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239

THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS--CHAP. XIL:

$ 6.

Julian Pe- live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God, who Thessaloriod, 4762.

loved and

me, ValgarÆra,

himself for me. gave

nica. 51.

21 I do not frustrate the grace of God: for if righte-
ousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain.

$ 5. GAL. iii. 1–5.
St. Paul reproves the Galatians for deserting their first

Principles of Faith, in supposing that the New Dispen-
sation was not sufficient for Salvation ; although it had
been confirmed to them, by those spiritual blessings and
gifts which were unknown to the Mosaic Law.

1 0 Foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that
ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus
Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

2 This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith ?

3 Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?

4 Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if it be yet in vain.

5 He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and
worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of
the law, or by the hearing of faith?

GAL. iii. 6-18.
St. Paul proves the Truth of his Doctrine by the Example

of Abraham, who was justified by his Faith in the Pro-
mises of God.

6 Even as Abraham believed God, and it was account-
ed to him for righteousness.

7 Know ye therefore, that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.

8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.

9 So then they which be of faith 23 are blessed with faithful Abraham.

10 For as many as are of the works of the law, are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

11 But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith.

23 We are all justified by a religious faith in the promises of God, like that of faithful Abraham, producing good works; and not by the rigid observances of all the rites of a typical law, which enacted an updeviating conformity, under the penalty of death, which it had not the power to redeem. Had the Jewish dispensation continued, the Gentiles could not have been united with the Jews, as the children of promise, but must have remains ed with them the children of law, and of bondage..

Julian Pe

12' And the law is not of faith : but, The man that Thessaloriod, 4762. doeth them shall live in them..

nica. Vulgar Æra, 51.

13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us : for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:

14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men; Though it be but a man's covenant, yet if it be confirmed, no man disannulleth, or addeth thereto.

16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to thy seed, which is Christ 24.

% Lord Barrington, in an ingenious dissertation on this much-discussed passage, supposes the word Christ here signifies anointed, as it does in Ps. cv. 15. “ Touch not mine anointed," (rendered Xpisas, according to the LXX.) and Heb. xi. 26. That the seed, or the one seed, v. 16. signifies all those of the works of the law, and of faith, who are made one by being anointed with one spirit, or by being baptized into one spirit, as the one spirit of the one Lord (Mediator), and of one God, even the Father. But the covenant, or the promises that God made to Abraham, he made to his seed, (Gen. xii. 13. xvii. 7, 8. xxii. 18.) then it cannot be two seeds; for, says he, that one seed is Christ, or the two different sorts of people, Jews and Gentiles, considered as one, being anointed with the same spirit, and therefore the promises and blessings belong to the Gentiles, wbo are of the one seed of faith, and have by it received the Spirit, as well as the Jews. If tben it should be asked, why was the law added ? St. Pant answers, it was added to shew the Israelites the punishment due to transgression, that they, seeing themselves so manifestly concluded under sin, by the frequent breaches of the numerous laws they were under, which were often followed by death, might be led by the law to the Gospel, which promised them righteousness and life. But this law was only added till that onc seed should come, to whom the promise of life and blessedness is made ; which one seed is composed of a body of Jows and Gentiles, by one faith in one God, through one Lord, and by one Spirit. The believing Jews receiving the Spirit first after Christ's ascension, and afterwards the Gentiles, both idolatrous and devout. Now, argues the apostle, the law was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator, (v. 19.) Moses. But still, says he, the law could not vacate the promise made to Abraham, and his seed; because Moses (as "Mr. Locke first shewed us) was only the mediator at the giving of the law of Sinai, therefore only one of the parties concurred to that of Abraham's covenant, which was between God and Abraham, and his one secd of faith in God's promises; therefore the covepant of works entered into with Moses, and the carnal seed of Abraham, could in no way disannul the covenant of promise made unto Abraham, and his spiritual seed of all nations. If then we are one (seed) in Christ Jesus; that is, by faith in God, through Christ Jesus, then are we Abraham's (one) seed, to whom the promise was made, (Gen. xii. 3.) as explained Gen. xviji. 7, 8. and confirmed xxii. 18. and (consequently) heirs according to that promisc. If it should be ob.

234

THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS-CHAP. XII. Julian Pe. 17 And this I say, That the covenant, that was con- Thessalo riod, 4762 firmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four

nica. Vulgar Æra, 51. hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it

should make the promise of none effect.

18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more
of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.

$7. GAL. üi. 19–29.
St. Paul declares the Object of the Mosaic Law was to pre-

serve the Jews, from whom Christ was to be born, from
the idolatrous Practices and Rites of the Heathens, and
to educate them in the Hope and Expectation of the
promised Messiah.

19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added be-
cause of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom
the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in
the hand of a mediator.

20 Now a mediator is not a mediator of one ; but God

is one.

21 Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid : for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.

