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ROGER ASCHAM. — 1515-1568. The celebrated tutor of Queen Elizabeth. Author of a work on Germany, and " Toxophilus," in the preface of which he apologizes for writing it in English. His greatest work is “ The Schoolmaster.” GEORGE BUCHANAN. 1506-1582. Learned author of much Latin verse and

“ The Chameleon," in Scotch. Sir Philip SIDNEY. — 1554-1586. The gallant soldier; anthor of the Countess of Pembroke's “ Arcadia,' " " Defense of Poesie," and many beautiful sonnets.

RICHARD HOOKER. — 1553-1600. “ Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity," " the first book of which,” Hallam says, " is at this day one of the masterpieces of English eloquence.”

THOMAS SACKVILLE. 1536-1608. Joint author, with Thomas Norton, of “ Gorboduc," il five-act tragedy, with chorus; “ The Mirrour of Magistrates," of which he wrote“ The Induction;" and "Story of the Duke of Buckingham.”

Sir WALTER RALEIGH. - 1552-1618. Gallant soldier and accomplished courtier; author of “History of the World," “ Narrative of a Cruise to Guiana," and other works in prose; also cultivated poetry somewhat.

Ben Jonson. — 1574–1637. Celebrated English dramatist, the friend of Shakspeare; author of "Catiline" and "Sejanus,” tragedies; Every Man in his Humor,” “The Alchemist,” and “Volpone," comedies; and many other plays, minor poems, and prose-writings. On his tombstone are the words, “O rare Ben Jonson!"

THOMAS TUSSER. - 1523-1580 ? " Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry;"

ROBERT GREENE. - 1560 ?-1592. Occupies a high rank among early English dramatists. “ A Groat's Worth of Wit bought with a Million of Repentance."

ROBERT SOUTHWELL. — 1560-1595. “St. Peter's Complaint," “ Mary Magdalene's Funeral Teirs,' and other poeins.

SAMUEL DANIEL. — 1562-1619. " Musophilus," " A History of the Wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster."

MICHAEL DRAYTON. – 1563–1631. “Polvolbion," " The Shepherd's Garland," “Barons' Wars," " England's Hervical Epistles," "Nymphidia," and others.

CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE. —1563?-1593. Wrote several plays in excellent blank verse, - “ Tamburlaine the Great," " Life and Death of Dr. Faustus,'

*** The Jew of Malta," and “Edward III."

Sir HENRY Worrox. - 1568-1659. “ Elements of Architecture; " “ The State of Christendom; ” and “ Reliquiæ Wottonianæ," published after his death.

FRANCIS BEAUMONT. — 1586 - 1615. John FLETCHER. 1676-1625. Wrote fifty-two tragedies and comedies. More popular than Shakspeare in their day, and still belong to the English classics.

Puineas FLETCHER. — 1584-1650. "The Purple Island."
GILES FLETCHER. “ Christ's Victory and Triumph."

PHILIP MASSINGER. - 1584-1640. Of his many plays, eighteen live; and “A New Way to pay Old Debts" is still acted.

WILLIAM DRUMMOND. 1585-1649. “ The Flowers of Zion," " Tears on the Death of Mæliades," " " The River of Forth Feasting," and sonuets.

JOHN FORD. 1586 -1639. “ Brother and Sister,” “Love's Sacrifice," and “ The Broken Heart," deep tragedies; “ Perkin Warbeck,” historical play.

THOMAS CAREw. - 1589-1639. “ Cælum Britannicum," and many lyrics. WILLIAM BROWNE. — 1590-1645. “Britannia's Pastorals," and other works.

ROBERT HERRICK. -- 1591-1674. " To Blossoms," "To Daffodils," " Gather the Rosebuds while Ye may,” are some of the delightful lyrics from his graceful pen.

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FRANCIS QUARLES. 1592-1644. “Emblems,” "“ Divine Fancies," “ Enchiridion."

GEORGE HERBERT. - 1593-1632. “ The Temple," a collection of sacred poems.
JAMES SHIRLEY. 1596-1666. Writer of plays.
RICHARD CRASHAW. - ?- 1650. Religious poetry, and translations.
Sir John SUCKLING. — 1609-1641. Lyrist.“ Ballad on a Wedding."

Thomas Wilson. “System of Rhetoric and Logic," the first critical work upon the English language.

WILLIAM CAMDEN. 1551-1623. “ Britannia," narratives of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and the Gunpowder Plot, in Latin.

RICHARD HAKLUYT. — 1553-1616. “Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation," and translations of Leo's “ Africa," and Peter Martyr's West Indies.”

SAYUEL PURCHAS. -- 1577-1628. “Purchas his Pilgrimes," and "Purchas his Pilgrimeage.”

KING JAMES I. - 1566-1625. Royal pedant. “Demonologie,” “Basilicon Doron," “ Counterblasts to Tobacco," and some English and Latin poems.

JOSEPH HALL. - 1574-1656. * Contemplations on Historical Passages of the Old and New Testaments,” “Occasional Meditations,” sermons, and other writings.

