrell, E-4.

John Molford, Esq. (Coaver.)
Glasgoue--K. Finlay, Ery.

Professor Mylne.
Alexander McGrigor, Esq.
Charles Tennant, Est.
James Cowper, Esq.

Mr.T. Atkinson, Honorary Secretary,
Glumorganshire- Dr. Malkin, Cowbridge.

Rev, B. R. Paul, Lantwit.

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm.
Gloucester-Samuel Bowley, Esq.
Guernsey-F. C. Lukis, Esq.
Holywell-Rev. J. Blackwall.
Hull-J. C. Parker, Esq.
Keighley, Yorkshire--Rev. T. Dury, M.A.
Launceston-Rev. J. Bartitt.
Leamington Spa, Dr. Loudon, M.D.
Leeds--J. Marshall, Esq.

Benjamin Gott, Exq.

J. Marshall, Jun., Esq.
Leues-J. W. Wooligar, Esq.
Liverpool Loc. As..-W.W. Currie, Esq. Ch.

J. Mulleneux, Esq., Treasurer,
Rev. W. Shepherd.

J. Ashton Yates, Esy.
Ludlow–T. A. K night, Esq., P.H.S.
Maidenheud-R. Goolden, Esq., F.L.S.
Muidstone-Clement T. Smyth, Esq.

John Case, Esq.
Malmesbury-B. C. Thomas, Esq.
Manchester Loc. As -G.W.Wood, Esq., Ch.

Benjamin Heywood, Esq., Treasurer.
T. W. Winstanley, Esq, Hon, Sec.
Sir G. Philips, Bart., M.P.

Benjamin Gott, Esq.
Merthyr Tydril-J. J.Guest, Esq. M.P.
Minchinhumpton- John G. Bali, Esq.
Hlunmouth-J. H. Moggridge, Esq.
leath-Jolin Rowland, Esq.
Newcastle-James Losh, Esq.

Rev. W. Turner.

Neuport, Isle of Wight-Ah, Clarke, Esq.

T. Cooke, Jun., Esq.

R. G. Kirkpatrick, Esq.
Verport Pugneil-J. Millar, Esy.
Neutuun, Juntgoineryshire-W. Pugh, Esq.
Noruich-Rt. Hon. Lord Suffield.

Richard Bacon, Esq.
Orford - Dr. Daubeny, F.H.S. Prof. of Chem.

Rev. Prof. Powell
Rev. John Jordan, B.A.
Rev, R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S.
E. W. Head, Esq., M.A.

W. R. Browne, Esq., B.A.
Penang-Sir B. H. Malkin.
Plymouth-H. Woollcombe, Esq., F.A.S.,
Chairman

Snow Harris, Esq., F.R.S.
E. Moore, M.D., F.L.S., Secretary.

G. Wightwick, Esq.
Presleign-Dr. A. W. Davis, M.D.
Rippon--Rey. H. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.R.S.
and G.S.

Rev. P. Ewart, M.A.
Ruthen-Rev. the Warden of.

Humphreys Jones, Esq.
Ryde, Isle of Il'ight-Sir Rd. Simeon, Bart.,

M.P.
Shefficld-J. H. Abraham, Esq.
Shepton Mallet-G. F. Burroughs, Esq.
Shrewsbury-R. A. Slaney, Esq., M.P.
South Petherton-John Nicholetis, Ewq.
ST. Asupli-Rev. George Strong.
Stockport-H. Marsland, Esq., Treasurer.

Henry Coppock, Exq., Secretary.
Taristock-Rev. W. Evans

John Rundle, Esq.
Tunbridge Wells- Dr. Yeats, M.D.
Waruick-Dr. Conully.

The Rev. William Field, (Leuwinylum.
Wnter ford-Sir Jolin Newport, Bt. M.P.
Wolrerhainptun-J. Pearson, Exq.
Worcester-Dr. Corbett, M.D.

Dr. Hastings, M.D.

C. H. Hebb, Esq.
Wrexham-Thomas Edgworth, Eng.

J. E. Bowman, Esq. F.L.S., Treilsures,

Major William Lloyd.
Yarmouth-C. E. Kumbold, E.G., M.P.

Dawson Turner, Em.
York-Rev. J. Kenrick, M.A.

John Wood, Esq., M.P.

THOMAS COATES, Secretary, No. 59, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

PRINTED BY WILLIAN JACKSON,

EELLLVILLE POWER PRESS,

PREFACE TO VOLUME THE FIRST.

In the course of the regular publication of the Numbers and Parts of the Penny Cyclopædia, the purchasers of the work will have been enabled to compare its general execution with the announcements of the original Prospectus. The completion of a volume appears to call upon the Conductors for a few explanatory observations.

The plan of this work differs in a considerable degree from most other Cyclopædias. These have generally given elaborate treatises on each branch of knowledge, often referring for the explanation of each term, as it occurs in the alphabetical order, to the general treatise. The plan of the Penny Cyclopædia, as it is specially intended as a book of reference, is not to attempt to form systems of knowledge, but to give pretty fully, under each separate head, as much information as can be conveyed within reasonable limits. But whilst it endeavours to present in detail the explanation of those terms of Art and Science, the right understanding of which is independent of any system, it also attempts to give such general views of all great branches of knowledge, as may help to the formation of just ideas on their extent and relative importance, and to point out the best sources of complete information.

As this plan excludes all long essays and treatises, it necessarily leads to giving more ample space to the separate heads than is done in most Cyclopædias; and in doing this, it is often found difficult to determine the point where the selection of terms must end. This is particularly the case as to names of Persons and Places, which unavoidably form a large part of every book of general reference. It is hardly possible to fix any rule which will not either exclude something that ought to be admitted, or include names of very little importance. Something, therefore, must be left to the judgment of those who contribute to, and superintend, such a publication. It will be observed that the plan of the Cyclopædia has rather been enlarged, since the earlier Numbers, as to the names admitted, and somewhat also, perhaps, in the length of the more important articles. It would appear that, in the proper conduct of such a work, some practice and experience are peculiarly necessary. The difficulty of forming a complete and satisfactory list of words can

. only be estimated by those who have made the experiment. On looking into the best works of this class already published, it will be found that, while they all differ very considerably as to the words inserted, none are without some onussion that would be better supplied. Nor can the Editors of the Penny Cyclopædia congratulate themselves on having inserted every term or name that ought to have found a place, though they hope that in the progress of the Work they will be better able to guard against any omission.

As to errors in the articles themselves, either of incorrect statements of facts, or of false deductions from premises, some such are unavoidable in every large work, however carefully the subjectmatter has been weighed, or however scrupulously the writer may have discharged his duty. In a periodical publication, in which a number of writers are necessarily combined, and where the matter is almost infinitely varied, the causes of error are still more numerous. The experience of one year, however, enables the Conductors of this Cyclopædia to state with confidence, that whatever errors there may be in the first volume, (and they trust they are neither very numerous nor very important,) they feel no doubt that the work in its progress will continue to

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