22 But the Scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.

23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law,

jected against the sense I have given to the word Christ, (ver.
16, 17.) viz. anointed, the seed anointed by the Spirit; I an-
swer, that it is not an uncommon thing to find St. Paul keep his
term and vary his sense. But I must observe, that it is not likely
that he has done so in this chapter. He bere varies bis term,
and his sense together; for there are very good copies that
give us other readings in these verses: ver. 13. some copies
read «vplos. ver. 24. Xpisov Inoxv. ver. 27. some copies read as
ver. 24. and ver. 29. is read with the same addition. I prefer,
says Lord Barrington, these readings to Stephens's, which our
translators followed; because I find, that whenever St. Paul
designed to denote Christ's person by the name Christ, in
every other verse of this chapter, he adds Jesus to it: an
addition that he does not always make elsewhere ; as if he
designed to reserve the word Xpisos, to denote this one seed
anointed by the Spirit, whether Jews or Gentiles ; and so
added Jesus to Christ every where else in the chapter, to pre-
vent mistakes.

Mediator non est unius partis sed duarum, earumque dissi-
dentium. Cum igitur Moses Mediatorem ageret inter Deum, et
populum, hoc, ipso testatur--esse dissidium inter duas istas
partes. Deus autem unus est. Isque semper idem, semper
sibi constans. Dissidium igitur illud non Dci, sed hominis
mutationi deputandum est. Jac. Capellus, ap. Cradock Apost.
Harmony, p. 118.

riod, 4762. vealed.

Julian Peo shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be re. Thessalo

nica. Valgar Æra, 51.

24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.

26 For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus.

27 For as many of you as have been baptized into
Christ

have put on Christ %s.
28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither
bond nor free, there is neither male nor female : for ye
are all one in Christ Jesus.

29 And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed,
and heirs according to the promise.

9 8. GAL. iv, 1-11.
St. Paul adds another Illustration, shewing the Purport of

the Law, and reproving the Jewish and Gentile Converts
for their Desire again to place themselves in Bondage-
His Fear on that account,

1 Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child,
differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all;

2 But is under tutors and governors, until the time appointed of the father.

8 Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world :

4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the
Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

7 Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son;
and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.
8 Howbeit, then when

ye

knew not God, ye vice unto them which by nature are no gods.

9 But now, after that ye have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn ye again to the weak and

did ser

% In the extracts from Photius, at the end of the fifth volume of Woltius Curæ Philologicæ, p. 737, is a curious illustration of this pasage-ένδυμα δε το πνεύμα το άγιον λέγεται των πιστών, ουκ ως ιμάτιον, αλλ' ως ενδύεται σίδηρος το πύρ. ουκ έξωθεν Tepeball'óuevos, állodos oi' Ölo-oöro yap, &c. &c. and it is very certain that if we, by the assistance of the grace of God, can ever be said to put on the Spirit

to put on Christ--to be clothed with the Spirit, &c. &c. it can only then be, when the whole man is so ombued with a desire to foar God, and to love and serve him, that the inferior or animal nature, shall be conformed into that more spiritual nature, to which we are commanded to aspire.

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THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS-CHAP. XII. Julian Pe- beggarly elements whereunto ye desire again to be in Thessaloriod, 4762. bondage ?

mica. Vulgar&ra, 51.

10 Ye observe days, and months, and times, and

years 20.

11. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed on you la-
bour in vain.

$9. GAL. iv. 12-20.
St. Paul appeals to the Jews by their former Zeal, and their

Affection for him.
12 Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as
ye are : ye have not injured me at all.

18 Ye know how through infirmity of the flesh I
preached the gospel unto you at the first :

14 And my temptation which was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected: but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.

15 Where is then the blessedness ye spake of? for I bear you record, that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them to

me.

16 Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?

17 They zealously affect you, but not well; yea, they would exclude you", that ye might affect them.

18 But it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing, and not only when I am present

with

you.
19 My little children, of whom I travail in birth again
until Christ be formed in you,

20 I desire to be present with you now, and to change
my voice; for I stand in doubt of

you.
§ 10. GAL. iv. 21-81.
St. Paul continues his Appeal by an Illustration from the

Old Testament, demonstrating the inferiority of the Law
to the Gospel Covenant.

21 Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye
not hear the law ?

22 For it is written, That Abraham had two sons; the one by a bond-maid, the other by a free-woman.

* By a very ingenious conjecture, which has been already alluded to, Michaelis reckons, that these years (Gal. iv. 8-10.) meant Jewish sabbatical years ; and that the Galatians were then on the point of keeping such a year, by leaving their lands uncultivated; though the Mosaical law, designed for the Holy Land, certainly did not extend to Galatia. But the year A.D. 49, the year of the first apostolic council held at Jerusalem, on the question whether the Gentile Church was bound to observe the law of Moses, he suspected was a sabbatical year, and the same in which the epistle itself was written.—Marsh's Michaelis, Introduct. vol. iv. p. 11. Hales's Anpal. vol. ij. p. 1117.

That is, from the Christian covenant, unless you are cir.' cumcised, and follow the opinions of the Judaizing teachers.

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