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Julian Pe is required of all who have received the Knowledge of Rome.
riod, 4774. Salvation.
Valgarðra,
61.

Churches in the great cities, yet they were designed, as the in-
scriptions prove, for all those of the neigbbourhood. We may
further add, that the perfection of the moral admonition deli.
vered in this Epistle, and the catholic manner in which otber
matters are treated, corroborate the opinion that it was intend-
ed for the brethren of the province of Asia, which accounts for
the omission of those allusions to particular persons, and cir-
cumstances, which might have been expected bad St. Paul been
addressing only a Churcb planled by himself in a city where he
bad so long resided.

Dr. Lardner places the Epistle to the Ephesians at the begin.
ning of St. Paul's first imprisonment. He proposes in support
of his opinion, the two following arguments, that Timothy, who
joined the apostle in his letters to the Philippians, Colossians,
and Philemon, is not mentioned in this Epistlc, from wbich ho
infers that Timothy had not yet joined him at Rome. Dr.
Macknight, who supposes it was written after the Epistles to
the Colossians and Philemon, observes, that it is possiblc Timo.
thy might only have left Rome for a short time, and refers to
Heb. xiii. 33.

Dr. Lardner's second argument is that already noticed, that the apostle does not express an expectation of an early release, as in the Epistle to the Philippians. Mackpight, however, is of opinion, that no inference can be drawn from this circumstance. The apostle, be observes, in his Epistle to the Colossians, makes as little mention of his release as in his Epistle lo the Ephesians. And yet all allow that that Epistle was written and sent with the Epistle to Philemon, in which the apostle expressed the strongest hope of that event. He did not think it necessary, it seems, to mention his enlargement in his letter to the Colossians, because he had ordered Tychicus to inform them of it (Col. iv. 27). All things concerning me, Tychicus will make known to you. For the same reason he may have omitted mentioning his release to the Ephesians, as may be inferred from Eph. vi. 21. Now that ye also may know these things relating to me, and wbat I am doing, Tychicus will make knowo to you all things.

The phraseology here deserves notice, “that ye also may know;" which he thinks implies, that at this time tbe apostle bad ordered Tychicus to make known all things concerning bim to some others; namely, to the Colossians, consequently that the two Epistles were written about the same time; and as Tychicus and Onesimus, to whom the apostle delivered his Epistle to the Colossians and to Philemon, were to take Ephesus in their way, he gave them his letter to the Ephesians likewise, and ordered them, wben they delivered it, to enjoin the Ephesians to send a copy of it to ihe Laodiceans, with directions to send a transcript taken from their copy to the Colossians. Tycbicus, therefore, and Onesimus, taking Ephesus in their way, deliver: ed the apostle's letter to the Church in that city as they were directed ; then proceeded with the letter to the Colossians and to Pbilemon, which, wben they delivered, their commission was at an end.

Such are Dr. Macknight's arguments. It is evident, however, that this mode of reasoning is very inconclusive. I have placed the cpistle therefore at this period, and bavo been guided by the arguments of Dr. Lardner, which have been before consi.

458

EPISTLE TO THE EPHESIANS-CHAP. XIV.

Julian Pe-
$1. EPH. i. 1-14.

Rome. riod, 4774. Valgarðra, After his individual and general Salutation, St. Paul 61.

breaks forth into rapturous expressions of Gratitude to
God for the spiritual Blessings he has bestowed on the
Gentiles; and for calling them according to his merciful
Design, that they might be holy and blameless, his chosen
People - Predestinated to the Adoption of Children,
through Faith in Jesus Christ-By his Blood they are re-
deemed, and their Sins pardonednot by the Mosaic Law,
but through his abundant Mercy-giving the Apostles
both Wisdom in spiritual Things, and Prudence in the
exercise of them and revealing to them the Mystery of
his Will (the Admission of the Gentiles into his Church,
without subjecting them to the Jewish Law), and the Plan
by which both Jews and Gentiles will be gathered together
under Jesus Christ into one Church-Through Christ the
believing Jews have obtained the spiritual Inheritance
promised to the spiritual Children of Abraham, being
predestinated or re-elected according to the Purpose of
his own Will, through Faith in Christ; that they, who
were the first who believed in Christ, should be to the
Praise of his Glory, by imparting the Knowledge of Sal-
vation to the World In him the Gentiles also have be-
lieved, when they heard from us the Word of Truth
and by him the Holy Spirit, promised by the Father,
was givenwhich is the Earnest of the eternal Inhe-
ritance of the Jews, and now of the Gentiles, till they to-

dered, and which is consistent with the order of the sacred
canon.

From the frequent use of the word mystery, and from other
reasons, Macknight, Dr. Chandler, and other commentators,
have supposed that St. Paul intended to illustrate the truths he
enforces in this epistle, by referring to the mysteries of Diana,
which were celebrated at Epbesus, in the temple of that name.
Dr. Macknight has largely discussed this subject. I have not
adopted his opinions, as they appear to require farther confir-
mation. The allusions of St. Paul to the service and ministers
of the Jewish temple, seem to be made without any reference to
those of Diana. See the argument of Warburton and Leland
in Macknight's Preface (b).