ROBERT BURTON.- 1578-1640. Author of celebrated " Anatomy of Melancholy."

THOMAS DEKKER. — 1638? “ The Gull's Hornbook," satirical; and more than twenty plays.

Lord HERBERT. 1581–1648. “De Veritate," “Life and Reign of Henry VIII.," and memoirs of his own life.

JAMES USSHER. — 1581 -1656. “The Power of the Prince, and Obedience of the Subject;"' "Annals from the Creation to the Fall of Jerusalemn;" and other works.

JOHN SELDEN. 1584-1654. “A Treatise on Titles of Honor," "History of Tithes." Called by Milton "the chief of learned men reputed in the land."

Thomas HOBBES. — 1588-1679. “De Cive;" “ Human Nature;" “ De Corpore Politico;" his famous work,“ Leviathan;" " A Translation of Homer;'

"* Elements of Philosophy;" and other works.

Izaak Walton. — 1593–1683. "The Complete Angler, or Contemplative Man's Recreation;" the Lives of Hooker, Donne, Wotton, and others.

JAMES HOWELL. — 1596-1666. " Familiar Letters," and about forty works.

Sir Thomas MORE. — 1480-1535. “Life and Reign of Edward V.," the first English history deserving the name, and earliest classical English prose.' His most famous work is his “Utopia,” describing a perfect republic. Several theological works.

WILLIAM TYNDALE. — 1477?-1536. Translated New Testament into English, “ English Version of the Book of Jonah," and other works.

THOMAS CRANMER. — 1489–1556. The compiling of “The Book of Common Prayer" is chiefly due to Cranmer; “Twelve Homilies,” and the “Great Bible.”

HENRY HOWARD (Earl of Surrey). - 1516-1547. “ Translation of the Second and Fourth Books of the Æneid.” Is said to have written the first English sonnets.

ROBERT HENRYSON. — Died 1507? Poet. "Testament of Fair Cresseide," ballad of "Robin and Makyne,” “ The Moral Fables of Æsop," “ The Garment of Gude Ladyes," and other works.

WILLIAM DUNBAR. — 1460-1620? “ The Thistle and the Rose," " The Golden Terge," “ The Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins,” and other poems. Called by Sir Walter Scott" the first of Scottish poets."

Gawin DOUGLAS. — 1474 ?-1522? The first translation, a Latin classic, Virgil's “Æneid,” into the Scottish dialect; “ King Hart;” and “ The Palace of Honor."

ALEXANDER BARCLAY. - 1522. “The Ship of Fools," a satirical allegory.
STEPHEN HAWES. “Pastime of Pleasure.” Favorite of Henry VII.
John SKELTON. – ?-1529. Satirist. “ Colin Clout."
JOHN HEYWOOD. Interludes," satires of the clergy.

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Sir THOMAS WYATT. - 1503-1541. Remarkable for his scholarship, wit, and verse.

Sir David LINDSAY. — 1490 ?-1557. “Play of the Three Estates," "Squire Meldrum," last of the metrical romances; “ The Monarchie," and " Complaynt of the King's Papingo."

NICHOLAS UDALL. — 1506 ?-1557. Author of "Ralph Royster Doyster," the eariiest existing English comedy, written about 1550.

John FISHER.-- 1459-1535. Sermons.
Lord BERNERS.- Translated the chronicles of "Jean Froissart."

ROBERT FABYAN. -?-1512. “ Concordance of Stories," a chronicle of English history.

EDWARD HALL. — 3-1547. “ History of the Houses of York and Lancaster."

Sir Thomas ELYOT. - ?-1546. “ The Castle of Health," " The Governor," and a Latin and English dictionary. His views on education were greatly in advance of his time.

John BELLENDEN. Translated (1536) Hector Boece’s “ History of Scotland," earliest existing Scottish prose literature; “ First Five Books of Livy;" besides letters and poems. The first original work in Scotch prose was published in 1548.

John LELAND. —?-1552. “ Itinerary” and “ Collectanea.” First English antiquary of note.

HUGH LATIMER. - 1472 ?-1555. Sermons and letters.

MILES COVERDALE. — 1487-1568. The first printed translation of the whole Bible; also assisted in Cranmer's and the Geneva translations.

John BALE. - 1495-1563. “ Lives of Eminent Writers of Great Britain," in Latin, - first author, Japheth; “ Chronicle of Lord Cobham's Trial and Death;" scriptural dramas.

John Knox. – 1505–1572. “ History of the Scottish Reformation," himself the leader.

GEORGE CAVENDISH. — 7-1557. “Life of Cardinal Woolsey."
Sir John CHEKE. — 1514-1557. “ The Hurt of Sedition."

John Fox. — 1517–1587. Author of the celebrated work, “ Acts and Monuments of the Church," or “Fox's Book of Martyrs.”

WILLIAM Caxton.- 1412-1491. At the age of fifty-nine, this remarkable man went to Cologne to learn the printer's trade; and there finished, in 1471, the translation of a French work by Raoul le Févre, " The History of Troy," the first English book from any press. Soon after, having returned to England, was issued from the Westminster press its earliest work, The Game and Playe of the Chesse, translated ont of the French, fynysshed the last day of Marche, 1474."