(a) Stoch, de Epistolis Apostolorum non deperditis, pp. 101. et seq.
Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 128---146. Lardner's Works, Svo. vol. vi. pp. 416
-456. 41o. vol. iii. pp. 342—362. Macknight on Col. iv. 16. Bishop
Middleton on the Greek Article, pp. 508-518. who observes, that if
ever there were an epistle from St. Paul to the Laodiceans, it is lost: for
that, which is extant in Fabricius and Jones's work on the canon,
(to which we may add Pritius) is universally allowed to be a forgery ;
yet the loss of a canonical writing is of all suppositions the most impro-
bable..See Horne's Crit. Introduct. (b) Macknight's Preface, Paley's
Hora Paulinæ, Horne, Michaelis, Bishop Tomline, Dr. Lardner, and
their numerous references; not only for this, but for the introductions
to cach of the cpistles.

Jalian Pe. gelher obtain the purchased Possession of Heaven, to the Rome. riod, 4774.

Praise and Glory of Christ. Vulgar Æra, 61.

i Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus :

2 Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ :

4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, and without blame before him in love:

5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,

6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the Beloved ;

7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace ;

8 Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence :

9 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself :

10 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times, he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven and which are on earth: even in him,

11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will ;

12 That we should be to the praise of liis glory, who first trusted in Christ.

13 In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation; in whom also, after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,

14 Which is the earnest of our inheritance, until the
redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise
of his glory.

§ 2. Eph. i. 15, to the end.
St. Paul thanks God for their Conversion, and prays that

they may be further enlightened in the Knowledge of the
Truth, and altain to the fullest Conception of the Bless-
ings of the Gospel, and its glorious Author, by whosc

460

THE GENTILES ELECTED WITH THE JEWS.

Julian Pe

power Christ was raised from the Dead, and exalted to Rome. riod, 4774. Vulgar Æra,

supreme Dignity and Dominion in this World, and that 61.

which is to come All Things are subjected to him, for
the Advantage of the Church-which is considered more
particularly as his Body-of which he is the Supreme
Head- The Church receiving the fulness of its spiri-
tual Gifts and Graces from him who fills all Persons in all
Places, and is all in all.

15 Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the
Lord Jesus, and love unto all the saints,

16 Cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers ;

i7 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him :

18 The eyes of your understanding being enlightened ; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints.

19 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power
to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his
mighty

power,
20 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him
from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the
heavenly places,

21 Far above all principality, and power, and might,
and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in
this world, but also in that which is to come ;

22 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be head over all things to the church,

23 Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all
in all.

$ 3. EPH. ï. 1-10.
St. Paul, to excite the Gratitude of the Ephesians, reminds

them of the Love of Christ, who hath quickened them, or
filled them with his Grace, when they were dead in Tres-
passes and Sins--He describes their Character and Con-
duct in their Heathen State - Then in the name of the
converted Jews he acknowledges that they also, before
their Conversion, followed the same course of Life, so
that they, as well as the Gentiles, had become naturally
the Children of WrathBut God, in his great Mercy,
of his own free Grace, had provided for them the means
of Salvation, and had quickened them, or made both the
Jews and Gentiles alive in Christ-alive from the Death
of Sin to the Life of Righteousness, and had raised them
up together, or given to them, by his Resurrection, the
Anticipation of their own- and by his Exaltation, the

Julian Pe Hope that they through him may be received

into heavenly Romo, riod, 4774.

Placesthereby declaring the exceeding Riches of his
Vulgar Æra,
61.

Mercy and Forgiveness through Christ Jesus-For by
the Mercy of God, through Faith, were they saved-not
by Works of the Mosaic Law, or Merit of their own, lest
any Man should boastbut by the free Gift and Will of
God For they were his workmanship He himself
having created them in Christ Jesus unto good Works,
which God had before decreed, by the Influences of his
Holy Spirit, they should have the Power of performing.
1 And

you hath he quickened, who were dead in tres-
passes and sins ;

2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience :

3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

4 But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,

5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved :)

6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus;

7 That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

8 For by grace are ye saved through faith ; and that not of yourselves ; it is the gift of God :

9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.

10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Je-
sus unto good works, which God hath before ordained
that we should walk in them.

EPH. ï. 11, to the end.
The Apostle, after having described the fallen State of the

Jew and Gentile, desires the Gentiles to remember that
before they were converted they had no Knowledge of
Christthey were alienated from the Privileges of the
Jewish People, without a part in the Covenant of Promise
made to Abraham - without a well-grounded Hope of
Pardon of Sin, or the Immortality of the Soul-without
God in the Worldbut now, by Faith in Christ, them, who
were far removed from the Covenant of Promise, God has
brought nigh by the Blood of Christ - who has died for
Jen and Gentile, and has become a peace Offering, and
hath formed one Church out of the Believers of both

§ 4.

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