The first English book with woodcut illustrations was a second edition of the same. Caxton wrote or translated and printed sixty-five works. The industry necessary to accomplish so much after an active life of threescore years is the more wonderful when we consider that he combined within himself the offices of author, ink

maker, compositor, pressman, proof-reader, binder, publisher, and bookseller.

WYNKYN DE WORDE, assistant and successor of Caxton, printed four hundred and eight works. RICHARD Pynson, another assistant, printed two hundred and twelve works.


1328 ?-1400.

Called “the morning-star of English poetry.”. Famous author of "The Canterbury Tales,” in which some thirty pilgrims to the tomb of Thomas à Becket are to tell two stories each, going and returning; the poems being planned like “ The Decameron" of Boccaccio. Only twenty-four are told; two of which, “ The Tale of Melibeus” and “ The Persones Tale," are in prose; in which style of writing he also excelled. “The Court of Love," ** Troilus and Cresseide," " Romaunt of Love," “ The House of Fame," " The Legende of Goode Women," " The Flour and the Lefe,” and “ The Testament of Love,” in prose, are bis principal pieces. Hallam ranks him one of the three great poets of the middle ages, with Dante and Petrarch.




A GOOD man was ther of religioun,
And was a porë persoun of a toun;
But riche he was of holy thought and werk :
He was also a lerned man, a clerk,
That Cristës gospel truly woldë preche :
His parischens devoutly would he teche.
Benigne he was, and wondur diligent,
And in adversité ful pacient.
Wyd was his parisch, and houses fer asоndur ;
But he ne lafte not for reyn ne thondur,
In sicknesse ne in meschief to visite
The ferrest in his parische, moche and lite,
Uppon his feet, and in his hond a staf.
This noble ensample unto his scheep he gaf, -
That ferst he wroughte, and after that he taughte.
Out of the gospel he thoʻ wordës caughte,
That, if gold ruste, what schulde yren doo?
For, if a priest be foul on whom we truste,
No wondür is a lewid manto ruste.
To drawë folk to hevën by fairnesse,
By good ensample, was his busynesse;
But it were eny persone obstinat,
What so he were of high or lowe estat,
Him wolde he snybbë scharply for the nones.'
A bettrë priest I trowe ther nowher non is.
He waytud after no pomp ne reverence;
Ne maked him a spiced conscience :
But Cristës love, and his apostles twelve,
He taught; and ferst he folwed it himselve!

1 Great and small.

2 Those.

S A layman.

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JOHN DE WYCLIFFE. — 1324 ? -1384. Celebrated English reformer. Author of "Trialogus” and many other Latin works, and the first English version of the whole Bible.

John GOWER. 1325 ? -1408. Poet-friend of Chaucer, but of far less renown. “ Speculum Meditantis” in French (no copy preserved), “ Vox Clamantis" in Latin, and “ Confessio Amantis" principally in English; the last two preserved.

King James I. of Scotland. - 1394-1437. “The King's Quhair" (Quire), a poem of about fourteen hundred lines, inspired by his love for Joan Beaufort; and other shorter poems.

LAURENCE MINOT. According to Dr. Craik, the earliest writer of English verse deserving the name of poet. Ten poems are preserved, celebrating the battles of Edward VII.

ROBERT LANGLANDE. 1300 ? Author of " The Vision of Piers (Peter) Ploughman" and " Pierce Plowman's Crede,” two poems, satirical, of the clergy and the times.

A few lines from “ Piers Ploughman ” will illustrate the alliterative form of poetry, having the initial instead of the terminal assonance:

In a somer seson,
Whan softe was the sonne,
I shoop' me into shroudes
As I a sheep' weere;
In habite as an heremite
Unholy of workes,
Wente wide in this world
Wondres to here.
Acon a May Morwenynge,
On Malvern hilles,
Me befel a ferly:-
Of fairye me thoghte
I was wery for-wandred,
And wente me to reste
Under a brood bank
By a bourneso syde;
And as I lay and lenede,
And loked on the watres,
I slombred into a slepyng,

It sweyed so murye.
JOHN BARBOUR. – Born 1316, or 1330. “The Bruce," a Scottish epic.

ANDREW WYNTOUN. — 1350 ? “An Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland," from the creation to 1408.

Thomas OCCLEVE. — Writer of multitudinous verses, to be “judged by quantity rather than quality."

John LYDGATE. — “ History of Thebes," " Fall of Princes," and " History of the Siege of Troy."

BLIND HARRY. — “The Wallace,” an epic of twelve thousand lines. JOHN DE TREVISA. – Translated, about 1387, “ The Polychronicon” and other Latin works.

Sir John FORTESCUE. – Celebrated author of “De Landibus Legum Angliæ" and of “The Difference between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy."

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1 Shaped.

2 Shepherd.

3 And.

4 Wonder.

5 Stream.

6 Pleasant.

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